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preparations had been made to welcome | This saint having nothing left but a gold him, triumphal arches, royal arms, warlike cup, bestowed it upon a poor man who effigies, and especially five nymphs, one of sought alms of him.” At last the day of whom bore the following legend:
departure came, the troops, the retinue, Ni basta fuerza ni maña
and the baggage were all on board, the Contra el príncipe de España.
weather was fine, and the wind fair, and on
the 12th July, 1554, Philip left the shore Neither force nor guile can prevail against in a state barge, and embarked in the ship the prince of Spain.
of Martin de Bretendona. The grandees Hercules, who is described as king of who had escorted him on board then took Spain, 1668 B.C., was also depicted, as in- leave, and sought their respective vessels, deed were many other wonderful things. all of which had been fitted out and decoPhilip, having now reached the feet which rated with especial magnificence; indeed, was to escort him to England, was received we are informed by Muñoz, “that even the with much naval display. Immediately sails were of an ornamental description, after his arrival the ship which had borne being painted with scenes from the life of the Marques de las Navas to England Julius Cæsar, and other Roman empercame in with the tidings of the landing of ors.” Had it become necessary to take in the envoy, and of the preparations for the a couple of reefs, the effect of these marriage at Winchester, which town Mu- works of art would have been remarkable. ñoz believed to be a seaport.
The fleet did not weigh until three P.M. on One hundred and fifty ships were now the following day, Friday, July 13, when awaiting the prince's orders; everything each ship firing iwo guns, they put to sea. was prepared, and a vast quantity of The style of Muñoz now rises to enthusimoney, which was to make things pleasant asm as he describes the salutes and the in England, had been shipped. Already, music, and how the southerly wind and the according to Strype, “ good store of Span- swelling sails soon bore them out of sight ish gold had come over, and as the value amidst the acclamations of the multitudes of the Portugal pieces was doubtful, a on shore. When they got out to sea, he proclamation was issued, May 4 (1554), to says, "the fleet sailing in close order, with fix it."
the bands playing, seemed like one of the That the supply was kept up we learn fairest and strongest cities in the world.” from Burnet, who says that in October, Don Fernando Enriquez, the hereditary 1554, twenty cart-loads of bullion, and Admiral of Castille, held the nominal comninety-nine horse and two cart loads of mand of the main body of the feet; in all, coin were sent." This treasure arrived however, that related to the sea, the real after the marriage, as Philip had "empow- command was intrusted to Don Alvaro de ered his ambassadors and Gardiner to Bazan, father of that Marques de Santa promise great sums to such as should pro- Cruz who, thirty-four years later, coinmote his marriage.” He was far too wary manded the Invincible Armada, dying, to adventure so great an amount of gold however, before it quitted the ports of among the English people until their part Spain. of the bargain was completed. This pro- Muñoz tells us “that in four days and fusion contrasts strongly with the want of fourteen hours the feet anchored in the money which constantly embarrassed the port of Antona” (Southampton). As they emperor Charles V., causing disaffcction left Coruña at three P.M. on Friday, July and mutiny amongst his troops at the cri- 13, and anchored early in the afternoon of sis of many great enterprises. Two years Thursday, July 19, our author is a little at later also, owing either to Philip's poverty fault in his calculation. The actual time or neglect, the emperor, when waiting at was six days, and the distance made good Jarandilla on his way to Yuste, was un- about five hundred and twenty miles. able to discharge some of his servants for Taking into consideration the calms they want of the first moiety of the pension for fell in with in the Channel, the nature of which he had stipulated on his abdica. the ships of the period, and the necessity tion.
