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walking, and even when seated, they look wherever the queen is, the services of the deshonestas" a word which may as well Church are fully observed, for she is saintly be left in the original. “They are not and Godfearing. As for ourselves, we can good-looking, and are not graceful when get no justice. His Majesty has enjoined dancing; their dancing consists of con- us to dispute with no man, but rather wbile strained gestures and a shuffling gait. we are here to feign compliance and to subThere is not a single Spanish gentleman mit in silence to all the ills we may have to who would give a farthing for any of them, encounter. The result is that they bo and they care equally little for the Span- treat us badly and despise us." iards."
At this point he digresses to the capture Time seems to have effected some im- of Rentz by the French, the news of which provement in this respect, as Jane Dormer, disaster caused a great commotion in Philone of Mary's ladies, married Fería, one | ip's suite, many of whom, both Spaniards of Philip's companions, who as Duque de and Flemings, obtained his permission to Fería was afterwards ambassador to En- join the emperor with all haste. gland.
would be well that they should not return All the fiestas in this country, con- here considering how they have been tinues the writer, consist in eating and treated.” Coming back to English affairs, drinking, " for they understand no other he is of opinion that the sovereign does mode of enjoying themselves.” “ The not rule, all real power being assumed by queen's table costs annually more than the Council
, “some of whom have made three hundred thousand ducats.” All the their fortunes and secured their position by household and very many official persons means of the revenues which they have lived in the palace, each señor having his taken from the churches. . . . Others were own cook in the queen's kitchen. “ There born to high position; these are feared and are eighteen kitchens, and so great is the worshipped even more than the sovereign." amount of work going on in each that it is “ “They i.e. the Council have anin truth like an Infierno." The royal pal- nounced publicly that his Highness must aces are very large, and of the four which not leave the kingdom without their per. the writer had seen, the least was larger mission and that of the queen, for that this than the palace at Madrid. This compar- kingdom by itself is a sufficient charge ison does not, of course, apply to the pres- for any one king. . . . Considering what ent magnificent building, but to the ancient these English are, I am not surprised at Moorish Alcázar which formerly occupied this, because they have discovered the the same site. “From eighty to one hun straits to which we are put in Flanders, dred sheep and about a dozen oxen, all rejoicing at them, and even wishing that very large and fat, are daily consumed in they were worse. They are in truth the palace. Also about eighteen calves, more for France than for Spain." besides poultry, game, venison, and wild Reverting to a former grievance, he boar, and a vast quantity of rabbits.” complains that no lodging is provided for (Compare i Kings iv. 23.) “Beer is so the Spaniards, and that, living in the inns, abundant that the summer flow of the river they are charged exorbitantly. “ As for of Valladolid is not greater than the quan- the friars whom his Highness brought with lity used daily.". He complains that, large him, they had better not have come, for as as the palace (Richmond) is, the Duke and the English are malignant and ungodly, Duchess of Alva were not provided with they so maltreat them that they dare not apartments, and so churlish were the peo- venture forth from their lodging.” The ple that with difficulty they found a house mob endeavored to tear off the robes of at all, and that none of the best, in a neigh- Don Pedro de Córdova and of Don Anboring village. “Not only are they de- tonio, his nephew, both commanders of a prived of their official functions, but they military order, asking them why they wore are badly lodged besides." “ The En- crosses, and scoffing at them. glish," he continues, "hate us as they do “ Doña Hierónima de Navarra and Doña ihe devil, and in that spirit they treat us. Francisca de Córdova, who came here, They cheat us in the town, and any one have yet seen the queen, and indeed venturing to walk in the country is robbed. will not see her. They have not been to
: . Although the Council is quite aware court, as they would have no one to speak of all this, it is tolerated. . . : In short, to, the ladies here being very unsociable." justice neither exists nor is administered, The Duchess of Alva, he believes, will not and there is no fear of God in the land.” be persuaded to go a second time. He “ They celebrate mass but seldom ; few thinks the queen is soon going to move to and unwilling are the hearers, although, I another palace, called Anton Curti (Hamp
