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Fifth Series, Volume XXVI.

No. 1826. - June 14, 1879.

From Beginning,

Vol. OXLI.

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CONTENTS.
I. ORIGEN AND THE BEGINNINGS OF CHRIS
TIAN PHILOSOPHY,

Contemporary Review, .
II. SARAH DE BERENGER. By Jean Ingelow,
Part VI.,

Advance Sheets,
III. WILLIAM KINGDON CLIFFORD,

Fortnightly Review,
IV. THE ROMANCE OF MISTRESS FRANCES KEN.

DRICK OF Calcot HOUSE. By the author
of “ Patty." Conclusion,

Advance Sheets,
V. CONTEMPORARY LIFE AND THOUGHT IN
FRANCE,

Contemporary Review, .
VI. ON CHINESE FANS,

Fraser's Magazine, VII. ZULU ORTHOGRAPHY,

Natal Colonist,

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Single Numbers of THE LIVING AGR, 18 cents.

II.

THE CLOUD.

And were the spring indeed more perfect-drest THE cloud lay low in the heavens,

In warmer colors and gradated hues, Such a little cloud it seemed ;

What then were left for summer's sun and Just lightly touching the sea's broad breast,

glow? Where the rose-light lingered across the west, Of autumn's red, and breezy blue, what use? Soft and grey as in innocent rest, While the gold athwart it gleamed.

Each season hath its own peculiar show,

And each atones the failures of the rest. It looked such a harmless cloudlet, Seen over the sleeping wave. Yet the keen-eyed mariner shook his head, AND so in life : man's spirit, ever prone As slowly it crept o'er the dusky red.

To wander from the present, seeks elate “See the rocket-lines are clear,'' he said, On tiptoe for the still more perfect state, And his lips set. stern and grave.

And vantage point would make of royal throne. And or ever the eve was midnight,

In nothing is perfection : all doth own That cloud was lowering black.

The “little rift” that, widening, soon or late Dimming the light of the stars away,

Will make the beauty that we contemplate Dimming the flash of the furious spray, But dust and ashes. Thus new seeds are sown : As the breakers crashed in the northern bay; Winds howling on their track.

And these the seeds of Charity's fair spring,

And seeds of summer's warmth and golden So, in life's radiant morning,

glow, May a tiny care or cross

And autumn's fruited wealth of calm and Just trouble the peaceful course of love,

peace As if the strength of its sway to prove, As if to whisper, My surface may move, And those the seeds of winter's ivy show, But my roots can laugh at loss.

And icy winds' destructive chastening,

That each from each may draw most fond It may seem such a little jarring,

release. Only Experience sighs,

Belgravia.

ALEX. H. JAPP. For with time's sad learning to sharpen the

glance,
He sees the “rift in the lute" advance,
Knows how fate may seize upon circumstance
To sever the closest ties.

THE MAID AND THE LEAF.
Ah me, in the fiercest tempest

A JAPANESE IDEA.
The life-boat its work may do ;
But what can courage or skill avail,

A DEAD leaf drifted along the snow,
When the heart lies wrecked by passion's gale, A poor brown leaf with edges torn;
When change or death have furled the sail, Now here, now there, blown high and low,
When treason has bribed the crew ?

An outcast, and a thing of scorn.

Alas! Alas !
Then watch, oh hope and gladness,

So life drifts on to hearts forlorn.
Watch for the rising cloud.
Sun it away, frank warmth of youth,

Once in a bower, fresh and bright,
Blow it away, bright breeze of truth,

Kissed by the sun-rays and the dew, For oh, there is neither mercy or ruth,

A maid to flee the hot sun's might Should it once your heaven enshroud.

Prone on the ground her fair limbs threw,
All The Year Round.

To sleep, to sleep,
And dream of some one that she knew.

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SPRING'S GIFTS.

She slept and dreamt a horrid thing

That he she loved from her would stray;
And starting up, deep sorrowing,
Resolved to seek him out that day.

Alas! Alas!
'Twas all too true — he'd fled away.

SPRING hath her daily gifts most choice and

meet,
The smile of airy welcome on her face ;

She plants her flowers in unexpected place,
And sheds her promise richly at our feet.
But, ah! her airy smile is all too fleet,

And much she leaves unwritten of her grace,

For these bald patches in the interspace Are alien to her wooing touches sweet.

Her last love token — just a leaf

Of sycamore - love's emblem bright,
She threw away, then prayed that grief
Might bear her off from mortal sight.

Alas! Alas!
Whilst the dead leaf drifted through the
night.

Al The Year Round.

men, the

From The Contemporary Review. The object of this and a following paper ORIGEN AND THE BEGINNINGS OF CHRIS- is to indicate some features in the second TIAN PHILOSOPHY.*

of these victories, the victory of thought. I.

