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of what appeared to him the languor and indifference of the other journals, conceived the idea of founding the ‘National.” He communicated his intention to Thiérs and Mignet. It was agreed that they should each in turn take the place of redacteur-enchef for a year. Thiers, as the eldest of the three, was first installed, and conducted the paper with energy and spirit till the Revolution of 1830 broke out. From the first the “National ' set out with the idea that the dynasty was incorrigible, and that it was necessary to change it. The leading principle of the journal was Orleanism, yet at this period Thiers had never seen the Duke of Orleans, now Louis-Philippe.* The effect produced by the refusal of a budget, and the refusal to pay taxes, was immense—a refusal owing altogether to the spirited counsels and articles of the ‘National.' The crisis and the coup d'état of the incapable ministry were hastened, if not produced, by this journal. On the 26th of July, 1830, the editors behaved nobly. At the office of the “National’ it was, that the famous protest was drawn up and signed, which proclaimed the right, and exhibited the example, of resistance. The authors of this remarkable document were Thiers and Rémusat—both afterwards ministers—and Cauchois Lemaire, a journalist and man of letters. To issue such a document was to put one's head in peril; yet it was signed, and speedily, too, by the soldiers of the pen. On the following day the office of the paper was surrounded by the police, aided by an armed force, and there the presses of the journal were broken, Thiers and Carrel protesting against this illegal violence. It was Carrel's turn, after the Revolution had been happily accomplished, to take the conduct of the paper, for Thiers and Mignet had both received employments in the new government. Ably for some time did he fulfil his task, till public opinion pointed him out as the fittest person to be sent on a pacific mission to the insurgent west. On his return from this mission he was named Prefect du Cantal, and also offered promotion in the army; but he rejected both offers, and resumed the editorship of the ‘National,' now the firmestos well as the ablest organ of the democracy. In the colums of the journal, which he conducted with such
* He has stated this in his last famous speech, in the month of March, in the Chamber of Deputies
surpassing ability, he never concealed or mitigated his radical and republican tendencies. His idea of a supreme magistrate was, that he should be elective and responsible; that the second chamber should be elective, and the press inviolable. Political reforms were, in his opinion, the only sure logical and legitimate mode of producing social reforms. To the arbitrary and highhanded ministry of Périer he opposed a vigorous resistance. When the rich banker, merchant, manufacturer, and minister, who had all the arrogance of a nouveau riche, and all the insolence of a vieux talon rouge, wished to proceed to extremities against the press, Carrel said, in the ‘National,’ ‘That every writer, with a proper sense of the dignity of a citizen, would oppose the law to illegality, and force to force—that being a sacred duty, come what might.' The minister hesitated in his plans, and Carrel remained victor. The masculine breadth of Carrel's style—his bold, brave, and defiant tone—which, to use the graphic description of his friend, M. de Cormenin, ‘semblait sonner du clairon et monter a l'assaut,” procured him many enemies; and there were not wanting those who speculated to rise in life, by coming into personal encounter with a man so formidable, and filling so large a space in the public eye. Just, generous, disinterested, Carrel was intrepid as a lion—chivalrous, and, like all noble natures, somewhat touchy on the point of honor; prompt to take offence, yet forgetful of injuries. He became engaged in a miserable quarrel or squabble, which was not his, and this remarkable man, and most eminent writer—to the irresistible ascendency of whose character all who came in contact with him bowed down—was shot, in 1836, by the hand of M. Emile Girardin, the editor of “La Presse.’ Thus perished, in his thirty-sixth year, the founder—the creator—the life and soul of the ‘National'—a person of rare courage —of a bold and manly eloquence—the eloquence of feeling, not of phrases or of words—and a political writer of the very highest order. There was a simplicity, a clearness, a firmness, and a noble coloring and grandeur in all he said and in all he wrote, for he was a man of heart and conviction, simple, sincere, and straightforward. The two greatest geniuses of France —representing the Poetry and Prose of our epoch—followed him to the tomb. His friends Béranger and Chateaubriand wept over his mangled remains, and have record- ... e. ed—the one in undying verse, the other in
