Come, Peace and Spring, come Joy and Mirth, [BOOK I., ODB 11.)

Smile, Plenty, on the starving earth;

We imbeciles
THE wretched world has had enough

Have surely frozen enough to please
Of snow and ice, and “quantum suff.," Sidonias of all degrees,

And even in Hades to appease
Of foundering over field and park,

All the Cecils. And shivering through the light and dark,

February 26th.

H. C. M. And vain petitions to the clerk

Spectator. Of the weather.

I try to keep the cold at bay,
By storing brandy night and day

In my cupboard;
And every pretty girl I meet
Wants to avoid me in the street,
Because her nose is red, and feet



Man likes his skating for a bit,
But grows a little tired of it;

Si sic semper,
Although both amiable and mild,
And very gentle from a child,
It strikes me 'hat I may get riled

In my temper.

THE pale moon rushed along the stormy sky,
Now hid, now seen, like some belated bark,
That drives among the breakers aimlessly,
Their white crests gleaming silver through the

Pale as the moon, beneath the lighthouse

cowered The silent watcher on the great stone pier, She saw how black the gathering cloud-wrack

lowered, She heard the gale's hoarse warning mutter.

ing near; She felt the kindred tumult in her breast, With nature's angry mood was prompt to

blend; Yet the sea answered, stilling her unrest, “The hardest hap comes ever to the end.”

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Though the great waves roll thundering to the

And o'er the reef the cruel surf-clouds foam,
Though fierce and high the crashing breakers

Between the weary fisherman and home;
Calm to its depths the tide will ebb at night,
The waves creep whispering backward from

the Scar,
And as the cottage hearth shows welcome

light, The laden coble leaps the harbor bar. Ears that can hear, hearts that can under.

stand, Know Ocean tells us, like a staunch old friend, “God holds the future in his loving hand, The hardest hap comes ever to the end.”

If Father Thames should overflow
His banks for just a month or so?

And unsparing
Of Beauty's self, upset the King.
ston Waterworks, that lovely thing,
Or the fair bridge to ruin bring

Down at Charing!

Whom shall we call on to assuage
The winter.god's resistless rage,

Even while foemen
Of savage race destroy the flower
Of England's youth, and all the power
Of evil round us seems to lower?

Absit omen!

The red-roofed houses piled beneath the head
In silent separate lights began to shine,
The struggling moon her tearful radiance shed
On the grand beauty of the ruined shrine ;
From the quay-side, laugh, snatch of song,

and call,
Came fitful to the pier upon the breeze,
And, regular as pulse's rise and fall,
Boomed the long echo of the breaking seas.
And still the watcher on the great stone pier
Lingered above the eternal waves to bend,
Taking their answer home to hush and cheer,
“The hardest hap comes ever to an end."

All The Year Round.

The good Sir Walter's moral ran,
How swift and sure from folly man

Into sin goes ;
Kind Heaven, the cup of Reason mix,
And save us from the conjuring tricks,
And blood-and-thunder politics

Of the Jingoes!

From The Cornhill Magazine. ciations, and by the tendency to discover GODWIN AND SHELLEY,

a mystical significance in natural objects. THE poetic and the metaphysical tem- Some people would urge that his philosoperaments are generally held to be in some phy would have been iniproved if it had sense incompatible. Poets, indeed, have been equally free from poetical elements. often shown the highestspeculative acute. In any case, Coleridge is an example of ness, and philosophy often implies a really a combination of diverse excellence not poetical imagination. But the necessary easily to be parallelled. Another poet was conditions of successful achievement in supposed by some of his admirers to have the two cases are so different that the similar claims upon our respect. Shelley combination of the two kinds of excellence seems to have thought himself as well in one man must be of excessive rarity. fitted for abstract speculation as for poetry;. No man can be great as a philosopher who and his widow declared that, had he lived is incapable of brooding intensely and longer, he might have “presented to the perseveringly over an abstract problem, world a complete theory of mind; a theory absolutely unmoved by the emotion which to which Berkeley, Coleridge, and Kant is always seeking to bias his judgment; would have contributed; but more simple, whilst a poet is great in virtue of the keen- unimpugnable, and entire than the systems ness of his sensibility to the emotional of those writers." The phrase is by itself aspect of every decision of the intellect. enough to prove Mrs. Shelley's incomFor the one purpose, it is essential to keep petence to form any opinion as to her the passions apart from the intellect: for husband's qualifications for this stupenthe other, to transfuse intellect with pas- dous task. It is not by forming a patchsion. A few of our metaphysicians have work of Berkeley, Kant, and Coleridge, ventured into poetical utterance. Berke- that a “complete theory of mind” is likely ley wrote a really fine copy of verses, and to be evolved; nor does it appear that Hobbes struck out one famous couplet – Shelley really knew much about either of And like a star upon her bosom lay