And, before going further, we would ask The progress of Christianity can best be the reader to observe that this victory of represented as a series of victories. But thought is the second, and not the first, in when we speak of victories we imply re

order of accomplishment. The succession sistance, suffering, loss: the triumph of a involves a principle. The Christian vicgreat cause, but the triumph through effort

tory of common life was wrought out in and sacrifice. Such in fact, has been the silence and patience and nameless agonies. history of the faith : a sad and yet a It was the victory of the soldiers and not glorious succession of battles, often hardly of the captains of Christ's army. But in fought, and sometimes indecisive, between due time another conflict had to be susthe new life and the old life. We know tained, not by the masses, but by great that the struggle can never be ended in

consequence and the completion this visible order ; but we know also that of that which had gone before. more of the total powers of humanity, and

It is with the society as with the individmore of the fulness of the individual man ual. The discipline of action precedes the are brought from age to age within the effort of reason. The work of the many domain of the truth. Each age has to prepares the medium for the subtler operasustain its own part in the conflict, and tions of the few. So it came to pass that the retrospect of earlier successes gives to the period during which this second conthose who have to face new antagonists Aict of the faith was waged was, roughly and to occupy new positions, patience and speaking, from the middle of the second the certainty of hope.

to the middle of the third century. In this respect the history of the first

This period, from the accession of Mar. three centuries - the first complete period, cus Aurelius (A.D. 161) to the accession of and that a period of spontaneous evolution Valerian (A.D. 253) was for the Gentile in the Christian body – is an epitome or a world a period of unrest and exhaustion, figure of the whole work of the faith. It of ferment and of indecision. The time of is the history of a threefold contest be

great hopes and creative minds was gone. tween Christianity and the powers of the The most conspicuous men were, with few Old World, closed by a threefold victory. exceptions, busied with the past. There The Church and the Empire started from is not among them a single writer who can the same point and advanced side by side. be called a poet. They were lawyers, or They met in the market and the house; antiquarians, or commentators, or gramthey met in the discussions of the schools; marians, or rhetoricians. One indeed, the they met in the institutions of political greatest of all, Galen, would be ranked, government; and in each place the Church perhaps, in modern times, as a “positivist.” was triumphant. In this way Christianity Latin literature had almost ceased to exist: asserted, once for all, its sovereign power even the meditations of an emperor were among men by the victory of common life, in Greek. The fact is full of meaning. by the victory of thought, by the victory of Greek was the language not of a people, civil organization. These first victories but of the world. Local beliefs had lost contain the promise of all that later ages their power. Even old Rome ceased to exhave to reap.

ercise an unquestioned moral supremacy:

Men strove to be cosmopolitan. They * A Letter of Resolution concerning Origen and the chief of his Opinion . . By G. Rust, strove vaguely after a unity in which the afterwards Bishop of Dromore.

scattered elements of ancient experience Huet, P.D. (Bishop of Avranches + 1721): Origes should be harmonized. The effect can be niana, 1668.

Schnitzer, K.F.: Origenes ueber die Grundlehren seen both in the policy of statesmen and der Glaubenswissenschaft, 1835.

in the speculations of philosophers, in Thomasius, G.: Origenes, 1837. RedePENNING, E. R.: Origenes, 1841.

Marcus Aurelius, or Alexander Severus, HUBER, J.: Philosophie d. Kirchenväter, 1859. or Decius, no less than in Plotinus or

... 1661.

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Porphyry. As a necessary consequence, confident in their resources, and trusting the teaching of the Bible accessible in to the future. Greek began to attract serious attention We have a picture of the people from among the heathen. The assailants of an imperial pen. The emperor Hadrian, Christianity, even if they affected conempt, who himself entered the lists with the showed that they were deeply moved by professors at the Museum,* has left in a its doctrines. The memorable saying of private letter a vivid account of the imNumenius, “What is Plato but Moses pression which they produced upon him as speaking in the language of Athens ?” he saw them from the outside. “ There shows at once the feeling after spiritual is ”[at Alexandria], he writes, “no ruler sympathy which began to be entertained, of the synagogue among the Jews, no and the want of spiritual insight in the rep. Samaritan, no Christian, who is not also resentatives of Gentile thought. Though an astrologer, a soothsayer, a trainer. ... there is no evidence that Numenius studied The inhabitants are most seditious, incon. or taught at Alexandria, his words express stant, insolent: the city is wealthy and the form of feeling which prevailed there. productive, seeing that no one lives there Nowhere else were the characteristic ten-in idleness. Some make glass, others dencies of the age more marked than in make paper. The lame have their octhat marvellous city. Alexandria had been cupation; the blind follow a craft; even from its foundation a meeting-place of the the crippled lead a busy life. Money is East and West - of old and new — - the their god. Christians, Jews, and Gentiles home of learning, of criticism, of syncret- combine unanimously in the worship of ism. It presented a unique example in this deity. . . . the Old World of that mixture of races One element in this confusion, indicated which forms one of the most important by Hadrian, is too remarkable to be passed features of modern society. Indians, Jews, over without remark. The practice of Greeks, Romans, met there on common magic, which gained an evil prominence in ground. Their characteristic ideas were the later Alexandrine schools, was already discussed, exchanged, combined. The ex- coming into vogue. Celsus compared the tremes of luxury and asceticism existed miracles of the Lord with “the feats of side by side. Over all the excitement and those who have been taught by Egypturmoil of the recent city rested the solemn tiaps.” I Such a passion, even in its shadow of Egypt. The thoughtful Alex. grosser forms, is never without some moral, andrine inherited, in the history of count- we may perhaps say, some spiritual, imporless ages, sympathy with a vast life. For tance. Its spread at this crisis can hardly him, as for the priest who is said to have be misinterpreted. There was a longing rebuked the pride of Solon, the annals of among men for some sensible revelation other nations were but episodes in a greater of the unseen; and a conviction that such drama in which he played his part with a a revelation was possible. Even Origen full consciousness of its grandeur. The appears to admit the statement that demons pyramids and the tombs repeated to him were vanquished by the use of certain the reproof of isolated assumption often names which lost their virtue if translated, $ quoted from Plato by Christian apolo- and he mentions one interesting symptom gists : *“You Greeks are always children; of the general excitement which belongs you have no doctrine hoary with age.” to the better side of the feeling. Many," While it was so with the thoughtful Alex. he says,