imperishable prose—their deep and mournful sense of the loss which France sustained in his premature and melancholy end. Carrel was tall and handsome, with a countenance sicklied over with the pale cast of thought. His air was chivalrous, and that of a soldier, but his manners were somewhat haughly and stern. His habits and tastes were what would be called aristocratic, and he was no lover of equality or of communism. He had engaged, a few months before his death, to write the life of Napoleon, and had he lived he would have produced a work worthy of the subject— worthy of himself. It was so arranged, also, that if he had been spared a month longer, the Chamber would have resounded with his earnest and eloquent voice; but the hopes of his friends and his country concerning him were soon to be for ever blighted. Since the death of Carrel the ‘National' has been conducted with much less talent, and with a total absence of judgment. It has ever remained a pure republican paper, and conscientiously so; but it is possible to be purely republican without sowing noxious national hatred, or seeking to set Englishmen and Frenchmen by the ears, as it now does designedly, and with malice prepense. We desire a good intelligence with all the world, but a friendly, a kindly intelligence with France. ‘The Douglas and the Percy both together’ are more than a match for all the other nations of the earth. The “National now reflects the opinions of a portion of the French working classes, but it has not above 3000 or 4000 abonnés. In 1836, before Carrel was killed, it had 4300 abonnés. But though the number of subscribers was then small, the influence of the journal was immense. This is no uncommon thing in France. The ‘Globe," under the Restoration, though far from having so many subscribers as the “Constitutionnel,' had much more influence—influence not merely upon the men, but upon the ideas of the epoch. A journal may have a great and wide publicity, without a great many subscribers. The publicity of the “Reforme’ and the “National' is as real and as great as the publicity of the ‘Siècle” and the ‘Presse.' They may have less abonnés, but they have as many readers. It were a great mistake to suppose that the numbers of a French journal subscribed for, or sold, is any test of the number of its readers. The “Debats,’ for instance, has about 9000 subscri
bers, and probably not above 20,000 readers, i. e., two and a fraction to each paper, whereas, the “National,’ with only 4000 abonnes, probably has 24,000 readers, or six to each paper. Every Frenchman, high or low, is more or less of a politician, and therefore newspapers are in greater number, and circulate through infinitely more hands than in England. This is true of the dearest among them, the organ of every government, the “Debats;' but it is true in a ten-fold degree of a paper appealing to popular sympathies and popular prejudices, written in a popular style, and advocating doctrines which obtain a ready acquiescence and favor among the working. classes. In every cabinet de lecture—in every restaurant—in every case—in every gargote—in every guinguette—on the counter of every marchand de vin—in every workshop where ouvriers are congregated—such a paper is to be found. In the workshop it is read aloud by some one workman, pro bono publico—in the restaurant, the case, the gargote, and the guinguette, it is eagerly passed from hand to hand. Though, therefore, it may be admitted that the ‘Debats' has more abonnes than the ‘National,' and makes more money, yet the “National' makes more converts, for its sentiments are diffused more widely and take deeper root. La Roche and Marrast, formerly of the “Tribune,’ conducted the ‘National' subsequently to the death of Carrel. It is now, we believe, conducted by Bastide and Thomas. The Siecle is a paper which, though established within the last eleven years, has a greater circulation than any journal in Paris. This is owing partly to its having been the first journal to start at the price of forty francs a year, at a period when every other journal was published at a cost of from seventy to eighty francs; partly to its being published under the auspices of the deputies of the constitutional opposition—and partly to its being what the ‘Constitutionnel' was, from 1820 to 1825, the journal of the shopkeepers and epicters. Since it started into being, every journal in Paris, with the exception of the ‘Débats,’ has lowered its prige, and all of them have enlarged their forms; but these mutations and transforinations have not injured the ‘Siècle,' because it represents the opinion of the majority—the opinion, in a word, of la petite bourgeoisie—the small shopkeepers in cities and towns, and the proletaires throughout