the latter writers ; certainly, he has not His beautiful and shining golden head,

given the smallest proof of a power of in a translation of Homer, otherwise not original speculation in such matters. And easily readable. Scott proposed to publish Shelley seriously as an originator of philo

yet, though it would be absurd to treat the whole poetical works of David Hume, sophic thought or even as a moderately consisting of a remarkable quatrain com

profound student of philosophy, there is posed in an inn at Carlisle.*

no doubt that his poetry contains a philoHere chicks in eggs for breakfast sprawl,

sophical element which deserves considerHere godless boys God's glories squall, ation if only to facilitate the comprehension Here Scotchmen's heads do guard the wall, of his poetry. But Corby's walks atone for all.

Enough has been written by the compe. The only exception to this rule in our tent and the incompetent, the prosaic and literature seems to be Coleridge. Cole- the poetical, the hyperbolical panegyrists ridge undoubtedly exercised a vast influ- and the calm analytical critics, of Shelley ence upon the speculation of his country considered primarily as a poet. Nobody, men, whilst his poems possess merits of as it seems to me, is entitled to add anythe rarest order. It is more worthy of thing who has not himself a very unusual remark that his poetry is successful pretty share, if not of Shelley's own peculiar much in proportion as he keeps it clear genius, at least of receptivity for its prodof his philosophy. In“ Christabel,” “ The ucts; and after all that has been written Ancient Mariner,” or “Kubla Khan,” we by the ablest writers, one can learn more can only discover the philosopher by the of Shelley by getting, say, the “Adonais ” evidence of a mind richly stored with asso- or the “Ode to the Skylark” by heart

than by studying volumes of talk about his • Hume's biographer, Mr. Hill Burton, gives some cher verses attributed to Hume; but the impartial works. At any rate, I feel no vocation to Cilic roust admit that they are of inferior merit. add to the mass of imperfectly appreciative

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disquisition. Recent discussions, however, Shelley's intellectual developments, and seem to show both that some interest is indeed, seems to bave partly overlooked still taken in the other aspect of Shelley's them. He tells us, for example, that Shelwritings, and that an obvious remark or ley's poems show an“extreme suspicion two still remains to be made. People are of aged persons.” Undoubtedly a youthin doubt whether to classify Shelley as ful enthusiast is apt to be shocked by the atheist, pantheist, or theist; they dispute dogged conservatism of older men who as to whether his writings represent the have been hammered into a more accurate destructive spirit which undermines all measure of the immovable weight of suthat is good amongst men, or, on the perincumbent prejudice in the human contrary, are the fullest expression yet mind. Shelley could not revolt against reached by any human being of the things in general without contracting some divinest element of religion. Were it not dislike to the forces against which he inthat some parallel phenomena might be evitably, ran his head at starting. Even very easily suggested, it would be surpris- here, indeed, the charm of Shelley's uning that the meaning of a writer, who had worldly simplicity for men of an opposite extraordinary powers of expressing himself type, for cynics like Hogg, and Peacock, clearly and an alınost morbid hatred of and Byron, is one of the pleasantest indianything like reticence, should be seriously dications of his character. He attracted, doubtful. The explanation of the wonder and doubtless because he was attracted by, is not, I think, very far to seek. For one many who had nothing but contempt for thing, people have not yet made up their his favorite enthusiasms, and it is still minds as to the true bearing of some more evident that, however wayward was opinions which Shelley undoubtedly held. his career in some relations of life, he had The question whether they were of good a full measure of the young man's capacity or evil import is mixed up with the ques- for reverence. Dr. Lind seems to have tion as to whether they were true or false. been his earliest idol; but a far more imUpon that problem I shall not touch; but portant connection was that with Godwin. a few pages may be occupied by an attempt Godwin was in his fifty-sixth and Shelley to indicate what, as a matter of fact, Shel. in his twentieth year, when their correley actually held, or rather what was his spondence began, and Godwin's most general attitude as to certain important remarkable book was published wben questions. One result will probably be that Shelley was in the cradle. Young gentle, it matters very little what he held so far men of nineteen, even though they belong as his influence upon our own conclusions is to the immortals, consider a man of fiftyconcerned. For, to say nothing of Shel- six to be tottering upon the verge of the ley's incapacity to deal satisfactorily with grave. Books published before we could the great controversies of his own time, spell appear to have been composed before our point of view has so much shifted that the invention of letters. To Shelley, in we can consider his opinions almost as short, Godwin was to all intents and purcalmly as those of the Eleatics or the poses a venerable sage, and a fitting emPythagoreans. They are matters of his bodiment of hoary wisdom. A guide, tory which need affect nobody at the pres- philosopher, and friend - an oracle who ent day.

