little time and thought; probably she the beginning of August, he arrived at would write during the day, and he would N-, a pretty little Hampshire village, get it at night. On his return in the and after making a few inquiries, found evening he did feel a pang when he the house, a little cottage villa on the found nothing awaiting him. Hope, outskirts of the village. As he walked up however, again “ told a flattering tale; " the shady road leading to the house, hat in he must not be impatient: a dozen trivial hand, enjoying the refreshing breeze, for things might have taken up her time, for the heat of the day was over, his quick hers were hands that always found work eyes perceived the two ladies in the garto do. Doubtless her answer would reach den. The old lady, now convalescent, was him on the following day. But alas ! the seated in a low American chair on the next day brought the same result, and the lawn. It was five o'clock, and they were next, and the next, and he had just begun taking tea, which was spread on the grass. to admit to himself that the letter was a Angelina sat at her aunt's feet. It was a failure, when another ray of hope unex- long time since he had seen her with this pectedly lightened his dark prospects. sans-souci air — it reminded him of ten

He gained from a conversation be over- years ago. She wore a thin, white dress, heard between his mother and sisters that and a long waving lock of her brown hair Angelina had left her home to nurse a sick had escaped from the neat coiffe in which aunt in the country; a maiden aunt, who she always wore it. Years seemed to have lived alone. She had gone the day after been lifted from her shoulders since he that on which he had made her the offer, last saw her, but the pretty apple-blossom and had not received his letter, therefore, in her cheeks, which improved her so wonbefore she went. Dying hope now sprung derfully, quickly faded when she recog. up almost as strong as ever. Perhaps the nized their visitor. letter had never been forwarded, or not After first greetings, he muttered someuntil now; perhaps it had been mislaid ; thing about being in the neighborhood, and perhaps the aunt had been so ill that An- thinking he might be allowed the privilege gelina could not even find time to write him of calling. He then devoted himself to a line. He resolutely turned a deaf ear to the aunt, who straightway fell in love with the voice of his heart, wbich began, “ Love him, and thinking with wonderful acutewould have found time." Perhaps fifty ness that he had come to see Lina, deterthings; but oh, heart! close thy doors mined that he should have an opportunity against the cold, dreadful feeling of de- of doing so. She therefore presently spair, the certainty that his appeal was requested Angelina to take him into the vain. So the next week stole away, and house and give him some tea: she would the next, and the next, and his sorrow, prefer remaining out a little longer, if they now a month old, was growing heavier would kindly excuse her. The opportuevery day.

nity had come, but it was of no use; he One morning, just as the fifth week had begged, he entreated, to no avail. She commenced, he found on his study table - no longer loved him," and nothing could a little modest-looking note in her pretty, induce her to marry him now. careful hand. She began by apologizing Half in madness, half in anger, and all for the delay which was caused by the let in love, he asked her did she mean to ter having been mislaid, and only now for remain as she was, with no one to love her warded to her, and she then thanked him when she grew old, and perhaps had to for the honor he had done her; but she work until she could do so no longer? really meant what she had said : and She smiled a saddish little smile, and though she regretted it, she could never said, “ Most likely it would be so, but that marry him. They were unsuited to each would be better than marrying any one you other - and so forth.

did not love, and who only married you He felt for the moment, as he pressed from a feeling of pity; and now she never his hand to his head, as if his mind were wished to hear anything more about marleaving him. This calmness of hers was rying. It was like her youth — to her a so crushing. But he had one last card to thing of the past." play; he would see her once more, and all He gazed at her for a moment the that mortal man could do to make her brown hair parted evenly over the white change this terrible decree he would do, brow, the soft, steady grey eyes, the sweet and with a fushed cheek and an unnatural sad mouth - and afraid to trust himself a light in his eye, he hurried from the moment longer, he seized his hat and house.

rushed like a madman from the house. On the following day, a lovely day in | Indeed, he was just then little better than

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mad. Now his hope was really dead; at shall be insisted upon. As the name is an last he knew it.

