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Indeed the truth is just the contrary of that. The "end" of a thing (and especially of an institution or of a system of teaching) often means its object and purpose, and what it is intended to accomplish. This is a very common use of the word, and more common when the Bible was translated into English than it is now. What then is the end or object of the law of God? What does it bring about if it is obeyed? Righteousness. A state of purity and holiness of conduct and of thought. When it is truly obeyed in the heart and life, it is fulfilled. Why then is Christ said to be its end? For a very plain and good reason. No one ever was made righteous since the fall of Adam, except by faith in Christ, nor righteous to any degree whatever.
6 Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? Not one." But Christ, by converting the soul to God, and shedding abroad the love of Him by his Spirit in the heart, establishes an obedience to the law which never existed before. He makes us love the Father, and love one another. This is the fulfilling of the law; but not being perfect, it cannot justify us before Him. Still it is righteousness which, without Christ, we never could attain to.
Then observe also, He is the end of the law " for righteousness," that is, to establish it, not to overthrow it. And it is only by the establishment of righteousness that any
one can think from this text that the law is come to an end. And indeed, if true righteousness were established in all our hearts, there were little need any further of a law. It might come to an end in this sense, if men were all perfectly holy. But as this is not so, the law remains in force, and Christ came not to destroy, but to fulfil it. The next thing to observe is, that Christ is the end of the law to every one that beliereth : only to every one that believeth. The unbeliever and unholy are still under the law of works, and will be tried and judged by it. By this they will be condemned; by this, if they repent now, they will be condemned by themselves, and humbled before God. Let no one then think that the law is nothing now; let no one hear such iniquity spoken without rebuking it. Satan
may endeavour to persuade men that the law has no power ; but this is only to get them into his own power, and keep them there more easily.
There is no error more deadly of all the errors which now abound, than that called Antinomianism, or the denial, of the law.
The Christian believer loves the law of God, and rejoices in it; he desires to read and hear it often. It both humbles and sanctifies him, when received in the faith of Christ, and in dependence on his grace. David says, “All the day long is my study in it," and exclaims, “0, how I love thy law." May we have the same spirit as the holy Psalmist, and earnestly seek it more and more; otherwise let us never think that Christ is become " the end of the law” to us.-E.
ON THE POTATO DISEASE AND ITS REMEDIES.
We extract a short portion of a Lecture delivered by Dr. BUCKLAND, to the Ashmolean Society at Oxford:
The fine weather in November has partially arrested the destruction, even of the infected potatoes; but when wet weather comes, it may go on with fatal rapidity, unless means be taken instantly to arrest it.'. People are unwilling to believe in the general extent of the evil, though every one knows it in his own village. The potatoes rot faster and sooner from wet lands than dry; but there is scarcely one parish where the tubers have entirely escaped. The early crops have suffered least, some of them not at all, having had more time to ripen than the later crops. Hot sun blasts, and frosts, and rain, during summer, having destroyed the leaves, the tubers have not been completely formed, and are loaded with a morbid dropsical excess of water, which, unless they are kept dry, acts on the imperfect cells and fibres of the potato, and brings on premature decay or wet rot, which destroys the tuber:
The potato (solanum tuberosum) was first imported to
I" The Potato Rot is going on here," writes Mr. Josiah Parker from Devon, (Nov. 10,) “ like a mill-race.” It is going on also in Scotland and Ireland fearfully,
this country by a man named Harriott, the companion of Raleigh, from Virginia, where its native name was Openawk. It had before been brought to Spain from Quito, where its native name was Papas, which the Spaniards converted to Battata. It was first cultivated in Ireland by Sir R. Southwell, and in Sir W. Raleigh's garden at Youghal, where his gardener, assuming that the seed balls were the object of its cultivation, condemned them as uneatable fruit. A ship wrecked near the mouth of the Ribble, first brought them to Lancashire. For more than a century they were grown only in gardens; in 1732, the first field crop was planted in Scotland.
Many hybrid varieties have been obtained from seed, and all these are further propagated by tubers. There is no foundation for the opinion that degeneracy has taken place, and there is no occasion to get new varieties from fresh seed, in consequence of the imperfect ripening, which has led to wet rot in the present year. The disease is not new; it is frequent in Canada, whenever a frost in summer kills the leaves before the tuber is perfect. Loss of the leaves has also caused the decay of potatoes by wet rot in the present year over nearly all Europe, and in parts of North America. The disease has never yet occurred so generally since the potato was brought from America; but it has been locally subject to imperfect formation called the Curl, arising probably from want of lime in the soil, and to a rot or decay of the sets when planted in a wet soil or in wet weather; the remedy for which is to shake the tubers cut for setting, in a sieve of quick lime, until it forms a skin over the cut surface; it is still better to plant only small potatoes uncut, as should be done next year.