the country. The ‘Siècle' is said to have 42,000 abonnés, and the shares of 200 francs, which have always borne an interest, have been nearly reimbursed to the proprietors, and are now worth five or six times their original cost. Ten years ago there were only two journals which paid, as a literary and commercial speculation: these were the “Gazette des Tribunaux’ and the ‘Constitutionnel;' but now the “Siècle” and the ‘Presse' are the most successful as commercial speculations. To show the vicissitudes of newspaper proerty in France, it may be here stated, that in 1839 the ‘ Presse' was sold for 1200 francs, but in 1841, two years afterwards, it was worth a million to its new proprietors. The editor of the ‘Siècle' is M. A. Chambolle, a member of the Chamber; and M. Gustave Beaumont, the author of a work on Ireland, forms a portion of the conseil de rédaction. The pains-taking and laborious Leon Faucher also writes in the political department. That very dull, common-place, pompous, overrated man, Odillon Barrot, to whose family, comprising brothers, brothers-in-law, uncles, and nephews, the Revolution has given 130,000f a year, and concessions of land in Africa, valued at 42,000f a year, is the object of the ‘Siècle's' idolatry. This is not to be wondered at. Ferdinand Barrot, brother of Odillon, a writer, and a shareholder in and supporter of the “Siècle,' re
ceived 24,000f as avocat du Trésor; and
on the first of May, in the past year, one of the editors of the Siècle obtained the decoration of the Legion of Honor. No wonder, then, that the writers in this journal call the ex Volontaire Royal, who wept over the boots of Louis the Eighteenth the night of his departure for Ghent, and who received in recompense of his loyal tears, at the period of the second Restoration, as a gift from the king, a place which he afterwards sold to the Jew advocate, Cremieux, for 300,000f—no wonder that they call this patriotic recipient and dispenser of good fat sinecures, ‘orateur eminent, homme, politique considerable.' If a pompous and prophetic tone, a magisterial and solemn air, and common-place ideas and sentiments, suffice to make an eminent orator, and the postponing of electoral reform till liberty is secured by the erection of the enceinte continuée, a considerable politician —what an anti-climax!—then is Odillon Barrot an eminent orator and a considerable politician.
The Siècle has not enlarged its size. It consists of twelve columns, exclusive of advertisements, and is about eighteen inches long, and twelve and a half broad. The feuilleton consists of six columns, and is much better written than any other portion of the paper. Alphonse Karr, the author of the ‘Guépes,' is one of the principal contributors, and Frederic Soulié has sold his pen as a feuilletoniste for six years to the ‘Siècle' and the ‘Presse' conjointly. The ‘Siècle' has always appeared to us a dull paper—probably it is necessary that the writers should level themselves down to the intellect of the genre epicier—and indifferently written. The review of Thiers' History, which made some noise, was by Chambolle, the editor, as the review in the “Constitutionnel' was written by Merruau, the Friend of Thiers. But a far more confect, comprehensive, copious, and fairer review of this work, appeared just after its publication, in No. 69 of the ‘Foreign Quarterly Review,’ published in the month of April, last year.
We are now to speak of the oldest of the new order of journals—we mean “La Presse.’ This paper was founded in June, 1836, by M. Emile de Girardin, said to be a natural son of the Count Alexander, or his brother, Stanislas Girardin, by an English mother. The Revolution of 1830 saw Emile de Girardin an Inspecteur des Beaux Arts. Shortly after that event, he became the editor of the ‘Journal des Connaissances Utiles,’ of the ‘Panthéon Littéraire,’ of the ‘Musée de Familles,’ and of the ‘Woleur;' but all these journals died in quick succession. He then published a book called ‘Emile,” which had no great success. This is certainly no proof of want of talent, or, at best, but negative proof, while it affords positive evidence of no common energy, and very great industry. As M. Girardin had no fortune, and had married the pretty Delphine Gay, (daughter of Sophie Gay,) who had nothing but her pen and poetry, it was necessary he should do something to create an existence, or a name and an existence, if that were possible. Conjointly, then, with an homme a projets, one M. Boutmey, who had invented a machine called paracrotte, or muddefender, which was to be attached to the heels of pedestrians, and another instrument, called a physiortype, the ingenious Emile launched on the waters of the Seine the project of the ‘Presse.” As the journal was larger and cheaper than all other French journals—as it was a