unfamiliar one to the general public, and

yet possesses no little interest, the present For a long time people wondered much may perhaps be a fitting opportunity for what was the matter with Edwin. Some briefly stating the relation in which Jánthe sentimental, mostly ladies - guessed nina stands to the present Greek kingdom ; pretty near the truth; others — the practi that is, what its history has been, and how cal, mostly his bosom friends — thought far it can fairly lay claim to a union with bad investments, or dyspepsia. The only Greece. The part of Epirus to which it one who ever really knew the exact state belongs was included in the new frontier of the case was the friend of whom men- recommended at the Berlin Congress. tion has been made before in these pages. But the Turks have lately shown themThey met in town, already deserted, the selves restive on this point. last week in August. His friend at once And first as to its position, Jannina, or, saw something had gone wrong, and after as it was formerly called, Joánnina, stands some light commonplaces he gave Edwin in a valley of Epirus (or southern Albaa comforting slap on the shoulder and nia), one thousand feet above the sea, suran encouraging word or so. Something rounded by lofty mountains, and on the wrong, old man? Don't be down-hearted; western shore of a fine lake. A line drawn not much, I hope. Not got into the hands almost straight inland from the Albanian of the Jews, have you?”

coast opposite to Corfu would reach JánNo, Frank, thanks; not that kind of nina after traversing several other valleys trouble; that isn't my way, as you know. running parallel to the coast, the distance Something worse than even that. I shall being about fifty miles. On the east rises lose the holiday on which, as I told you, I Mount Mitzikéli, celebrated for its abrupt had set my heart. I am not going away steepness and rugged majesty. Behind next month."

this, in the north-east, iś seen the Pindus “ Not going to be married just yet, after range, covered with snow. On the west, all? Perhaps you will come, then, to " the valley is guarded by the lower ridge of But something stopped him. “ How self- Mount Olytzika, the first of a series of ish I am. You don't mean to say she heights sloping down gradually to the wouldn't have you ?”

Adriatic. Many writers have celebrated “ That's just it. Now don't say “there the natural beauties of Jánnina, including are as good fish in the sea as ever were Lord Broughton, Sir Henry Holland, Rev. caught; won't do here, Frank. I don't T. $. Hughes, Col. Leake, Lady Strangmind telling you — you're a good fellow, ford, and others. Let one description, by and won't talk about me to any of them; a traveller approaching from the south, but I've loved her all my life, and it is an suffice: awful blow. Good-bye."

Knowing our vicinity to Joannina, we were Ten years after, when Edwin was bald city, which is long concealed from the eye by

now impatient to obtain the first view of that and grey, and Angelina's brown hair itself the low eminences traversing the plain. * At thickly streaked with silver, they met length, when little more than two miles disagain. The first three of those ten years tant, the whole view opened suddenly before she had spent with her aunt. For the re- us; a magnificent scene, and one that is still maining seven she had been the wise of a almost single in my recollection. A large lake hard-working country doctor. They met spreads its waters along the base of a lofty amongst the pictures at Burlington House. and precipitous mountain which forms the first She was leading by the hand a bright-ridge of Pindus on this side, and which, as I haired child of about six summers.

had afterwards reason to believe, attains an And

elevation of more than twenty-five hundred he was alone. Oh, so alone !

feet above the level of the plain. Opposed to the highest summit of this mountain, and to a small island which lies at its base, a peninsula stretches forward to the lake from its western

shore, terminated by a perpendicular face of From Macmillan's Magazine.

rock. This peninsula forms the fortress of JANNINA-GREEK OR TURKISH?

Joánnina ; a lofty wall is its barrier on the RECENT telegrams from Athens have land side; the waters which lie around its more than once announced the fact that outer cliffs reflect from their surface the irreg. deputations of Epirotes have assembled

Compare Byron, Childe Harold, ii. 52. in front of King George's palace, demand

“ Unseen is Jánina, though not remote, ing that the cession of Jánnina to Greece Veiled by the screen of hills.'