can sanction his aspirations and direct hiin The volume of essays by the late Mr. to the most promising paths — is almost a Bagehot, recently published, contains one necessity to every youthful enthusiast; the upon Shelley, which deals very clearly and more necessary in proportion as he has satisfactorily, as far as it goes, with this more emphatically broken with the estabpart of Shelley's work. Mr. Bagebot lished order. What J. S. Mill was to men showed with his usual acuteness how Shel- who were in their early youth some twenty ley's philosophy reflected the abnormal or thirty years ago, or Dr. Newman to peculiarities of his character. He speaks young men of different views at a slightly less, however, of certain extraneous influ- earlier period, that Godwin was to Shelley ences which must have materially affected in the years of his most impetuous specu

lation. A lad of genius reads old books and your dwelling. I had enrolled your with eager appetite and learns something name in the lists of the honorable dead. I from them; but to get the full influence of had felt regret that the glory of your being ideas he must feel that they come from a had passed from this earth of ours. It is living mouth, clothed in modern dialect, not so; you still live and, I firmly believe, and applied to the exciting topics of the are still planning the weļfare of human day. Perhaps neither Mill nor Dr. New- kind.". A letter written soon afterwards man said anything which might not be from Dublin is still more significant. It found implicitly contained in the writings begins with a kind of invocation as to a of their spiritual ancestors. Much of Mill saint. “Guide thou and direct me," exis already to be found in Locke, and Dr. claims the young gentleman; “in all the Newman is at times the interpreter of But- weakness of my inconsistencies bear with ler. But then Butler and Locke have been me; : : when you reprove me, reason dead for a long time ; and what the impa speaks; I acquiesce in her decisions." tient youth requires is the direct evidence He presently defends the impatience which that the ancient principles are still alive Godwin has blamed by an argument which and efficient. The old key has probably evidently struck even Godwin as having an become rusty, and is more or less obsolete absurd side. The “Political Justice," he in form. The youth cannot wait to oil and says, was first published nearly twenty repair it for himself. He wants the last years before (or almost at the dawn of hisnew invention spick and span, and ready to tory!), but yet what has resulted from the be applied at once to open the obstinate general diffusion of its doctrines ? “ Have lock. Shelley read Helvetius and Hol- men ceased to fight? Have woe and misbach, and Berkeley and Hume; but, though ery vanished from the earth ?” Far from they supplied bim with a tolerably modern it! Obviously something must be done version of some ancient theories, they and that at once. Do I not well to be imcould not tell him by anticipation what pre-patient, he says, when such reasonable cise form of argument would best crush expectations have been so cruelly disapPaley, or what specific policy would regen- pointed ? erate Ireland out of hand. For such pur- It must be a most delightful sensation poses a young man wants the very last new to have so ardent a disciple; but it must teacher, and the chances are that he will also be a trifle provoking when the ardor read even the old philosophers through the is of a kind to justify some misgiving as spectacles which such a teacher is kind to the sanity of the proselyte. Even the enough to provide.

vanity of a philosopher could hardly blind Thus, when looking about in this dark him to the fact that such extravagance world, given over as he thought to anti- tended to throw ridicule upon its object. quated prejudice embodied in cruel injus- Godwin, however, kept his countenance tice, poor Shelley greeted the writings of a little too easily perhaps — and gave very Godwin as the lost traveller greets a bea- sensible advice to his proselyte. He con-fire on a stormy night. They seemed pointed out in substance that it was not to contain a new gospel. When he discovo altogether amazing that vice and misery ered the author to be a real human being, had survived the publication of his wonnot one of the fixed stars that have been derful book, and still recommended paalready guiding us from the upper firma- tience and acceptance of the strange ment, he threw himself at the philosopher's stupidity of mankind.