of sailing in squadron – itself a cause of The last acts of Philip before embarking delay -- for, as says that excellent seaman, were marked by lavish bounty, “ thus imi- Sir Richard Hawkins, in his “Observa. tating,” says Muñoz, " that most excellent tions,” “commonly one ship though a bad and powerful grandee, Alexander of Mace- sayler maketh more baste than a whole don, of whose royal liberality such wonder- fleet considering all this, the average ful stories are told ... and that glorious work of about ninety miles a day may be and illustrious doctor San Gregorio. . . looked upon as sufficiently creditable, even
when compared with the performance of the green lawns and flowing streams in all modern sailing vessels. According to the glory of a midsummer night, suggestHolinshed, Lord William Howard, the ing to the Spaniards the scenes described English admiral, met the Spanish fleet in the books of chivalry, they reached a outside the Needles on Thursday, July 19. small door which led to the apartments Muñoz, however, says that on entering where Mary, attended by Gardiner and Southampton water the prince was saluted some elderly magnates and ladies, awaited by thirty ships, English and Flemish, her hitherto unseen bridegroom. As he which there awaited his arrival. He slept entered, she hurried forward to meet him, on board that night, landing the next day seizing him by the hand; he, however, in the barge of the English admiral. As putting all ceremony aside, kissed her, as, he stepped on shore English court offi- says Muñoz, is the custom here. They cials delivered to him the insignia of the then conversed — he in Spanish, she in garter, placing a gold chain upon his neck, French and we are told seemed to un. and the garter round his knee. A palace derstand one another perfectly. Lord had been prepared for him in Southamp- William Howard, the admiral, who is deton, which is described as a town of three scribed as a man who would bare bis hundred houses.
joke, said among his other pleasantries, On the afternoon of the following Mon-" that well as they understood each other day, the fourth day after his landing, he now, they would be far more intimate in set out in heavy rain for Winchester, ac- four or five days." companied by a numerous retinue. Ar- After a while, Philip, who had had a riving within a mile of that town, he long, wet ride and a fatiguing day, manialighted at the Abbey of St. Cross, in order fested a wish to retire to his lodging (the to dress himself for his public entry queen from some feeling of prudery not Sallying forth again clad in a cloak of having allowed him rooms in the palace). black velvet, and in breeches and doublet Permission being granted after some little of white velvet, he was received with much demur, he asked how he was ceremony at Winchester, the keys of " buenas noches" to the ladies of the which town were offered to him. He pro- court: this salutation, according to Muñoz ceeded at once to the cathedral, where, is correctly rendered into English by the “advancing into the interior of the cathe- words “God ni hit,” which were then and dral, accompanied by the principal person- there taught him by the queen. Forgetages of the realm, by the grandees of Casting his lesson before he reached the tille, and by many English knights and ladies, he was obliged to turn back when gentlemen, he went in procession to the already in the middle of the hall to relearn high altar, where a curtained seat with a it
. This amused her Majesty very much, canopy of brocade, was prepared for him. and so ended the evening of the first The service was chanted with as great interview. solemnity as in the cathedral of Toledo.” The next day, after dinner, Philip again
According to Holinshed, Mary had trav- visited the queen, who received him in an elled from Bishop's Waltham to Winches apartment called the room of “ Poncia," ter on the preceding Saturday, July 21. probably thus named after an early Bishop Her ladies travelled from Windsor in a of Winchester, John de Pontoise, who wagon painted red, and covered with fine died A.D. 1304. Considering the treatred cloth, the harness all of red leather. ment which English names meet with at This vehicle, as Miss Strickland, quoting the hands of the author, the resemblance the order for its construction, says, must in this case seems sufficiently close. This have surpassed the splendor of a modern second visit being of a more ceremonious wild-beast show. At' ten o'clock on the nature, the queen issued from her chamnight of his arrival in Winchester, Philip ber, preceded by her ladies and by two paid a private visit to the queen, so secret kings-at-arms; retiring with Philip to anindeed as to escape the research of Holin other room, they remained a long time shed, who says that his first visit was made together, the Spanish attendants endeavon the following day Private at it was, oring with no very great success to conhe was accompanied by some twenty verse with the ladies of the court. This grandees, among them Alva, Pescara, evening, Figueroa, the regent of Naples, Fería, Hoorn, and Egmont, names to be arrived with the investiture of that king, heard of again in far different scenes in dom, an appointment which was intended the time to come. Passing through the to place Philip on a footing of equality gardens of the episcopal palace, which had with the queen of England. The followbeen prepared for the queen's reception, ling day, July 25, being the day of St.