joint-stock company on a new plan, as applied to newspapers—as, in a word, there was a garish, slap-dash flourish, and melodramatic charlatanism about the thing, and a certain varnish of cleverness, shrewdness, modest assurance, novelty, and rouérie—the prospectus took; the shares went off briskly; and, lo, and behold ! the journal was born, a strong and healthy babe, after no long or painful gestation. In 1837, when only a year old, it had 15,000 abonnés; and in 1838, the product of its advertisements amounted to 150,000 francs. It must, in justice to this journal, be stated, that it was the first to teach the French public the use and advantage of advertisements. Twenty years previously, there were not two columns of advertisements in any French paper; whereas, two years after the existence of the ‘Presse,' it could boast of five colomns well filled. The mother of Mde. Emile de Girardin—Sophie Gay, née Lavalette—had published, under the title of ‘Causeries du Monde,’ a periodical work, of which she had sold the copyright to Alphonse Karr, the sharp writer of the “Guèpes.’ This maternal precedent, doubtless, suggested to the daughter, then of the ripe age of thirty, but of considerable beauty, no mean accomplishments, of rare talents, and already favorably known as a poetess, to help her husband Emile in his new avocation. She started accordingly in the ‘Presse,” with a series of articles called ‘Causeries Parisiennes,' signed the Wicomte de Launay, which papers had immense success. Many of the vulgar-minded and title-worshipping of our countrymen —and their name is Legion—will suppose that this was from the aristocratic pseudonyme with which the articles were signed; but no human being in France cares a rush for a title, unless the bearer of it has something better to recommend him. In Paris, and, indeed, in all France, society has agreed that—
“The rank is but the guinea's stamp, The man's the goved for a that.'
If De Beranger, Chateaubriand, and De la Martine, were in a salon in France with the De Montmorencys, the De Levis, the De Guiches, the poets and men of genius would march to the salle à manger before the feudal, territorial, and mentally undistinguished aristocracy; and the place of honor would be assigned them in any assembly. Not so, indeed, in free and liberal England. It was not, therefore, because of
the aristocratic name attached, that the ‘Causeries' were read, but because of the ease, grace, spirit, and talent which they disclosed. That they were what is called a “lucky hit.’ and pleased readers, there can be no doubt. Meanwhile the paper was practically conducted, and in a most mercantile spirit. The interests of the commercial and shop-keeping classes, as well as of the very numerous class of petits rentiers, were considered, sustained, and pandered to. In the political department, the journal had no very fixed or staple principles, and took for its motto “Au jour le jour.” As to political creed or conviction, the thing never entered into the head of Girardin, unless as a means to wealth, consideration, and what the French call, a position. t the man was adroit, confident, ready, anof full of resources, and never despaired, even when his prospects were of the gloomiest. With all his address and management, he barely paid his expenses. The Russian emperor and the Russian system of government, however, were without a champion at the Parisian press, and Girardin entered the lists. That this was done from pure love and affection, all Paris believes; for every body knows that the Russian emperor never pays literary men either in paper roubles or silver roubles. Whether they are ever paid by him in Dutch ducats, or malachite vases, or bills drawn by the Baron Stieglitz, the Jewish banker on the English Quay, at Petersburgh, is best known to those who pay and to those who receive, what Frederick of Prussia called the “yellow hussars.' Though variable in other sentiments, feelings, and opinions, Girardin has ever been true to the monster, Nicholas, and his system; and whenever he dares say a word in favor of either the one or the other, he is sure to do so. His pure love for the Cossack might be pardoned, and would be unsuspicious, if it were not contemporaneous with a fierce resentment against England and the English. There is not a vile or a base imputation, which the ‘Presse,' in its murky malignity, does not calumniously cast at perfidious Albion. Inhumanity, savage barbarity, fraud, trickery, hypocrisy, avarice, and corruption, are weekly, if not daily, imputed to us, by a man whose journal is conducted in the most shopkeeping spirit—by a print which seeks to put all classes under contribution, from the autocrat of the Russias to the smallest actor and actress of the Odeon or Porte St. Martin, or to the most miserable tailor who pants for notoriety. If this be doubted, the proofs are at hand. Among the works placed at the head of this article, is a pamphlet, intituled ‘Wenalité des Journaux, par Constant Hilbey, Ouvrier.” This poor tailor tells us, at p. 12 of his pamphlet, that not only did he pay two francs a line for the insertion of a poem in the ‘Presse,' according to the tenor of the receipt in the marginal note at foot,” but that at the request of one of the editors (Granier de Cassagnaç), who had noticed his volume of poems, he sent that person, who first wished for a silver teapot, value 200 francs, four couverts d'argent and six small spoons. A couvert d'argent, as the reader is aware, means a silver fork, a silver spoon, and a