ton Court), which is one of the largest and with so many brute beasts; we neither most beautiful of the royal residences. understand them, nor they us, they are The palaces are all decorated with abun. such barbarians." dance of tapestry, the spoils of churches He alludes to the queen's expectation and monasteries. The crown, he says, of an heir, and says that the matter is has appropriated Church property to an much spoken of in the palace. These amount double that of its own proper rev. rumors did not, however, become serious
A year later, however, the queen, until late in the following spring, when a as is well known, attempted to surrender Te Deum was actually sung in Norwich first-fruits and tenths to the pope. The Cathedral for the birth of a son, and public legislature, deeply implicated in the plun- rejoicings in London, and salutes from the der of Church property, rejected the bill, shipping at Antwerp, welcomed the prince and restitution was limited io the transfer who, after all, was not to be. of the crown impropriations to the hands Well might Philip be made to say, of Cardinal Pole. "The letter concludes with the following passage : “ The authors Than any sea could make me passing hence,
I am sicker staying here of Amadis de Gaul’and of other similar Tho' I be ever deadly sick at sea, books of chivalry depicting flowery meads So sick am I with biding for this child. and enchanted castles, ought to have seen Is it the fashion in this clime for women the strange habits and customs of this To go twelve months in bearing of a child? country. Who in any other place ever The nurses yawned, the cradle gaped, they led saw women riding unattended, and manag. Processions, chanted litanies, clashed their ing their horses with all the ease of a skil.
balls, ful man? The houses built for pleasure, Shot off their lying cannon, and her priests the hills, woods, and forests, the delightful Have preached, the fools of this fair prince to meadows, the fair and strong castles, the Till by St. James I find myself the fool.* refreshing springs so abundant in this. country, are all very pleasant here in the The writer again complains of the
The letter ends with thieves, who are, however, severely pun. the date of August 16, 1554.
ished when caught. Indeed, he says that The third letter of the series, which is one day an Englishman was hanged for short and unimportant, is by the same stealing fourteen-pence; he makes a calhand as the preceding one, and is written culation, and finds that the amount is only from London, October 2, 1554. It begins eighty-four maravedís. Yet all this seby announcing that the country had proved verity was of no avail
. The next grievance unhealthy to the Spaniards, and that some is that everything, more especially proof the servants had died. Thanks to God, visions, is so dear; the Spanish gentlemen however,“ ninguno". — no one — had been find that they have to disburse by the in danger. This strange expression seems hundred where they had hoped to make to mean that none of the more important ten suffice. With a promise to keep his personages had suffered.
The country correspondent informed of what may hapitself, he says, is good enough, but the pen, this short letter ends. natives, “considering that they call them- The fourth letter, which is entitled selves Christians, are about the vilest upon “ News from England,” is addressed to earth." There are daily cases of stabbing, the Condesa de Olivares, and professes to and in the previous week three Englishmen give an account of the restoration of En. and one Spaniard were hung for crimes of gland to the Catholic faith and to obedience violence.
to the pope. It commences in the form of The queen's household is large, and historical narrative, and relates how, as comprises many of the principal person soon as Mary had succeeded to the throne, ages of the realm. There are many ladies the pope despatched Cardinal Pole as legate belonging to the court, all positively ugly: to England. On reaching the emperor's “ I cannot understand why this should be,” court, and on hearing there of the turbulent he says (surely not very difficult to guess), disposition of the English, and of their " for outside the palace I have se
unwillingness to render obedience to the good looks and pretty faces.”
pope, he gave out that he had come to “ All the women wear their dresses very | Flanders in order to await a peace between short, and most of them wear black stock. the emperor and the king of France, aban. ings, neat and well-fitting. They wear doning for a time his journey to England. their shoes slashed, as do the men. ... Upon this it was proposed in the Consistory We Spaniards are about as much at our ease with these English as we should be * Tennyson, “Queen Mary," act iii., scene 4.