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ular yet splendid outline of a Turkish seraglio, | 879. But the first actual mention of the and the domes and minarets of two Turkish city is made by Anna Comnena, who remosques, environed by ancient cypresses. The cords its occupation in 1082 by Bohemond, eye, receding backwards from the fortress of son of the famous Robert Guiscard, who the peninsula, reposes upon the whole extent of the city as it stretches along the western refortified the citadel, then in a state of borders of the lake. Repose, indeed, it may

dilapidation (émlooanès), and defeated under not unfitly be called, since both the reality and its walls the imperial forces, led by Alexius

From fancy combine in giving to the scenery the Comnenus, uncle of the bistorian. character of a vast and beautiful picture spread the time of this Norman inroad Jánnina out before the sight.*

disappears from history till the capture of

Constantinople by the Franks (1204), and By a later writer it is called " at once the the consequent foundation of the "despofortress and the granary of Epirus." + tate" of Epirus, or of the West, by Michael

So much then for the natural aspect of Angelos, a natural son of Constantine An: Jánnina ; let us now glance at its history. gelos, who having married a daughter of The absence of any sign of its existence ihe governor of Durazzo, quickly subdued in classical antiquity has been accounted and united under his sway Epirus, Acarfor by the supposition that the lake, the nania, and Ætolia, with the strong cities of upper part of which even now is, usually, Jánnina, Arta, and Naupactus.* Finlay, little more than a marsh, was two thousand in the volume of his history which treats years ago no lake at all. But though no of medieval Greece, has given some acancient city could be identified with the count of the character of this rule, and of spot, tradition long connected it with Do- the general condition of Epirus at the time. dona, the seat of the famous oracle of Zeus, The Greeks, whom he describes as wealthy dating back, even in Homer's estimation, and prosperous, both as merchants and as to the hoarest antiquity, and the very cra- large proprietors of land, were confined dle of Greek civilization. Even so expe- generally to the towns, and formed the rienced an observer as Col. Leake came to inost solid element of the population as the conclusion, after long examination of they do to this day. The Wallachians in the spot, that here Dodona had stood, and the north-east, and the Albanian mounthat Mount Mitzikéli was to be identified taineers, still half-barbarians, were kept in with the Mount Tamoros of antiquity. submission by an army of mercenaries. Now, however, this notion must be finally The despots all assumed the title of Angegiven up, the researches of M. Karapanos los Komnenos Ducas, but very little is having two years ago laid bare the actual heard about them except their wars and site of Dodona, at Dramisus, in the adjoin- alliances with the Byzantine emperors and ing valley of Tcharacovista, some six miles the Latin princes.' Thomas, the last in south-west of Jannina.† Jánnina, then, direct line, was murdered in 1318, and a cannot be associated directly either with succession of similar assassinations left old Greek history or legend; but it may the throne in charge of Anne, daughter of be noted that if the new frontier of the Andronicus Palæologus, who held it for her Greek kingdom excludes Jánnina, it will son Nicephorus 11. Epirus was invaded also exclude the actual site of Dodona, and conquered in 1337 by the emperor there being no possible raison d'être for a Andronicus III. But he was not long in line drawn between the two places. possession, for in 1350 the whole country,

The fact is that the foundation of the was overrun by Stephen Dushan, king of city is nowhere recorded, though from Servia, who made himself niaster of Epirus various references in the Byzantine histo- and great part of Thessaly. In fact, to rians, it seems probable that the site was quote the words of Finlay, “The history occupied in the early days of that empire. of Epirus after its conquest by Stephen We hear of a bishop suffragan of Jánnina becomes mixed up with the wars of the in 673, and another is mentioned as taking Servians, Albanians, Franks, and Greeks part in the Council of Constantinople in in the neighboring provinces until the

whole fell into the hands of the Turks f # Holland's Travels in the Ionian Isles, p. 94 (1815).

See various references to Byzantine historians in Itinéraire de l'Orient. Grèce et Turquie d'Er- Hughes's Travels in Albania, vol. ii., p. 11. rope, par Emile Isambert (Hachette's Guide-Joanne), t Finlay's History of Greece (new edition, 1877),

vol. iv., pp. 121, 599. The chief authority for the his It is a curious fact that Col. Leake accurately tory of Jannina at this time is an anonymous MS. describes these very ruins of Dramisus without the least history found by Pougueville (French consul at Jánsuspicion of their identity with Dodona. His plan of nina about 1790) in the famous monastery of Meteora the site corresponds minutely, so far as it goes, with that in Thessaly. This and another of later date are given of M. Karapanos. See Northern Greece, vol. i., p. an appendix to vol. iv of Leake's Northern




under Amurath II., in 1431, not, however, learning should have found sustenance in until they had been twice gallantly re- Greece at a time when the whole country pulsed. The Ottomans in Jánnina were was in the lowest state of degradation says at first not much more than two hundred, much for the soil whence it sprung, and but they soon multiplied. Still, thanks to may well explain the present anxiety of privileges secured at their conquest, the the Greeks that men who have deserved citizens managed to avoid for nearly two so well of their country as the citizens of centuries the continual wars which raged Jánoina have should be allowed to share in this part of the world between Venetians in the freedom from foreign domination and Turks. In 1612, however, a rash in which the kingdom of Greece enjoys. surrection got up by a wandering fanatic, It will not be necessary here to touch, Dionysius, known as the Dog-sophist, gave except briefly, upon the remarkable career the conquerors an excuse for strong mea- of Ali