e nished house ; or, to use the words of Jules Janin, “aussi bien logé que les agents de change,” with pictures, livery-servants, carriages, horses, &c., yet somehow or other there was nothing to justify this; for the journal was sinking by little and little, and the shareholders were perpetually required to pay fresh calls. From the moment M. Dujarrier entered the concern, however, things wore a flourishing aspect; and, though the expenses of management amount to 2S2,000 francs annually, yet each cinquantiéme share originally negotiated at 4000 francs, now sells from 30,000 to 35,000, albeit the shareholders have yearly received ten per cent. for their money. An unlucky fatality seems, however, to hang over this
silver-handled knife. Thus was the tailor journal. In 1836, as we before stated,
put under contribution for four silver forks, four silver spoons, four silver-handled knives, and six small spoons, the cost of which, at the very least, must have been 200 francs. This was pretty well for a column and a half of criticism, even though the critic spoke of the author (as he did) in conjunction with Brutus, Cassius, Staberius Quintus Remius, Quintus Cecilius, Atticus, Abelard, Cardinal d'Ossat, St. Paul, the Magdalen, and Victor Hugo. Perfidious Albion should not, however, despair. If she should ever think the advocacy of the ‘Presse' worth having—a not very likely supposition—Emile will take her brief, if the quiddam honorarium be forthcoming. What though he be now the
most untiring villpender of our name and
our country—calling us robbers in China, and butchers in India; what though he be the most curt and contumelious in his epithets of abuse, crying, Death and hatred to the English government what though he revel in prosperous and well-paid malignity, offer him but the brief to-morrow, and he will straightway become our zealous advocate. The scales will then fall from his eyes, and our sanguinary and sordid policy will not appear so utterly indefensible as it did when he had a retainer from Russia only. The financial prosperity of the ‘Presse’ is said to have been in a great measure due to M. Dujarrier. Though M. Emile lived in 1839, ‘en grand train,’ possessing a fine, well-sur
Girardin, the principal editor of the ‘Presse,' shot, in a duel, the able and eloquent Carrel; and in March, 1845, Dujarrier, the associate and co-editor of Girardin, lost his life in a duel with a person of the name of Rosemond de Beauvallon, till within the last three weeks an exile in Spain,t in consequence of an arrêt of the Cour Royale de Rouen, which declared that he committed ‘un homicide volontaire sur la personne de M. Dujarrier, et d’avoir commis cet homicide avec premeditation.’ In 1843, at the suggestion of Dujarrier, the ‘Presse' published, under the title of a supplement, “Le Bulletin des Tribunaux,’ adding 20 francs to its price. Six thousand additional subscribers were in consequence obtained in a very few months. The last accounts published by the ‘Presse' place its profits at 200,000 francs, or £8000 a year; and if its agreement with the ‘Compagnie Duveyrier' prove a successful speculation, it is estimated that its net profits will be 300,000 francs, or £12,000 a year, at the end of 1846. To the English reader, some explanation of the ‘Compagnie Duveyrier' is quite indispensable. This company farms out the advertisements of certain journals, allowing the proprietors so many thousand francs a year net. To the ‘Presse,' for instance, Duveyrier and Co. allow 100,000 francs, or f4000, and for this sum the “Société General des Annonces,’ as it is called, has a
** La Presse, Rue St George, 16 “Recu de M. Hilbey, la somme de cent soixante francs, pour insertion dans le journal. Nature de l'insertion, poesie: A la Mère de celle que j'aime. “Le Cassier, Pit Avaz.' “Paris, 7 Septembre, 1839.'
"Lettre à Mile. Emile de Girardin, par Jules Janin.
t Since this was written, M. Beauvallon has returned to France and taken his trial.—See the ‘Journal des Débats' of the 27th, 28th, 29th, 30th, and 31st March; the ‘Morning Chronicle' of the 3d, and the ‘Daily News' of the 4th April.