their masters and slowly but steadily ply on business or pleasure bent. The comthe large feather fan, originally made from mon coolie has his wide, mushroom-shaped the feathers of a pheasant's tail, because hat, and the official rides in a sedan chair the emperor Kao Tsung of the Yin * with his red umbrella carried like the dynasty on one occasion connected some wooden fan in procession before him; but fortunate event with the auspicious crow. the middle-class Chinaman, who may be ing of

a pheasant.f Burden-carrying unwilling to throw away money in chair coolies of the lowest stratum of Chinese hire, trusts to his fan alone. As a matter society fan themselves as they hurry along of fact, from the narrowness of the streets the streets, weighed down by their back in most Chinese cities, and the matting breaking loads. Little boys are engaged with which these streets are in many cases to fan the workmen whose business is car.roofed over, sufficient shade is afforded to ried on in the hot shops of a crowded Chi- enable persons to move freely about withpese city. The very soldiers in the ranks out further defence against the sun; and fan themselves on parade; and among for a walk across country the inevitable the insignia carried in the procession of umbrella would of course be called into every mandarin above a certain rank there play- no longer, however, the characteris to be found a huge wooden fan more istic model of antiquity, with clumsy hanresembling a banner than anything else. dle and coarse oil-cloth top, but some cheap And this brings us to a rather curious importation in European style, the convenphase of Chinese etiquette. A Chinaman ience of which in point of portability has on horseback or in a sedan chair, meeting long since been recognized by the Chinese. an equal of his acquaintance on foot, must In such a city as Canton two open umforthwith dismount, be it only to make a brellas would more than fill the narrow passing bow.

It is a serious breach of roadway, and the risk of constant collision politeness to remain sitting while the per- would be great ; consequently, umbrellas son to whom you are addressing yourself are only to be seen on wet days, when the stands. And, similarly, two friends meet- ordinary crowd is at a minimum. Even in ing in chairs, should, strictly speaking, Peking, where some of the streets are as both dismount to salute. But to avoid the wide as Regent Street, the convenience of obvious inconvenience of perpetually stop the fan recommends it as a sunshade in ping and dismounting, in perhaps a crowd- preference to the more unwieldy umed thoroughfare, at the appearance of brella. every friend, it has been arranged that the The fan plays no inconsiderable rôle in occupant, say of the chair, may hold bis Chinese decorative art. Besides being the fan up so as to screen his face from view, vehicle of both poetry and painting, it is and the two pass without further cere- itself often introduced into designs of all mony, as if, in fact, they had never met. kinds. Mullioned windows are not unusu. And such is the use to which, apart from ally made in the shape of the top part of their emblematical signification, the above- a folding fan spread out, that is, the paper mentioned wooden fans would be put or silk part without the ribs; and the full should the almost impossible contingency outline is often used to contain pictures or arise of two mandarins of equal rank meet- verses painted or inscribed upon walls, as ing face to face in the street. The ser. if an open fan had simply been nailed over vants of each would hasten to interpose the spot. History indeed has recorded these great fans between the passing chairs the case of one painter, Wang Yuan-chün, of their respective masters, who, by the who so excelled in this particular line that aid of this pleasant fiction, would be held people, like the birds pecking at the grapes not to have become aware of each other's of Apelles, would often try to take down presence. A subordinate would turn up a and examine more closely some of these side street and yield the road to his supe- beautiful specimens of wall painting, which rior officer.

appeared to be really fans hung up by a Formerly there was a certain kind of thread or attached to a nail. It has been fan specially used as a screen to "separate mentioned above that, with the more rethe sun, screen off the wind, and obstruct fined of the Chinese, fans, including both the dust,” just as well-to-do Chinamen now the screen " and the “folding” varieties, use the ordinary fan to save their half. are almost invariably painted on one side shaven heads from the scorching summer and left blank on the other for the inserrays while they stroll along or hurry by tion of some appropriate verses, which may

be either original or borrowed; from which * More commonly known as Wu Ting, 1324-1265 B.C.

