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M. Berne Bellecour, grievous to say, sinks | French Academy, from whose ranks M. lower and lower. Among the sculpture, Thiers, M. de Loménie, and M. Dupan. the busts of M. Saint Marceaux may be loup disappeared in such rapid succession, noted, as superior works of a delicacy, ten- has just lost two other members, M. de derness, and force of expression worthy of Sacy, a clever writer, a pure man of letthe greatest masters.

ters, a ghost of the seventeenth century; The world of art has incurred several and M. St. René Taillandier, a political noteworthy losses in the last few months, writer of merit, who had devoted the though the artists whose deaths we allude greater part of his career to making France to had long ceased to occupy any place better acquainted with the Sclavonic counamongst contemporaries. Daumier was tries and with Germany. Finally, Parisian blind, Couture and Préault were living on journalism has lost one of its veterans, M. a reputation that dated thirty years back. de Villemessant, who, though nothing Daumier was fitted for something better more than a writer, was an able man of than a caricaturist. He preferred the fash- business. He succeeded from 1854 to ionable fame an inferior style, in which he 1879 in making the Figaro - a journal of displayed qualities that bordered on gen- scandalous anecdotes and doubtful jests ius, gave him. There was something of one of the powers of the press, the monHogarth, Michael Angelo, and Shake itor of devoutness and gallantry, and the speare in his conceptions, distinguished as chief organ of the Conservative party, fat. they were by a gloomy and impressive tering neither to the Conservatives nor to fancy. His drawing of the massacre of the devout.

G. MONOD. the Rue Transponaine, another entitled "L'Empire c'est la Paix,” wbich represents an immense plain filled with dead bodies, are pages of epic history: Daumier certainly helped to bring on the revo

From Fraser's Magazine. lution of 1848 by so making game of Louis

ON CHINESE FANS. Philippe and his ministers as to render In China, just as the dragon is the symthem odious. His caricatures of judges bol of power and the national emblem of and lawyers are a series of profound and the Chinese people, so is the fan the char. trenchant satires on the world of the law acteristic accompaniment to the every day courts. Couture owed_bis renown to a life of the ordinary Chinaman.

It is, single work, “ L'Orgie Romaine," a large, therefore, possible that a few remarks clever composition, in which too little no- from a purely Chinese standpoint may not tice was taken of the weak drawing and be wholly out of place. For even in these poor coloring. After that his power, like days of advanced globe-trotting it is not Barbier's, after producing “ Les lambcs,every man's luck to get either to Corinth seems to have forsaken him. A picture or to Peking; and the topic is one, moremuch talked about but never exhibited, over, to which the writer has personally L'Enrôlement en '92," was a copy of a devoted some attention. In his new dicprint by Raffet. Préault, who owed his tionary of the English language, Dr. Lareputation less perhaps to his sculptures tham has ventured to define a fan as an than to his caustic, biting wit, — his mots "instrument used by ladies to move the à la Préaultagainst the Institute, or the air and cool themselves; a definition government of Louis Philippe, which cir- which is clearly bounded by the four walls culated in all the studios and beerhouses of a European ball-room. All over the where artists and writers met, - was nev- Asiatic continent fans are as much in use ertheless gifted with great qualities, a among men as among women ; and in vigor of chisel, a power of conception China, to which the following paper will which, with less vanity and more industry, be confined, a fan of some sort or other is might have produced better things. His part and parcel of every man's suinmer "Marceau,” his “ Christ mort,” his “ Sol- equipment. The term “fan” is expressed dats gaulois du pont d'Iena,” his figure of in the Chinese language by a single and unEternal Silence in the cemetery of Mont changeable character, which in Mandarin martre, remain to prove that Préault had in is pronounced shan, the a having almost him the qualities of an artist of the highest exactly the value of the a in “can't.” This order which were never completely devel- character is a compound of two others, oped. In M. Duc, architecture has like, namely hu (or hoo), “a door," and , wise lost an artist of great merit, to whom “feathers." These are written in the modParis owes one of her finest modern mon. ern style, said to be a gradual modification uments, the new Palais de Justice. The from the ancient hieroglyphs, under wbich