, pasha of Jánnina, whose fame it sures to stifle it, and Jannina was put on was doubtless that attracted so many Eurothe same footing as that of other conquered pean travellers to that city at the end of towns.

the last and the beginning of the present Meaowhile, with the increase of the Ot. century. An Albanian by descent, but toman population, numerous conversions, born in the service of the Porte, he worked and especially the enforced enrolment of his way up till he had not only acquired Greek children among the Janissaries of possession of the pashalik of south Albathe Porte, led to tbe strengthening of the nia, with Jánnina for his capital, but had Mussulman element at the expense of the also extended it till it included the greater Christian. And in 1635 this movement part of Thessaly, and all western Greece. was still further advanced by an incident He has been described as a rebel against which, though in itself creditable to the the Turk, a tyrant towards the Greek, a Epirotes, was otherwise interpreted by cruel oppressor of Christian and Moslem their superiors. The Christians of Epirus alike, though it is probable that, as showhad retained the privilege of drawing rev. ing how the Turkish power could be reenues from certain lands, on condition of sisted, he did some service to the Greek serving when called upon in the ranks of cause. “ His ability was displayed,” says the Ottoman cavalry. The holders of Finlay, “in subduing the Albanians, cheatthese lands were called Spahis. In 1634 ing the Ottoman government, and ruling the sultan Amurath V. was engaged in a the Greeks. ... Under his government fight with the Persians, and when the latter Joánnina became the literary capital of the were getting the better of the Ottoman Greek nation colleges, libraries, and troops a sudden charge on the part of the schools flourished and enjoyed indepenEpirote Spahis changed the threatened dent endowments." Not, we may be sure, rout into a brilliant victory. This circum- that he was personally interested, or gave stance led the sultan to reflect on the direct help in such matters, but he allowed dangers of such valor if directed against the wealthy Greeks to devote themselves himself, and a decree was issued with and their money to what they felt to be the drawing the privileges of Spahis from all good cause, and we cannot doubt that their but Mussulmans, which meant to these exertions conferred a real and lasting ben. unfortunate people ruin or conversion. efit on their nation. Let us hear the vari. We can hardly wonder that under sucb ous witnesses as to the condition of Jáncircumstances, they chose the latter course. nina in his time and before it. Lord Byron,

In 1675 Jánnipa was visited by the first in a note to the second canto of “Childe European travellers, Spon and Wheler, Harold,” commenting on a statement that who describe it as a larger town than “ Athens is still (i.e., in 1810) the most polArta, and inhabited by rich Greek mer- ished city of Greece,” says: chants. Sir Henry Holland, in 1812, men. tions that one particular school had been Perhaps this may be said of Greece, but not founded one hundred and thirty years

of the Greeks ; for Joánnina in Epirus is uni. before. We may conclude, therefore, that versally allowed, ainongst themselves, to be about the time which we have now reached sprang up that enlightened interest in Greek communities at Venice and elsewhere, says,

Jáninaespecially became a veritable nursery of Greek culture which has ever since dis, didascali, who in their turn were placed successively at tinguished Jánnina.* That any germ of the head of other schools in the Peloponnese, continental

Greece, Thessaly, Macedonia, Chios, etc.

Eugène Boulgaris, Nicephorus Theotoki, John DimitThis view is held by M. Paparrigopoulo, the na- riades, Athanasius Psallida, Lambros Photiadis, Contive historian of Hellenic civilization, who after describ- stantine Economos, George Gennadios, and others, ing the renascence of public instruction in the seven- whose names at this period sounded from one end ta teenth century as largely due to the generosity of the the other of the Hellenic East."