to revoke his powers, as it seemed impos- | pages of Mr. Froude, that it seems a waste sible to restore England to obedience. of time to follow any farther the meagre Philip, however, induced the pope to sup- narrative of the Spanish writer. port Pole, and shortly after the Council He becomes more worthy of attention was persuaded to invite him over to En- when, in concluding his letter, he de. gland. The Parliament which assembled scribes a "juego de cañas," or tilting with in November asked permission of the reeds, which the Spaniards had prepared sovereigns to discuss the question of his for the entertainment of the court. "The reception, "for in this Córtes nothing can performers, thirty of a side, were marbe discussed without permission of the shalled in troops of ten, each troop in a crown." This is the writer's version of gorgeous and distinctive costume, and what occurred, not entirely to be depended under the command of some grandee. upon as regards strict historical accuracy. Philip himself took_a part, joining the
Two Englishmen of distinction, whom company of Don Diego de Córdova. the writer calls Mirol Pajete and Mirol After much ceremonious parading before Atingush Lord Paget and Sir Edward the spectators, first by twos and then in a Hastings — had already been dispatched body, they went through the mock comto escort the cardinal, who arrived on the bat, fortunately, says the writer, without 24th November, disembarking at the river fall or any other disaster. The novelty of stairs of the palace of Whitehall. Philip, the performance rendered it especially who was at dinner, rose from table at once, gratifying to the spectators. In this letter, and hastened to welcome him, Mary re- which concludes the work, there is little maining in the palace, and waiting to worthy of note, and nearly all that it treats receive him on the principal staircase. of can be better read elsewhere. It is As he approached she made a solemn wanting in the curious gossip of its predereverence to the crucifix which he bore. cessors, and its comparative dulness is After a brief interview he departed for not atoned for by historical accuracy or Lambeth, which had been assigned to him merit. as his lodging, its rightful occupant, Cran. Señor de Gayangos, in his prefatory mer, who is described as “casado y gran notes, remarks that Muñoz and the other hereje," — married, and a great heretic, writers observe a discreet silence as to the being then a prisoner. The next two or private life and character of Philip; their three days were spent in the frequent in writings being of a semi-official nature, and terchange of visits between Pole and the some of them destined for the press, they sovereigns, preliminary to negotiations would hardly venture to criticise or disparwith the Parliament. On the 29th Novem- age so exalted a personage. Of their exber the debate was commenced in the ceeding candor, when they did dare to House of Lords by the ecclesiastics, who speak freely, we have a specimen in the were grievously taunted by the lay peers description of Mary, and in their comments for having consented to the divorce of upon the English ladies. We learn, he Katherine of Aragon. After a while, how- says, from correspondence of a more priever, they came to an agreement, revoking vate nature (references not confided to the all the statutes of Henry VIII. and his reader) that the conduct of Philip while in son, which had encouraged disobedience England was by no means exemplary, but, to the pope and belief in the “ maldita y on the contrary, " dissolute and licentious detestable" heresy of Luther. The next in the extreme.” He then alludes to the day, the festival of St. Andrew - which scandal as to his relations with Isabel de was ordered to be observed henceforth as Osorio. This latter affair appears promithe Feast of the Reconciliation, in memory nently in an important historical document, of what occurred - a formal petition was the Vindication of William of Orange, presented by the Parliament to their Maj. addressed, in 1580, to the Confederated esties, praying them, through the media- States of Holland, and afterwards circution of the cardinal, to procure absolution lated among the courts of Europe. Afand pardon from the pope. This docu- ter condemning the despotic temper of ment enjoys the honor of having been Philip, his tyranny in the Low Countries, done into verse by the laureate (“Queen and the cruelties sanctioned by him in Mary," act iii. sc. 3). Seldom, surely has Granada, Mexico, and Peru, he turns such unpromising material undergone a to his family affairs and accuses bim similar process. The original is given in of the murder of his third wife, Elizabeth many historical works, and so graphic and de Valois — the beautiful Isabel de la picturesque an account of the arrival and Paz of the Spaniards. He declares, also, reception of Pole is to be found in the that at the time of Philip's first marriage
with the princess of Portugal, he was actu. fool; and, worst of all, is his lot when a ally married to Isabel de Osorio, by whom knowledge of this last fact is shared by he had two sons, Pedro and Bernardino. the world in general. The depression If this latter accusation be grounded on consequent on self-reproach is almost a no better evidence than the former, he greater evil than the loss itself, and many must so far be held innocent, for in spite of sufferers condemn themselves to a sort of the assertions of the Prince of Orange, social outlawry without waiting for the vermodern historians have satisfied them- dict of the world. One very unpleasant selves that Elizabeth died a natural death, consequence of a partial reverse of fortune if indeed in that age any death could be is the necessary reduction of expenditure termed natural where the patient was before domestics and dependents. There abandoned to the care of Spanish physi. is a certain sulky satisfaction in making cians.