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form this same hu is believed actually to roes of antiquity according to the fancy of stand for the picture of one leaf of a door, each particular writer. For instance, the and yii * for that of the feathers or wings “Yu-hsijo,or “Child's Guide to Knowlof a bird. From the conjunction of these edge," tells us that to the emperor Hsien two hieroglyphs we obtain, not a third Yüan, who came to the throne B.C. 2697, hieroglyph - for no one pretends that any we are indebted for this boon to suffering form of shan, ancient or modern, in any humanity; while the "Kuang-shih-lei-fu," way resembles a fan - but an ideographic a well-known cyclopædia of antitheses, de. combination, analysis of which guides by fers the invention to the reign of Wuassociation to the sense. Feathers be. wang, the first ruler of the Chow dynasty, neath a door, door standing by synecdoche or more than a thousand years

later. for a house: that which, made of feathers, Other authorities declare for the emperor is used within doors: scilicet, a fan. Such Shun, B.C. 2255, with whose honored name is a fair specimen of the process by which tradition has lovingly coupled more than the ideographic nature of modern Chinese one similar achievement designed to prowriting is worked out.t Whether this promote the welfare and happiness of his chilcess can or cannot be held to fulfil the con- dren. Of the history of fans in China, and ditions of sound scientific investigation, their gradual development from the primiand whether even the hieroglyphic value tive bird's wing or unelaborated leaf, attributed to the original elements of such there is positively nothing to record, unideographs has or has not been seriously less perhaps it be the publication by the overrated by philologists, these are open emperor Ngan Ti, of the Chin dynasty questions; at the same time it is admitted (A.D. 405),* of a strange enactment against on all sides that similar analyses, wher- the use of silk in the manufacture of these ever feasible, afford great assistance to the articles. It was apparently a mere sumpstudent, and enable him to retain in the tuary law, having for its object the protec. memory such a number of complex char- tion of silk, the material which, according acters as would be perfectly impossible to a very ancient belief still prevalent in were each to be regarded as a tangled con- China, can alone give warmth to the aged. course of strokes, brought together with. In one of his dissertations on political out rhyme or reason at the sweet will of economy Mencius observed : + the Cadmus of China.

without silk no warmth: at seventy withAnother, and, in the written language, out meat no satiety." '. The sage had been equally common term for a fan is sha (or advocating a more extensive cultivation of shah), I compounded of the same word yii, the mulberry-tree, with a view to provide feathers,” placed above the character an adequate source of food for the silkalso an ideograph – which stands for “a worm; and in the present instance it is female companion ;” in other words, a most probable that the imperial edict was woman fanning her lord, such indeed be directed against the indiscriminate waste ing one of the daily duties of the denizens of silk for purposes of mere luxury ; but of a Chinese harem. With regard to the like all similar enactments, this one fell constant use of the word “ feathers” in speedily into desuetude. these combinations, it would appear from

city in China, and Chinese authorities that wings of birds certainly, every important division of the and leaves of trees dispute, if not divide, empire, has its own characteristic fan ; or the honor of having furnished the first else there is something peculiar in the fans to mankind. But Chinese authori- make, color, or ornamentation of the comties are eminently unreliable on most mon “folding” fan as seen in that parpoints, and the invention of the fan has ticular district, by which it may be been variously attributed to different he distinguished from its ubiquitous con

gener. For the folding fan, as the * Here used as a contraction of a more complex Chinese call it, is the fan par excellence; character.

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and all that ingenuity of design has hith† It will be seen farther on that fans are almost as much in requisition out of doors as within the house.

erto accomplished has not succeeded in With regard to the two words sha and shan, it is displacing this convenient form from the stated in the Fang-yen, by Yang Hsiung, that the for, affections of the people at large.f The mer is employed to the east, the latter to the west, of the Shan-hai-Kuan, or point at which the Great Wall of China abuts upon the sea coast, dividing Manchuria * Here again authorities are at variance. Hsieh from the eighteen provinces.

Ling-Yün credits this enactment to the emperor Hsido It should also be mentioned that there is another Wu, of the same dynasty, who reigned from 373 to 397 character, similarly read sha, but differently written, The date given in the text is taken from the which likewise means a fan. The two are given in Kuang-shih-lei-fu. dictionaries as separate words, but it is not improbable that they were originally the same.