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GREEK OR TURKISH? superior in the wealth, refinement, learning, history, mathematics, and natural sciand dialect of its inhabitants.*

ence.* Mr. Hobhouse (afterwards Lord Brough.

I will not weary my readers with more ton), Byron's friend and fellow-traveller, extracts, but hasten to conclude the historspeaks to the same effect, and gives some ical sketch. During the last two years of details as to the schools existing in the Ali's rule, when he had been formally decity. Dr. (afterwards Sir Henry) Holland, clared a rebel by the Porte, the city was says:

many times sacked and burnt. Ali was

killed in 1821, and from that time down to The Greeks of Joánnina are celebrated the administration of Mechmet Rechit among their countrymen for their literary Pasha in 1830, Jánnina was constantly habits, and unquestionably merit the repute exposed to the inroads of Albanians re. they have obtained from this source. literature of the place is intimately connected turning from the insurgent provinces of with its commercial character. The wealth Greece, and was practically stripped of acquired by many of the inhabitants gives Christian inhabitants, some having taken them the means of adopting such pursuits refuge in foreign countries, others being themselves, or encouraging them in others. engaged in the struggle for independence.

The extensive traffic of the Greeks of When the Greek kingdom was constituted, Joánnina is further a means of rendering this and, to the great disappointment of its old city a sort of mart for books, whence they are citizens, Jannina excluded from the frondiffused over other parts of Greece.

tier, only a few of these found their way He then describes the two academies in back, and the city was repeopled by Greek the city — the Gymnasium of Athanasius inhabitants from other parts of Epirus. Psallida, then considered one of the first Since that time, in spite of the disadscholars of Greece, and well acquainted vantages of Turkish rule, learning has retoo with other countries and with all sides covered the check given to it by so many of a liberal education — and an academy, years of devastation and oppression, and preparatory to the first, which was super- its present condition is a most remarkable intended by a certain Balanos, and mainly instance of the thirst of the Greeks for supported by the noble and patriotic fam- education. The chief school or gymnaily of the Zosimades, themselves Jánni- sium for secondary instruction, founded by nites, whose work in this direction included the brothers Zosimus in 1828, and still the funds which enabled Koraes to form bearing their name (Zossiméon), contains his Hellenic library, and generally advance seven hundred pupils; there are also in the Greek learning.t Mr. Holland's account city five schools of mutual instruction (a of the Greek society of the place, when method first introduced at Jánnina), with we consider that it was written nine years two thousand pupils, three girls' schools before the revolution, shows that it really with over four hundred pupils, two infants' held at that time a position almost unique schools, and a normal school in course of in Greece. M. Pougueville, for many formation. Jánnina, being still Turkish years French consul-general at the court soil, is not included in the list of educational of Ali, adds his testimony to the same ef. centres given by M. Mansolas in his adfect, and after enumerating their various mirable little pamphlet, “ La Grèce à l'Exeducational institutions, etc., proceeds to position Universelle de Paris en 1878; name certain natives who had produced but we may learn from his pages that literary works, including Meletius, author nearly five hundred students from Epirus of the“ Geography and Ecclesiastical His- are now passing through the University of tory," and others whose labors lay in the Athens. The sum spent by the city on its less striking, but at that time for Greece educational institutions out of legacies and

necessary direction of compiling endowments made for this purpose, has from, and translating, foreign works on been estimated at nearly 6,000l. per an

num. As regards population, though sta

tistics under Turkish administration are * It will be a point of interest to English readers to remember that the first canto of “Childe Harold” was always matters of uncertainty, we may say commenced, as the author's diaries inform us, at this roughly that the city contains altogether very Joánnina, on Oct. 31, 1809.

† l'he numerous instances of such well-directed gen- about nineteen thousand inhabitants, of erosity on the part of wealthy Greeks in assisting their which twelve thousand Christian needy countrymen to get a foreign education, and in Greeks, forty-five hundred Mussulmen founding schools and various other institutions, afford not the least encouraging sign of the future of the na- (Turks and Albanians), and about twentytion. Some idea of what has been done in this way five hundred Jews. Few cities in Europe, may be gained from M. Mansolas's pamphlet, Grèce à 1 Exposition de Paris en 1878." Holland's Travels (1815), pp. 151, 599.

Voyage de la Grèce, vol. i., pp. 150, sqq.


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