James, the patron saint of Spain, the mar. no presents — the phrase, which is not riage ceremony was performed with great exactly in conformity with modern Spanpomp. Two swords of state were borne ish, is “dar guantes," to give gloves before their Majesties by personages until they were able to understand them. whom Muñoz calls the Condes of Puen. Those few gentlemen who could speak burque and Arbinque, but whom Señor de English are said to have approved of an Gayangos converts into the Earls of Pem- arrangement which left them in possession broke and Derby. We are told that the of the field. The ball sted three hours, latter could muster twenty thousand sol- the king and queen taking part in it, and diers; and that, as king of a certain island dancing the alemana, an ancient Spanish (Man), he was entitled to wear a crown of dance, very gracefully, the English ladies lead. So strange an assertion invited in being much pleased with Philip's performquiry as to the nature of the crown of the ance. Strype, however, says that upon sovereigns of the Isle of Man. The cour- this occasion “the Spaniards were greatly tesy of Mr. Goldsmith, honorary secretary out of countenance for their dancing, of the Manx Society, has supplied the re- especially King Philip. dancing with the quired information. He refers to Blun- queen, when they saw the Lord Bray and dell's “ History of the Isle of Man,” Mr. Carow, and others, far exceed them.” written about 1650, and published in 1877. After supper, which was a repetition of
The author, who was anxious to obtain the banquet, the king was escorted by the information upon this very subject, says : grandees to the apartment of the queen. “Neither of him (the governor) nor any The days which followed were spent in other could I receive so much satisfaction ceremonious festivities, and at this point it as to be informed as to what fashion, or of is well to remark that the narrative of Mu. what metal, the crown of the kings of Man ñoz is wanting in much of the detail supwas made of. Out of the isle I con- plied by historians; and that, if closely ferred with some who would seem anti- scrutinized, it will be found occasionally quaries, that confidently affirm that the deficient in accuracy. On the other hand, crown was of iron; which was not alto- be records curious incidents not found gether improbable, for it hath not been in elsewhere, but which bear the stamp of use in England itself from the beginning truthfulness. to crown their kings with diadems of He makes it a subject of complaint that gold.' Then he goes on to say: “ The none of the attendants brought by Philip crown wherewith the king of Man was were allowed to serve him, the queen havcrowned was of pure gold.' Muñoz must ing provided him with a complete househave been either the victim of a deliberate hold according to the use of Burgundy. hoax, or he mistook iron for lead.
These officials were determined not to The ladies who assisted at the mar- bate a jot of their privileges or their duriage ceremonial looked, we are told, lies, and even the guard which Philip “rather like celestial angels than ordinary brought with him from Spain was relieved mortals.” The religious fervor of Mary, of its functions, for the English, jealous of who kept her eyes fixed on the crucifix the presence of so many Spaniards, were during the whole of the marriage service, determined not to allow them any footing was very conspicuous. A banquet fol- in the country. The idle life which all lowed, at which the Bishop of Winchester these Spaniards led, says the author, was was the only other guest admitted to the very disadvantageous to them; some in. royal table. Philip was served upon silver, deed, harping upon their books of chivMary on silver gilt; a manifestation of alry, soon to be solemnly condemned by precedence which was introduced in order the Córtes at Valladolid, and somewhat to mark the difference of rank, Philip not later to incur the more potent ridicule having yet been crowned king of Naples. of Cervantes, declared that they would The numerous guests were accommodated rather be in the stubble fields of Toledo at other tables, according to their official than in these gardens of Amadis.” position or rank, and a magnificent ban- A few days after the wedding their Majquet was served with much stately cere-esties travelled towards London, the housemony. Between the banquet and the hold coming in detachments, by reason of ball which followed it, the Spanish gentle. the want of sufficient accommodation upon men endeavored to converse with the En- the road. Here the narrative of Muñoz, glish ladies, an attempt which was, how- of which but a very slight sketch is given, ever, frustrated by mutual ignorance of ends; but he devotes a few more seneach other's language. The Spaniards, we tences to a description of England, with are told, determined that they would give the names of certain seaports on the south
coast. Hopeless confusion results from the narrative of Muñoz, throwing some his wild treatment of names. Cabodoble, light upon difficulties which have been the which Señor de Gayangos accepts as the despair of the editor, especially in the Cape of Dover, and Antona, Southampton, matter of English names. He instances are almost the only ones which can be rec- Aron, Arandera, Rondela, as attempts to ognized. As to such names as Asalania designate the Earl of Arundel; Arbin and and Artania, the Island of Lucia, the Sor- Aruin for the Earl of Derby; Atingush, lingas, and others, even conjecture is out Roselo, and Pajete, for Hastings, Russell, of the question.