I See note po 700.

A.D.

+ Book vii.

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large palm-leaf, with its strongly-bound many as thirty-two, and sometimes even edges and natural handle, large quantities thirty-six. The reason why the number of which are exported annually from Can. sixteen is preferred is that such a fan ton and elsewhere, may possibly be the opens into a convenient number of spaces cheapest and most breeze-compelling of to receive the poetical inscription which all kinds; but it is not very portable, and custom has almost, but not altogether, tied cannot readily be stowed away about the down to a given number of lines. person, or stored so as to last into a

Irregular inscriptions are, however, not second summer.

It finds favor in the uncommon. The Hangchow fan has a eyes of tea-shop and public eating house great many bones. It is a very strongly. keepers, and is always to be seen in the made article; and though only of paper, guest-chambers, whether of guilds, monas- prepared in some way with oil, may remain teries, or private establishments. The plunged in water (it is said) for twentyfolding fan, on the other hand, occupies four hours without injury. But this fan but little space; and when pot in use may finds no favor with those who can afford be stuck in the high boot of the full. to pick and choose, and for a rather singudressed Chinese gentleman, or at the back lar reason. Just as with the Chinese white of the neck in the loose collarless jacket, is the emblem of death and mourning, so which, with the addition of a curt caleçon, black is regarded as typical of moral im. constitutes the entire toilette of a Chinese purity, and black things are consequently coolie. Besides, the folding fan opens avoided on the strength of the proverb, into a tolerably smooth surface, fairly well" Proximity to vermilion makes a adapted for the painter's art; and even the red; to ink, black.” Now the Hangchow dirtiest specimen of. Chinese vagabondage fan is, with the exception of a sprinkling loves to rest his eye upon some gaily of gold or silver on the face, as black as it painted flower or a spray or two of the well could be; and it is therefore at a dismuch-prized bamboo. Consequently, the count even among those by whom the folding fan obtains all over the eighteep most trifling form of economy cannot be provinces of China proper, and beyond, satisfactorily ignored.* Chair coolies, far away across the Great Wall, over the everywhere a degraded class, invest their steppes of Mongolia and the mountains of money in these fans without hesitation, Tibet. Of the more elaborate kinds, pro- doubtless feeling themselves beyond the duced at Canton for export to Europe, reach of such influences as these. Old with their exquisitely carved or perforated men, too, may use black fans without ivory handles, etc., it will suffice to say scruple. Their age is held to have placed that such are quite unknown even in the them on a vantage ground in this as in all highest and wealthiest circles of Chinese other respects; for, as Confucius observed, society, the folding fan being rarely the “That which is really white may be in the vehicle of extravagant expenditure in this darkest dye without being made black,” + respect. It may be made, indeed, either and a man who has led for years a spotless of paper or of silk; for handle, ivory or life is unlikely to be influenced for the bad sandal wood may be used; but even then by mere contact with a fan. Black fans, the general get up is as a rule plain, while with black lacquer handles, are made in for the common folding fan of the empire, Canton for sale to the outer barbarian, the bamboo is the material most extensively hated foreigner, whose moral obliquity is employed, being at once the cheapest regarded by the masses of China as more and most durable of all woods. Pendents prononcé than that of the lowest of their of amber, jade, ivory, and cornelian, and low. other substances, are also affected by the Besides the large non-folding feather more refined, and a fan-case beautifully fan, generally looked upon in Europe as a embroidered in some quaint pattern, hand-screen for the fire, some beautiful accompanied perhaps by some appropriate specimens of the folding fan are also to be classical allusion, is a very ordinary birth- seen in feathers, which show, on being day present from a sister to her brother or opened, beautifully painted bouquets of from a wife to her husband. The number flowers, butterflies, birds, etc. etc. Kingof "bones or ribs to a folding fan is a fishers' feathers and beetles' wings are also matter which is by no means left to chance. largely employed in the manufacture of Sixteen, including the two outer pieces, may be quoted as the standard ; but fans * So punctilious indeed is a respectable Chinaman in made in certain localities have more, as

the case of mourning, that he will even abstain from chewing betel-nut, because it would make his lips red,

and red is emblematical of joy. • This again is a translation of the Chinese term. † See the Lun-yi, bk. xvii., ch. 7.