“ embraced Christianity, as it andrines, others found in restless scepti. were, against their . will. Some spirit cism or fitful superstition or fanatical turned their mind (To nyepovekóv) suddenly passion, frequent occasions for violence. from hating the Word to being ready to All alike are eager for movement, sympa- die for it, and showed them visions either thizing with change, easily impressed and bold in giving utterance to their feelings,

* Spartianus, Hadr. p. 10.

Vopiscus, Saturn. c. 8.

# Orig., c. Cels. i. 68. Comp. Potter, CLEM. ALEX. Strom. i. 15, p. 356.

§ Ibid., v. 45.

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waking or sleeping." * One who is reck- | How did rational creatures come into oned among the martyrs whom Origen being? How, that is, can we reconcile the himself trained furnishes an example.t co-existence of the absolute and the Basilides, a young soldier, shielded a finite? And again : How did rational creatChristian maiden from insult on her way to ures fall ? bow, that is, can we conceive of death. She promised to recompense him. the origin of evil? Or, indeed, are not A few days after he confessed himself a both these questions in the end one ? and Christian. He said that Potamiana, such is not limitation itself evil? To some per. was the maiden's name, had appeared to haps such questions may appear to be him three days after her martyrdom, and wholly foreign to true human work, but placed a crown upon his head, and as they were the questions which were uppersured him that he, in answer to her most in men's minds at the time of which prayers, would shortly share her victory. we speak; and for the sake of clearness it So then it was that argumentative scepti- will be well to distinguish at once the three cism and stern dogmatism, spiritualism, as different types of answers which are ren. it would be called at the present day, and dered to them, two partial and tentative, materialistic pantheism, each in its meas- answering respectively to the East and ure a symptom of instability and spiritual West, the gnostic and neo-Platonic: the unrest, existed side by side at Alexandria third provisionally complete for man, the in the second century, just as may be the Christian. The differences will be most case in one of our cities now, where the clearly seen if we refer the other answers many streams of life converge. But in all to the Christian as a standard of comparithis variety there was a point of agreement, son. As against the goostic, then, the as there is, I believe, among ourselves. Christian maintained that the universe was Speculation was being turned more and created, not by any subordinate or rival more in a theological direction. Philoso power, but by an act of love of the one phers were learning to concentrate their Infinite God, and that evil is not inherent thoughts on stions which lie at the ba- in matter but due to the will of free creatsis of religion. In very different schools ures. As against the neo-Platonist, he they were listening for the voice, as Plato maintained the separate, personal existsaid, “ of some divine Word.”

ence of God as one to be approached and It is easy to see what was the natural worshipped, who thinks and loves; the office of Christianity in such a society. reality of a redemption consequent on the Alexandria offered an epitome of that Old incarnation; the historical progress of World which the faith had to quicken in all the sum of life to an appointed end. As its parts. The work had been already against both he maintained that God is recognized. Early in the second century immanent in the world, and separate manifold attempts were made there to though not alien from it: that the world shape a Christian solution of the enigmas was originally and essentially good : that of life which thought and experience had it has been and is disturbed by unseen brought into a definite form. The result forces: that man is the crown and end of was seen in the various systems of gnosti- creation. cism, which present in a strange and repel. And yet further : gnostic and Platonist lent dialect many anticipations of the despaired of the world and of the mass of transcendentalism of the last generation. men. Both placed safety in flight: they

. Such speculations were premature and knew of no salvation for the multitude. ended in failure; but they rendered an im- The Christian, on the other hand, spoke, portant service to Christian philosophy. argued, lived, with the spirit of a conThey fixed attention upon those final prob- queror who possessed the power of translems of life, of which a religion which figuring to nobler service what he was claims to be universal must take account. charged to subdue. Others sought for an

abstraction which was beyond and above c. Cels. i. 46.

all comprehension and all worship, an ab+ Euseb. H, E. vi. 5.

straction which ever escaped from them;

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