ostensible sacrifices in the eyes of friends Here we take leave of the book and its and acquaintances; but the act of giving hero. The short episode in Philip's life, up horses, carriages, and other luxuries when for a while he sacrificed himself to conveys no idea of heroism to the minds Mary Tudor and to political expediency, is of servants. Perhaps the most painful soon about to close, and that England, accompaniment of an unfavorable balancewhich never loved him too well, will know sheet consists in the duty of reducing the him no more except as her bitterest foe, comforts, advantages, and pleasures of A long life chequered with light and wives and children; but on so distressing shadow, with great victories and as great a subject we will not linger. It must be calamities, is before him. St. Quentin, understood that we are in no case referring Gravelines, and Lepanto are in the future, to absolute ruin, but rather to inconvenient to be more than balanced by the loss of deficiencies in ways and means. There the Netherlands and the destruction of have been plenty of causes for such defithe Invincible Armada, the crowning dis. ciencies during the last few years. A peaster bringing desolation to well-nigh every riod of unnatural financial 'inflation has family of Spain. Yet farther in the more been suddenly followed by a severe fall in distant future stands the grim shadow of the prices of coal and iron, a ruinous dethe Escorial, and the narrow death-bed preciation in the value of foreign loans, cell hard by the high altar of the central and a general stagnation of trade. But, sanctuary. Here, fixing his eyes upon the be the times good or bad, individual cases cross, which through life he had thought of serious loss are constantly occurring. to reverence by a career of bloodshed and Either the debts of an extravagant son deceit, he passed away, hated and feared of have to be paid, or a lawsuit runs away
with a few hundreds or thousands, or And now, in the dimly lighted vaults some sudden damage is done by fire or of the Pantheon beneath, surrounded by water, or a freak of quixotic liberality the ashes of his kindred, a marble tomb, costs more than had been expected. the show of every passing traveller, holds There have often been disputes on the all that remains of Philip, king of Spain. question whether one or another branch
DUCIE. of expenditure is usually the first to be
curtailed in cases of loss of income, and whether this or that article of luxury is most readily sacrificed. It has been
argued that the stables are usually the From The Saturday Review.
earliest scene of reduction, while other HARD UP.