This story is told by Ts' ui Pao, in his Kuchin-chu, it will be seen that fans occupy to some or "Antiquarian Researches."

extent in China the position of albums


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with us.

To give any idea of the quaint as a translation, aims only at literal fidelity designs in figure and landscape painting, to the original, it is clear that the particuthe marvellous birds, beasts, and insects lar kind of fan hese alluded to must be the

especially butterflies - which are to be round screen fan, which Chinese poets found on the more highly finished Chinese never tire of comparing with the full moon, screens, is next to impossible without re- and which, when not in use, is often laid producing the originals; but a few words in the bosom," between the folds of the on the versification just alluded to, and on flowing outer robe. As to inscriptions the fan language in general, may not be upon fans, they vary with every variety of uninteresting to some. There is, however, human thought and feeling. The more in the long list of fan-painting celebrities usual kind treats in stilted language, prego the name of one single artist, the nature of nant with classical quotation and obscure whose works is expressed by a term with historical allusion, of some one of the everwhich they have ever been associated in changing aspects of nature. Others again history. That term is “10,000 li,” or a are didactic; and some are literally tours distance of over three thousand English de force, occasionally of a not very high miles. The painter in question was order. The most celebrated of the latter named Wang Fei; and the extent of a class has been acknowledged by universal landscape he was able to produce on the consent to be a couplet consisting of only

urfa a mere ordinary fan was said eight characters, written at the eight corbe limited only by the hyperbolical range ners of an octagon fan belonging to the of 10,000 li.

emperor Chien Wên, of the Liang dyThe fan is metaphorically known in the nasty,* and said to have been the compoChinese language as the phenix tail” sition of the monarch himself

. The peculor the “ jay's wing,” terms which point to iarity of this couplet is that the reader may what were possibly the archetypes of all begin at any one of the eight characters, fans, namely, the wings and tails of birds, and by reading round the way of the sun from which has been developed the mod- find a couplet of perfect sense and per. ern feather fan. The folding fan, by the fectly rhymed. Yet of all inscriptions on way, is said by one authority * not to be a or about fans in China, few are to be comChinese invention at all, but to have been pared in point of pathos and poetic vigor introduced into China by the Coreans, who with a certain stanza penned many centusent a quantity of them to the emperor ries ago by a favorite of the emperor Yung Lê of the Ming dynasty, amongst the Ch'êng Ti, of the Han dynasty: t The other articles offered as a tribute by the lady in question, whose name was Pan, had vassal State. The emperor is further been for some time the confidante of his stated to have been so pleased with the Majesty, and the queen of the imperial povelty that orders were issued for their seraglio, and appears to have believed imitation by Chinese workmen. A fan is that something more than an ordinary atalso alluded to in figurative language as a tachment of the hour existed between her. “strike the butterfly," or a. chase the self and the Son of Heaven. Gradually, fies," as a " like the moon," or a "call however, she began to find that her influthe wind,” and as a “screen the face," a ence was on the wane, and at length, unname which should be taken in conjunc- able to bear any longer her mortification tion with the point of etiquette previously and grief, she forwarded to the emperor a mentioned. It is called a "change the circular screen fan, on one side of which season,” from its power of cooling the per- were inscribed the following lines : son fanned.

This power has been enlarged upon in an ode to a fan, written by O fair white silk, fresh from the weaver's loom, a poet named Poh Chü-1,t of which the Clear as the frost, bright as the winter snow, following are specimen lines :

See, friendship fashions out of thee a fan;

Round as the round moon shines in heaven With thee, hot suns shall strike in vain the

above; snow;

At home, abroad, a close companion thou; By thy aid gentle gales perennial blow; Stirring at every move the grateful gale. Thou mov'st an autumn breeze 'neath summer And yet I fear, ah me! that autumn chills, skies;

Cooling the dying summer's torrid rage, Cease, and the round moon in my bosom lies. Will see thee laid neglected on the shelf, From the last line of this effusion, which,

All thought of by-gone days, by-gone, like

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* The Ch' ien-ch'olei-shu, an encyclopædia published in 1632.