and Paget. The strangest perversion of This country, he says, was the scene of all, however, occurs in the outlandish name the fables of King Lisuarte and the Round Previselo, in which his ingenuity has disTable, of Merlin and his prophecies. It covered the Lord Privy Seal. was originally peopled by giants, but after The first letter commences with the emthe destruction of Troy, a certain captain, barkation of Philip at Coruña, adding little named Bruto, who came from that city, of importance to the narrative of Muñoz, vanquished and expelled them. From this except that on the night of the departure name of Bruto, he adds, came the word and during a portion of the following day Britain. The country is rich and fertile, there was a fresh wind and some sea, á “and from it have sprung beroes of wis- serious matter to Philip, who was but an dom and understanding, devoted to and indifferent sailor. The English ambassamaintaining the faith of Jesus Christ; dors, Bedford and Fitzwaters, who had burning and slaying with the edge of the met him at Santiago, seem to have been sword the enemies of the holy Catholic aware of this. Writing, in June, to the faith, and, by the light of their good works Council, they add in a postscript, “The and doctrine, preaching the evangelical prince is wont to be very sick upon the law of Christianity, as did the venerable sea, and these seas that he shall pass over Bede, and many others, his disciples, in into England are much worse than the England.” He expresses a hope that,“ in Levant where he hath been heretofore. times to come, the subjects of the sove. Wherefore, doubtless, lest he and his noreign may imitate their predecessors, emu- bility will be desirous to land at the next lating their deeds, and by their example land they can come to in England (as all advancing the Chistian faith.” Some com- men in their cases will covet and desire the monplace villancicos, or stanzas, in honor same), your lordships shall do very well to of the sovereigns, and redolent of flattery take order that some preparation be made and fanaticism, conclude the work. at Plymouth, and so along the seacoast for
The“ Tratado" of Muñoz is followed by him, if peradventure he shall land. Neve four letters. The first of these, undated ertheless,” they bravely add, “we will do and without address, was written from all that layeth in us to bring him to SouthWinchester during Philip's sojourn there ampton.' It is unnecessary to extract to some one in Seville, and was printed in froin these letters that which has been that city in 1554. The second, written already related by Muñoz respecting the from Richmond by a different hand, to a sojourn at Southampton, the journey to gentleman in Salamanca, completes the Winchester, and the subsequeni marriage. history of the expedition up to August 19, Describing the wedding banquet, the 1554; it belongs to a correspondence, the writer tells us that the table service was anterior part of which is missing. Another performed by Englishmen, except that letter by the same writer, being the third Don Inigo de Mendoza, son of the Duke of the present collection, was written from of Infantado, acted as cup-bearer to Philip. London Oct. 2, 1554. These two latter “ Indeed,” says he," no one has so much exist in MS. in the Escorial. The fourth as, dreamt of performing any duty, or of and last letter, which was printed originally bearing his staff of office.
We might in Seville, and of which a copy is known all well be banished as idle vagabonds.' to exist in the library of the Real Acade- The ladies of the household do not meet mia de la Historia, is addressed to the with his approval. “They are tall, their Condesa de Olivares, and, although un- waists are tightly girdled. As far as dress dated, seems to have been written from goes they look well. Their toilettes are London towards the end of 1554. Like after the French fashion ; they would look the second and third, it is a fragment of much better if they followed the fashion of a correspondence. It treats chiefly of the the young Spanish ladies. Very few are reception and conduct of Cardinal Pole. good-looking, but some,” he naïvely adds, These four letters, says Señor de Gayan- are better than others.” They spend gos, may be read as the complement of their time in the ante-chamber, dancing
and conversing with those who visited “ The duchess persisting in her refusal, them.
the queen returned to the stool, ordering Friday, July 27, Fray Bartolomé de her to take the other, upon which the Miranda, in after times Archbishop of To- duchess then seated herself.”