We may suppose feet with the rapt fervor of a religious neo- that in later years Shelley's reverence lost phyte. In his first letters to Godwin, he a little of its warmth: he came to know pours out his heart : “ Considering these Godwin personally. Moreover, amongst feelings ” (the feelings, namely, of rever- his other tenets, the calm philosopher held ence and admiration which he has enter the comfortable doctrine that philosophers tained for the name of Godwin), “ you will might and ought to receive pecuniary not be surprised at the inconceivable emo- assistance from the rich without any loss tions with which I learned your existence of dignity. The practical application of

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this theory may perhaps have helped to Auence upon the poet. A full exposition convince Shelley that Godwin was not of Godwin's theories would display the altogether free from earthly stains, and in closeness of the mental affinity. That fact not so indifferent as he ought to have may be found elsewhere; but a brief indi. been to the possible advantages of a con- cation of his main tendencies will be sufnection with the heir to a baronetcy and a ficient for the present purpose. good estate.

Godwin appeared to many youthful For the present, however, Shelley sat contemporaries - as may be seen from the humbly at Godwin's feet. He declared brilliant sketch in Hazlitt's “Spirit of the that from the “Political Justice” he had Age” -as a very incarnation of philosolearnt "all that was valuable in knowledge phy. “No work in our time,” says Haz·and virtue.” He mixed with the queer litt, “ gave such a blow to the philosophical little clique of vegetarians and crotchet mind of the country as the celebrated mongers who shared his reverence for Enquiry concerning Political Justice.' Godwin and excited the bitter contempt of Tom Paine was considered for the time a Hogg It is, therefore, not surprising Tom Fool to him, Paley an old woman, that we find Shelley's doctrines to present Edmund Burke a flashy sophist. Truth, a curiously close coincidence with God- moral truth, it was supposed, had here win's. Partly, no doubt, it was simply a taken up its abode, and these were the coincidence. Shelley's temperament pre-oracles of thought.” Hazlitt is not given disposed him to accept conclusions which to measuring his words, and he was proba. were in the air of the time, and which bly wishing to please the decaying old genwere to be found more or less represented tleman. But doubtless there is some in many of his other authorities. But, at truth in the statement. Godwin was admiany rate, we may fairly assume not only rably fitted to be an apostle of reason, so that he, as he was eager to proclaim, far as a man can be fitted for that high learnt much from Godwin, but also that post by the negative qualifications of placid his whole course of thought was guided to temper and singular frigidity of disposia great degree by this living representative tion. He works out the most startling and of his favorite theories. He studied the subversive conclusions with all the calm“Political Justice," pondered its words of ness of a mathematician manipulating a wisdom, and examined its minutest details. set of algebraical symbols. He lays down One trifling indication may be mentioned. doctrines which shock not only the reli. Amongst Shelley's fragmentary essays is gious reverence, but the ordinary conone upon “ A System of Government by science of mankind, as quietly as if he Juries" “singular speculation, as were stating a proposition of Euclid. An

” Mr. Rossetti naturally remarks. Bút the entire absence of even a rudimentary sense explanation is simply that Godwin's theory, of humor is of course implied in this placid worked out in the Political Justice," sets enunciation of paradoxes without the forth government by these so-called juries slightest perception of their apparent enoras the ultimate or penultimate stage of mity. But then a sense of humor is just human society. Shelley, like a faithful the quality, which we do not desiderate in disciple, was writing an incipient commen- a revered philosopher. tary upon one of his teacher's texts. It admits of more doubt whether God. The fragmentary Essay on Christian-win possessed in any marked degree the ity," of about the same date (1815), is positive qualification of high reasoning virtually an attempt to show that the valua- power. What is called remorseless ble part of the Christian religion is its logic” – the ruthless sweeping aside of supposed anticipation of Godwin's charac- every consideration that conflicts with our teristic tenets. 'But the coincidence does deductions from certain assumptions - is not consist in any minute points of external as often a proof of weakness as of strength. resemblance. Godwin's political writings Nothing is so easy as to be perfectly symseem to have been pretty well forgotten, metrical and consistent, if you will calmly though some interest in him is maintained accept every paradox that flows from your by "Caleb Williams ” and by his rela- principles, and call it a plain conclusion tionship to Shelley. Hogg is evidently instead of a reductio ad absurdum. A anxious to sink as much as possible the man who is quite ready to say that black intellectual obligations of the disciple to is white whenever the whiteness of black so second-rate a teacher; and later writers is convenient for his argument, may easily upon Shelley are content to speak vaguely pass with some people for a great reasoner. of Godwin as a man who had some philo- Godwin, however, was beyond question a sophic reputation in his day, and some in- man of considerable power, though neither

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