perhaps, more extensively known than any other in the world. Here, as well as in the Royal Exchange, it was amusing to me to listen to the busy hum of hundreds of voices, and to mark the calculating features bestowed by the presiding genij of the place on those who pay their daily devotions to the powers of loss and gain.

The Royal Exchange is a vast quadrangular building, encircling an area where the merchants assemble; all around the area, are extensive piazzas, to protect them from the rain. Here, not only the greatest commercial arrangements of the emporium of the world are made, but the claims of empirics and impostors of all descriptions are exhibited.

walls are covered with bills, printed in large characters, and containing the praises of the rare things of London. Here, cheap stage coaches, improved japan blacking, worn by his majesty and the royal family; catholicons, elixirs, yellow fever drops, anthelmintics, pectoral balsams and cosmetics, and every thing else which decrepitude, disease, fastidiousness, and vanity can demand, may be found.

Were you here, you would be amused, as I am every day, at the manner in which the people of London puff every thing off, which they offer for sale. There is no use for adjectives in the positive degree; even the comparative is too tame; superlatives alone, and those exalted by adverbs, and other powerful intensitives, will answer the purpose.

Vauxhall gardens appeared this morning on all the corners, in crimson capitals, legible a quarter of a mile, announcing that “this terestrial paradise” will be lighted up to-night, “in a style of most superlative beauty and

magnificence," in honour of the illustrious Marchioness of Hertford, who deigns this evening to appear in the gardens. The musicians are to outfiddle Orpheus, and the very nectar of the gods is to flow on the tables; the fireworks will render the stars invisible, and the assemblage of beauty is to be such as would put Venus quite out of countenance. Now, you will perceive that all this is only a decent way of picking pockets, and, in London, there are a thousand modes of doing this which are not cognisable at the Old Bailey.

The tradesmen take vast pains to display their wares and goods. You will see a shop at the corner of two streets, completely glazed on both sides, that is, forming one continued window from top to bottom, and from the sides to the corner. This is filled with goods, unrolled and displayed in the most advantageous manner, and cards are usually pinned to the articles, informing the reader how good and how cheap they are. For instance;-" this beautiful piece of muslin at so much, two shillings in a yard cheaper than any other shop in London.”

I passed, this morning, by a shop in Oxford-street, where large letters, in gold, appeared through the windows, containing this declaration, which is doubtless as true as it is modest ; “ every article in this shop warranted twenty per cent cheaper than any other shop in London.” In short, if you were to believe the shop-keepers, they do business solely to oblige their customers. They are not contented with displaying their names once over the door; first of all, if the situation is such an one as to afford a distant view, you will see the inscription painted in gigantic capitals on the brick wall-you may read them a quarter of a mile. Then you will see the inscription over the door, over the windows, in the windows, and in short, in at least half a dozen places.

When they have once enticed you in, you must possess no small share of effrontery and address, if you escape without buying. I went into a hosier's shop, some time since, and bought some coarse hose, to be worn with boots. Before I could turn on my heel, two or three packs of silk stockings were displayed, and the shop-keeper, with the manner which the rhetoricians call insinuation, said: “allow me, sir, to put you up half a dozen pair of these stockings, wonderfully cheap, only twelve shillings a pair."

I positively declined.

“I am very sorry, sir, I hoped to tempt you—they are so very cheap.” I reply—sir, your temptation may yet prevail, if you will only make it strong enough, by taking off a few shillings more from the price.

The night caps were next produced. Some elastic double cotton night caps, sir, shall I roll you up a couple of these." I answer no, and precipitately leave the shop.

All these arts, it is easy to see, arise from the immense competition of London. Thousands are competitors with other thousands, and while this causes improvement in the quality and reduction in the prices of articles, it produces also artifice, fraud, and manæuvres without number.

I might extend these observations much farther, and give numerous facts of this kind from various pursuits and conditions of life, but these instances will serve as examples. Nevertheless, I believe the trading character is as honest here as any where in the world, but, as knaves are numerous, and seem the kindest people on earth, it becomes a stranger, especially, to be very circumspect in London.

very fine


Private parties—A present from the Emperor of Russia to an En

glish merchant-A singular clergyman-Hatcham house, the seat of Mr. Hardcastle-Rev. Mr. Cecil—The Asylum-American Consul,


July 25.--I was present to-day at dinner, with a small but very pleasant party at Mr. Vaughan's. This gentleman has been much conversant with the new and magnificent docks which I have mentioned already. He takes pleasure in gaining admission for strangers to see them, and, among others, the Russian ambassador received, some time ago, his particular civilities on this subject. He mentioned them to his court, and as a mark of royal gratitude, a diamond ring, and a grand hydraulic map of the Russian canals, were sent as a present to Mr. Vaughan. This map is now suspended in his dining room, with an inscription to this effect : “From Alexander, Emperor of Russia, to William Vaughan, Esq. merchant, London.”

Such a mark of imperial munificence, it is presumed, few private men can exhibit, and few deserve it more, for Mr. Vaughan is famous for his hospitality to strangers, and his unwearied efforts to serve them.

July 26.-I have been dining with a venerable clergyman of the church of England, from whom I have experienced so many kind and useful attentions during my residence in London, that I shall ever remember him with gratitude and respect. From this gentleman and his son I received to-day every civility, and I found it impossible to get away from their numerous good offices till nine o'clock.

At the table of my venerable host I met one who seemed quite unworthy of the friendship of such a man. He . too was a clergyman of the established church, but his rosy cheeks and plethoric person evinced that, in the natural sense, at least, he was no stranger to good living, while the freedom of his sentiments and language equally proved that his clerical character imposed no inconvenient restraints on his practice. His hand, which at first was attended with such a tremulous motion, owing to a paralytic affection, that he could only with difficulty carry the glass to his mouth, became steadier as his nerves began to be stimulated with wine, till at length, he sunk into a slumber so profound, that we no longer regarded him as even a hearer. The conversation of those of us who were awake, turned on the usurpations of Bonaparte, and his threats, now more frequent than ever, of invading this country. At this crisis the Dr. lifted his heavy eye lids, and with a voice almost as sullen and unexpected as if it. had come from a tomb, exclaimed, “What! Bonaparte come to England-he invade this country—a d-n-d lamp-lighting scoundrel !” His slumbers were now frequent, and were interrupted only by the return of the glass and a few remarks, graced with a good number of those fashionable expletives, which even the most lax regard as rather incorrect in him who “ ministers at the altar.” I have twice before been in company with a clergyman in this country, whom wine stimulated to use his Maker's name in a manner which I do not care to repeat. I do not believe, however, that such instances are common; much less am I disposed to draw any general infer

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