And so ledo, said mass in the cathedral, an act this curious scene was brought to a close. which surprised and grieved some as much They then conversed together for a long as it pleased others. The writer hopes time, the Marques de las Navas acting as that the goodness of the queen and her interpreter, for though the queen underunceasing prayers may restore the country stood Spanish she could not speak it. She to Christianity and obedience to the Cath- managed, however, to say that it was hot, olic Church.
and other similar trifles. Being called Great rogues, he says, infest the high- away to receive certain ambassadors, she ways ;, among other persons they had offered the use of her private apartment to robbed the son of the Marques de Villena the duchess, who, however, beyged to reof four hundred crowns and all his plate ; main with the ladies of the household. worse than this, however, four or five of Presently she returned, and after a little Philip's own coffers were missing, in spite more conversation the duchess.departed to of the efforts of the Council to recover her lodging, which was at some distance, them. “It is well to be within doors be. and to which she had to proceed, as the fore dark here; indeed, it is the usual writer is particular in stating, on foot. practice.”
On Sunday, July 29, Philip and Mary Three days after the wedding, the dined in public, the Bishop of Winchester, Duchess of Alva, accompanied, as became the Marquis of Winchester, lord treasurer, a great lady of Spain, by many of the with the Earls of Pembroke and Derby, grandees and caballeros, “wearing a gown forming the party at the royal table. The of black velvet with lace, and embroidered writer states, incidentally, that the incomes with black silk cord," came to visit the of the two latter did not exceed one thouqueen. As the wife of the mayordomo sand five hundred ducats. On the 31st mayor, and as former hostess of Philip, the newly married couple, attended by a who, on his first marriage in 1542, had small retinue, took their departure, stopbrought his bride the Infanta of Portugal ping the first night at the Basing House, a to the Alva palace in Salamanca, Mary re. seat of the Marquis of Winchester. ceived her with marked distinction, while The first letter ends here, and we prothe duchess on her part strove to render ceed to the second, whose writer is more all homage to the queen. “She was stand-critical and piquant. He addresses a gening, and on the duchess appearing, she tleman in Salamanca. He informs his went from her dais almost to the door, correspondent that their Majesties are where the duchess, kneeling, besought her “ los mas bien casados del mundo” - the to give her her hand; the queen, stooping best-matched pair in the world down almost as low as the duchess, em- more enamored of each other than I can braced her without giving her hand. Ris- well describe. His Highness never leaves ing up, she kissed her mouth, as is the the queen; on our journeys he is always custom here with queens when receiving at her side, he assists her to mount and princesses of the blood royal only. Tak. dismount. At certain times he dines with ing the duchess by the hand, she asked her in public, and they attend mass to. her how she had fared, and how she had gether on feast-days.” In a promiscuous borne the sea voyage, adding that she was manner he describes the queen as ugly, delighted to see her. She then led her to small, lean, pink and white complexion, no the dais where there was a high chair; eyebrows, very pious, and very badly seating herself on the carpet she requested dressed. The writer was evidently no the duchess to take the chair. This she courtly chronicler, and his reinarkable declined to do, beseeching the queen to frankness tends to enhance the value of take it.
his narrative. The English ladies fail to “Two footstools, covered with brocade, please him. “All the women here wear were then brought in; the queen seated under-petticoats of colored cloth, no silk. herself on the one nearest to the chair, Their gowns are of damask or colored bidding the duchess to take the other. satin or velvet very badly made. Some She made a low reverence, and sat down wear shoes of velvet, but more commonly on the ground at the queen's side, as is of leather. They wear black stockings, the English custom. Upon this the queen they show their legs sometimes even as far left the footstool, and sat by her on the as the knee, at least when journeying, for carpet, refusing to rise.
their under-petticoats are short. When