+ Flourished A.D. 772-846.

Reigned A.D. 550-551. t Reigned B.C. 32 to B.C. 6.


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Since the date of this poem, a deserted in Cetywayo? But a new element of conwife has constantly been spoken of as an fusion is added by official adoption of the "autumn fan."

Norwegian missionaries' spelling Ekowe HERBERT A. GILES. to stand for Itshowi. Strictly speaking,

the Norwegians employed not the letter k, but a modification of it not found in ordinary founts of type; one consequence of

attempting to follow them being that peoFrom The Natal Colonist.

ple, even military men, may be heard, ZULU ORTHOGRAPHY.

speaking of Ekowe, pronouncing k as in A GOOD deal has been written on the king. But an inconvenience of this want name of the hill or mountain made mem- of uniformity in spelling, worse even than orable as the scene of one of the most difference in prounciation, is that people tragical events in the history of the British at a distance may be led from the dissimi. army. In the first accounts of the slaugh: larity of names to suppose that different ter it appeared as Isandala, which would places are spoken of. And when we find naturally, in accordance with the genius of " Isandula Sandhlwana ” both set the language, Zulu words being accented down, in a map, the seat of war recently. on the penultimate, be accented Isandàla. published in the colony, as if distinct But when the connection with “hand” places, it is not to be wondered at if peowas suggested, it became evident that ple at a distance fall into similar errors. Isandala was merely an attempt to repre- A few examples of these differences may sent the guttural before the h, as in be both amusing and serve to point the Umhloti, Uinhlali, which some represent moral we wish to draw. Who would supby Umthoti

, Umthlali, while others cut pose that Kreli and Sarili (to instance but the Gordian knot by boldly saying and two out of many ways of spelling the name) writing Ulmsloti, Umslali

. The true pro- were one and the same person? or Tpai nunciation is a guttural or aspirate very and Ncapai ? Sihayo, Sirayo, or Assegai, similar to the Welsh double l, as in Llan- the last probably a Dutch corruption of gollen, but in our ordinary English nota. the chief's name, has frequently appeared tion no nearer indication of the sound can in the papers lately as Sirajo and Usirajo, be made than that which is now generally probably following some German authoradopted. A propos of Zulu names, we ity who would naturally represent the may recur to the subject of the impor. sound of our y by j. But one consequence

y tance of adopting a uniform spelling. of such spelling is that we hear people English or other distant readers are talk of Sir Roger! If less amusing, anoften entirely misled as to the proper other spelling we met with a day or two sound of the name. This, in many cases, since is even more absurd – Assugunri! it is impossible correctly to represent by Itshowi we prefer to Itshowe, because the means of our alphabet, though if what is final i must be sounded, though either known as the Italian system of vowels is gives the sound approximately well; but adopted there can be no great difficulty. then we have Ikoe and Tyoe, which no one But the adoption by the missionaries of could suppose to mean the same place. the letters c, 9, and x, to represent clicks, Unkungunghlovu, the old Zulu capital, and of the letter r to represent a rough after which Maritzburg is named, we have guttural, has introduced immense seen spelled in half a score of different amount of confusion. The arbitrary use ways, of which forms as different as Un. of these letters in senses different from kunglove and Megoonloof may both be their usual or proper one is bad enough in found in Chase's Natal papers. These books written for natives. Thus r, as we various spellings are bewildering enough have said, is used for a rough guttural in in our colonial papers, where each journal the Zulu and Kosa; but the Basuto have a probably tries, often with very indifferent true r in their language, and in the Basuto success, to employ but one mode of spellalphabet, therefore, that letter has quite a ing for the same name, however it may different value. Then ty, used to represent differ from that employed by its neighthe sound of ch, in church, may have physio- bors; but when the names get into Enlogically something to say for itself (as we glish papers they are absolutely hopeless. find the tendency in English of nature and In State documents, however, such as parapture to become nacher and rapcher, pers presented to Parliament by command and the analogous soldier has actually be of her Majesty, something like system and come soldjer), but what English reader uniformity might be looked for, yet it is could ever guess it was to have that sound precisely there that confusion becomes