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fans and screens, and tortoise-shell and seems to have fallen to pieces, each bone, jade are occasionally used in elaborating with the part attached to it, being separated the handles of the more expensive kinds. from all the others, as if the connecting White silk, stretched tightly over both strings were broken. This arrangement sides of a narrow frame, round, octagonal, is of course simple enough, but at first sexagonal, or polygonal, as the case may sight the effect, as a trick, is remarkably be, forms what is considered in the higher good. From the broken it is an easy circles of Chinese society the ne plus ultra transition to the secret or double-entendre of elegance and refinement; especially so fan, which opened one way shows a flower when some charming study in flower or or similarly harmless design; the other, landscape painting on the obverse is ac- some ribald sketch which with us would companied by a sparkling stanza on the entail severe penalties on maker, publisher, reverse, signed by the writer and addressed and all concerned. It is only fair, howto the friend for whose delectation it is ever, to the administration of China to intended. This is a very favorite present state that, theoretically speaking, the same among the Chinese ; and as poets and penalties would be incurred, though prac. painters are but a small minority in China, tically they are seldom if ever enforced. as elsewhere, it follows that any man who In the Peking form of this fan there are is sufficiently an artist to supply either the always two such pictures to each. These verses or the design need never starve for are not seen when the fan is opened out, want of occupation. One of the highest and it will only open one way; but are officials and most renowned calligraphists disclosed by turning back the two end ribs in the Chinese empire at the present mo- or “bones." A far more creditable and ment, when formerly a struggling student more useful compagnon de voyage is the at Foochow, eked out a scanty livelihood map fan, which gives the plan of some by writing inscriptions for fans in all kinds such great city as Peking or Canton, with of styles, ancient and modern, at about one the names of the streets and public buildshilling and eightpence per fan. Outside ings marked in characters of medium his door was a notice calling the attention legibility. Sometimes whole districts are of the public to the above fact, and the included on the surface of a fan; and as fancy name he gave to his studio was the distances from place to place are given Laugh, but Buy."

with considerable accuracy, travellers not That kind known as the “Swatow” fan unusually invest the small sums required is for a non-folding fan perhaps the most for the purchase of these topographical serviceable of all, as for lightness and guides. So, too, any great national event durability combined it is certainly without may be circulated over the empire by a rival. It is formed from a piece of bam- means of fans, precisely as penny books of boo, about a foot and a half in length and the lord mayor's show are still sold in half an inch in diameter, split two-thirds of Fleet Street on every November 9. The the way down into a number of slips, each Tientsin massacre, for instance, brought very thin and apparently fragile, while forth a hideous specimen, with horrid dereally possessed of its full share of the tails of the hacking to pieces of Roman strength and flexibility of the parent stem. Catholic priests and sisters, the burning of These slips are spread out in the same the cathedral and of the French consulate, plane, with their tips slightly bent over, the murder of the French consul and his somewhat like a mustard spoon; and then chancelier. The sale of these fans was strong paper is pasted over the whole as almost immediately prohibited by the Chi. far down as the splits extend, the remain- nese authorities, and they are now very ing unsplit half serving as handle. This rare. fan is said to be actually made near Amoy, Some “fans” are not fans at all. The probably near Chang-chow, and to be sent “steel fan” is simply a bar of metal, io Swatow only to be painted; but to shaped and painted to resemble an ordiforeigners resident in China it is univer- nary closed fan, and carried sometimes as sally known as the “Swatow” fan. Of all a life-preserver, sometimes by the swell fancy fans there is none so curious as mobsmen and rowdies of China, to be used what is commonly termed the “ broken at close quarters with murderous effect. fan,” which at first sight would appear to Of the same species is the well-known be a simple folding fan, and on being dagger fan,” which consists of an elegant opened from left to right as usual discloses imitation in lacquer of a common folding nothing to distinguish it from the most fan, but it is really a sheath containing ordinary kind. Opened, however, the re- within its fair exterior a deadly blade, verse way, from right to left, the whole fan short and sharp, like a small Malay kris.