disputants have maintained that autumn The evil of a shortened income has a tours, Scotch shootings, or yachts are the double sting when it is the result of any first luxuries to be given up. Pictures, fault or the part of the sufferer; and it china, books, and wine have each been makes all the difference whether he is pre named as the special hobby most willingly sented before the eyes of the world as a renounced. We venture to think that the fool or a martyr. After a loss of money authorities in such matters have failed to the loser's private meditations are apt to notice the expenditure which, in by far the run in a very disagreeable channel. If he majority of instances, is really the first 10 had or had not acted in such a manner, he be reduced. Unless we are greatly misreflects, this trouble might have been taken, ninety-nine people out of a hundred avoided; still more unpleasant are his who have lost money cut down their charcontemplations when he knows that all ities before they make any other sacrifice. would liave been well if he had not been a Next in order come those expenses which
are calculated to please and entertain other lic. The happy man who has married a people rather than the spender; and third charming and beautiful woman, with enly, those personal luxuries which the iin- larged ideas as to “how things ought to be poverished person happens least to care done,” has sometimes occasion to hail with about, be they china, horses, books, or satisfaction such a catastrophe, for inanything else. It is sometimes curious to stance, as a fall in the value of foreign see how readily a man of artistic reputa- government securities. He has the merest tion and æsthetic taste will part with his trifle invested in stocks of this description, collection of works of art, in which his and their depreciation causes him no perwhole soul has been generally supposed by ceptible inconvenience, but he is able to his friends to have been completely ab- say with truth that he has lost money in sorbed. The most refined will usually let foreign bonds. He makes this an excuse their old masters, their rare editions, and for various economical proceedings, and their Sèvres and Chelsea china be scat. thus a panic in foreign stocks becomes a tered to the four corners of the earth, source of actual wealth to him. It may rather than endure deteriorated dinners or happen, too, that an affectation of loss not drink inferior wine.
only enables a person to save money, but In its epidemic form, to be hard up is also to obtain a certain kudos. There is sometimes a sort of fashion. We have really no end to the uses of adversity, real lived to see times when it has been consid- or imaginary, if the thing is judiciously ered what is termed "good form” to be a managed. A false reputation of having liule impecunious. Whenever there is a lost money makes a man to a certain exsudden collapse of incomes in the fashion- tent richer. Less will be expected of him able world, the opportunity is seized by in the way of entertainment and display, many people, who have in reality been and the parson will let him off more hard
for years, to admit their neediness. cheaply in the matter of parochial subscripThey thus get off the more easily, as they tions. He will have a golden opportunity are not singular in their adversity. If of selling a house or a horse that he does they have to reduce their display and lower not like, of getting rid of an overbearing their standard of entertainments, so have upper servant, or even of breaking up bis their neighbors. Again, some people who establishment altogether and enjoying an cannot be said to be really hard up are glad agreeable tour abroad. Indeed, one of the of an excuse for curtailing their expendi- recognized forms of mendicancy in these ture. At such times we suspect that many latter days appears to be to spend the winmen deceive their wives as well as the pub- ter in the Mediterranean in a steam yacht.
Air-FLUSHING. — By air-flushing is meant | quickened if the door be opened, and the stair. that process in ventilation whereby the atmos- case window as well, whereupon a direct sweep phere of a room is suddenly changed, and of air will take place. It is astonishing how replaced by a volume of air direct from with pleasant the atmosphere of a room can be
In houses this is brought about chiefly made by this simple proceeding, when, after a by the action of the windows, which are sud- long sitting with an extra number of inmates, denly opened to admit of a deluge of the purer the ordinary ventilating media of the apartelement. The advantages which follow this ment have been overtaxed, and nothing can action of extraordinary ventilation are at all more readily restore a student who has been times most grateful, and it can be effected by burning the midnight oil or, still worse, gas, the use of the ordinary sash window in the fol- in a close room, the ventilating arrangements lowing manner. The window of a room has of which are imperfect, than a resort once or the top sash lowered and the bottom sash twice during the evening to this simple cure. raised until the top and bottom rails of both When the apartment has several windows, the the upper and lower sashes meet in the middle process of air-flushing, is very quickly per: of the window, leaving a quarter space of the formed, as one window is certain to act as an window open at the top, and the same at the outlet; and when the room is pierced with bottom of the window aperture. As a rule, window openings made opposite each other a after this has been done, the cold air will rush very few moments will suffice to make the in at the bottom opening, and find an exit at requisite change in the atmosphere. the top one. The clearing of the room is