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worse confounded and chaos is come again. I appears as Livart; Swazi_figures someIt is no uncommon thing to find the same times as Zwazies ; even Sir T. Shepstone's name, even English names, spelled two or native name, Somtseu, appears as Somt. three different ways on the same page, and sen; and Ketshwayo occasionally appears these ways so diverse as, unless to the spelled in this way, which certainly gives initiated, to be absolutely unrecognizable. a fair approximation to the true pronunciaThus Umbelini we find in one place tion, but much more frequently it figures spelled Mbilim; Swart, the secretary in as Cetywayo, which, to an English reader, the Transvaal under the Boer government, is utterly misleading.

THE ELECTRIC LIGHT FOR SURGICAL OP. is. He stablished the earth and this sky, ERATIONS, A large company of medical gen. Who is the God to whom we shall offer our tlemen assembled on the afternoon of the 13th sacrifice ? inst., in the theatre of the Royal United Ser- “2. He who gives life, he who gives strength; vice Institution, to hear a lecture upon and to whose command all the bright gods revere; witness the trial of an experiment for facilitat- whose shadow is immortality; whose shadow ing surgical operations and examinations in is death; who is the god to whom we shall dull weather or after dark by means of the offer our sacrifice? Jablochkoff electric light, by Dr. Balmanno “3. He who through his power is the one Squire. The lamps which the lecturer pro- king of the breathing and awaking world. He posed should be used were two in number, and who governs all, man and beast. Who is the were respectively a hand-lamp and a bracket. God to whom we shall offer our sacrifice ? lamp- the former for delicate operations and * 4. He whose power these snowy moun. the latter for more general use. In explain tains, whose power the sea proclaims, with the ing the construction of the hand lantern, Dr. distant river. He whose these regions are as Squire showed it to be extremely portable, it were his two arms. Who is the God to and, being accommodated with a long handle, whom we shall offer our sacrifice ? the person holding it was thus enabled to keep “5. He through whom the sky is bright and himself out of the way of the operator; while, the earth firm. He through whom the heaven as there was no machinery or any apparatus was stablished, nay, the highest heaven. He of any kind underneath it, it was possible to who measured out the light in the air. Who bring the light very close to the person of the is the God to whom we shall offer our sacri. subject undergoing the operation. The light fice? would burn for two hours. The only draw-“6. He to whom heaven and earth, standing back to the immediate use of the electric light firm by his will, look up, trembling inwardly. in surgical or dental operations was its ex- He over whom the rising sun shines forth. pense, as even a one horse-power machine, Who is the God to whom we shall offer our with its concomitant apparatus, would cost sacrifice? £100. After dwelling upon the advantages of 7. Wherever the mighty water-clouds went, such a light for navy and army hospital use, where they placed the seed and lit the fire, Dr. Squire concluded his lecture amid ap- thence arose he who is the sole life of the plause. Mr. F. Weiss made the hand, and bright gods. Who is the God to whom we Mr. Mayer the fixed lamp: and Mr. J. A. shall offer our sacrifice ? Berly, engineer to the Société Général d'Elec- “8. He who by his might looked even tricité de Paris, was in attendance to superin- over the water-clouds, the clouds which gave tend their working, as, also that of the two strength and lit the sacrifice. He who alone ordinary electric street lamps with which the is God above all gods. Who is the God to theatre was illuminated.

whom we shall offer our sacrifice ?
"9. May He not destroy us.

He the cre. ator of the earth, or he the righteous who created the heaven. He who also created the

bright and mighty waters. Who is the God to A HYMN FROM THE RIG.VEDA. - .“1. In whom we shall offer our sacrifice ?" the beginning there arose the source of golden

Translated by Professor Mar Müller light. He was the one born Lord of all that

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Quarterly Review,

author of "Castle Daly,” “Oldbury,” etc.
Part XVII., .

Advance Sheets,

Nineteenth Century,
IV. EDWIN AND ANGELINA. A True Story, Argosy,

Macmillan's Magazine,

Cornhill Magazine,


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