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This dagger fan was invented by the Jap-tumn are smaller than those used in sumanese, and its importation into China has mer, reminding one of the old Roman always been strictly forbidden. Great luxury of summer and winter rings. It is numbers have, however, been successfully also mauvais ton to be seen with a fan introduced into Canton, Foochow, and too early or too late in the year. There other large maritime cities, and they are are indeed no days absolutely fixed for the now even manufactured by the enterpris- | beginning and end of the fan season, as in ing natives of the first-mentioned port. the case of the summer and winter hats

A curious specimen of the fan is pro- worn by all employés of the government, duced in Formosa, consisting of a thick, and which are supposed to be changed pithy leaf, shaped like a cone with the simultaneously all over the empire; but apex chopped off, and a short handle fitted Chinese custom has made it as ridiculous to the line of severance, and bearing upon for a man to carry a fan before or after a its face a landscape or group of figures certain conventional date as it would be burnt in wi'l a hot iron. It was the in- with us to wear a white waistcoat in March vention of a needy scholar of Taiwan Fu, or November. the capital city of Formosa, who being During the summer months a bird's-eye in distressed circumstances bit upon the view of China would disclose a perfect above novelty as a means of replenishing futter of fans from one confine to the his empty purse. The fan took immensely other. Punkabs are unknown to the Chie for a time, long enough in fact to make the nese, except as an innovation of the forfortune of the inventor, who for a consid- eigner; and it has been necessary to coin erable period was at his wits' end to meet a term expressly for them. Occasionally the demand. The rage for them has been they may be seen in the house of some now for some time spent, and they are wealthy Chinese merchant, as, for instance, only made in small quantities, for sale in the establishment of the celebrated more as curiosities than anything else. Howqua family at Canton; but even then For there are fashions in fans as in other they are regarded more as a curiosity than articles of human luxury in China as else- as appliances of every day use. On the where. Every year sees some fresh va- other hand, it can hardly be said that the riety, differing perhaps imperceptibly to idea of a general fan or punkah has es. the European eye from the favorite of the caped the searching ingenuity of the Chipreceding season, but still sufficiently so nese; for in the work last quoted we are to constitute a novelty, a new fashion for informed that “under the Han dynasty the wealthy Chinese exquisite. A for- [between sixteen hundred and two thoueigner may live for years amongst the sand years ago) there lived at Ch'ang-an a Chinese and never notice any change to very skilful workman, named Ting Huan, relieve the monotony of their dress. Yet, who made a seven-wheeled fan. This as a matter of fact, some variety, even of consisted of seven large wheels, ten feet hat or shoes, is introduced almost annually. in diameter, joined together, the whole The fashionable cap is squarer or rounder being turned by a single man, and keeping at the top as the case may be ; the shoes the place quite cool during the summer more or less pointed, or ornamented after months.” This description is a trifle too some novel design. And so it is with fans, meagre to enable us to state with cerwhich are made of different material and tainty the exact shape of the machine in of different sizes for different seasons of question. The paddle-wheel of a steamer the year in proportion to the quantity of seems to come the nearest to it; and from breeze required. In the “Miscellanies of the loftiness of Chinese halls and recepthe Western Capital”* we read: “The tion rooms in general, both official and fans of the son of heaven are, for the sum- private, no objection could be offered on mer, of feathers; for the winter, of silk; "the score of height. Be this as it may, and in a poem by Ow-yang Hisu occurs such a machine would at any rate be free this line:

from what is in Chinese eyes the weak In the tenth moon the people of the capital with regard to the person operated upon.

point of a punkab – namely, its position turn to their warm fans.

A Chinaman fans his face, arms, legs, At the present day the distinction be- chest, and even back, as he may feel distween warm and cold fans can hardly be posed at the moment; but he objects said to exist. Those for spring and au- strongly to a draught of air falling on the

top of his head, and avoids it as much as * Ch’ang-an, now Hsi-an Fu, the capital of the possible. At meals, during the very hot province of Shensi.

weather, servants usually stand behind

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