The juices of the potato plant and its tubers are acrid, but being soluble in water, they are dissolved in boiling, their nature also is changed by heat both in boiling and , roasting, so that (like arrow-root, which is starch from the root of the acrid and poisonous Arum,) the potato, though acrid when raw, becomes innocuous and nutritious, by the action of heat. Potatoes therefore, should never be given to hogs or cattle raw.
Economic farmers should feed their growing, but not ·
their fattening hogs, on beans, and finish them on potatoes mixed with barley meal: their flesh is hard, and the fat not solid, and melts in boiling, if fed to the last on beans.
What is so restorative as beans to the jaded hack or the exhausted race-horse. Sepoys on long voyages live exclusively on peas. The working and healthy man and beast want muscle, and want not fat: fat incumbers and impedes activity, and every excess of it is disease. We seldom see a fat labourer or a fat soldier, except among the serjeants, who sometimes eat or drink too much. Landlords and brewers' men get too fat on beer.
I have stated that the cause of the potato disease was atmospheric, viz. quick and sudden changes from hot sunshine to cold and rain in August; this chilled and killed the leaves and stalks of one-third, sometimes onehalf the crop. Plants growing under the shelter of woods, trees, and bushes, escaped in fields whereof the unsheltered plants suffered; the dying leaf and stalk was forthwith occupied by one of the many forms of fungi which nature has provided to quicken the decay of all kinds of vegetables. One of these (uredo segetum) forms smut balls in wheat; a growth of black fungus changing the flour within the husk into a mass of microscopic mushrooms, mixed with fine fibres. Every one of these contains millions of small spawn: this smut has a bad smell which is washed off by water; and when mixed, as it sometimes must be, with bread, is innoxious. Good farmers steep their seed wheat in lime water or sulphuric acid, to kill the spawn of this fungus that may be outside the grain. All kinds of uredo follow, but do not cause disease or decay of vegetable matter. Each species of tree has its peculiar fungi, which grow not on it while alive and healthy. A biscuit or loaf in a close damp closet is in a few days entirely changed into a mass of mould, i. e. into millions of fungi; the same happens to mouldy cheese, and other dried animal substances. Exact accounts and figures of the wheat fungi were published by Sir J. Banks.
All Leaves and Stems should be burnt.-Looking to next year's danger of continuation of the disease; as the growth of fungi began this year on the diseased leaves, and from them descended, through the stalks, into the roots and tubers, it is desirable that all dead stalks and leaves should be burnt; for if buried, they will carry with them myriads of invisible seeds into the ground; and should next summer be wet, and the plants sickly, this buried spawn of fungi may propagate with fearful rapidity. The next year's sets should therefore be planted early, and if the plants continue healthy until the tubers ripen there will be no danger, because all analogy of fungous vegetable parasites shows that their growth follows, and does not precede or cause disease,
Seed for next year.- For planting next year, small tubers should be selected and be set entire, as cutting the unripe and dropsical potatoes of this year may endanger their decay as soon as they are put into the damp ground. I would plant even large tubers entire ; but if cut, the sliced parts should be shaken in a sieve of quick lime until a hard skin is formed over the raw surface, as is often done in Scotland. All potatoes for seed should be separated from the rest immediately, and examined weekly till the time of planting, rejecting every one that has the smallest speck. They should be kept in the dryest place possible, in single layers, the lowest resting on at least six inches of straw; every potato should be surrounded with wood-ashes that have not been wet, or with bran, sawdust, chaff, or coal ashes, mixed with a little quick-lime, and not one touching another, nor exposed to the air. In Ireland they might be kept in powder of very dry turf or peat-ashes, in a dry hovel.
What can be substituted for the Potatoes already lost? I will now consider the best substitute for at least onethird of the potato crop, which has already perished all over Europe, and this in Ireland is the loss of the only winter food of two millions of the people. In times of scarcity, men must take unusual trouble and adopt unusual expedients. Happily this year the crop of turnips is large and good, and already in Hampshire farmers are selling turnips to the poor at a moderate price. This, if done generally, will form one kind of