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justifiable, to expel by force a body of | been to a good Jesuit school he will adhere religionists or irreligionists from a country, to the Jesuit system in later life. That or, permitting them to stay, to subject them will depend on what they teach him. If to all kinds of petty persecutions and dis- they put on the ecclesiastical screw too abilities, we say at once, the former. It strongly, the chances are they will make a rests at least on a principle. It expels rebel of him. M. Renan was not a semonly those who are supposed to be under-inarist for nothing. Hardly any of the mining the well-being of the community. assailants.of the Catholic Church are so It is, in effect, a great public act of accu- formidable as those who were the chosen sation. And as soon as the public con- servants of the Catholic Church. The science no longer endorses that accusation, greater number of French parents who the policy must be reversed. Not so with send their sons to Jesuit schools, do so the system of disabilities and petty perse- from no affection for the Jesuits, but becutions. It is not equally conspicuous, cause they find the schools good, and are and therefore its injustice may be much not afraid of their children going any surlonger concealed from public view. More. ther than they themselves wish. The over, it is a policy which has far less to panic of the anti-Catholic party about Cathsay for itself. If the State does not know Olic education is at once cowardly and enough of any order or sect to know that weak. Catholic education will be effective it is dangerous to the public welfare, it in proportion as it is really adapted to hu. must be either without grounds against it, man nature, and in proportion as the nonor at least in considerable doubt about it; Catholic education fails to be so. Nothing and in either case, to prohibit it from try- will be more likely to stimulate Catholic ing its chances with authorized rivals, is teaching than this poor and unworthy athardly defensible. It implies far more tempt to gag it. If the Republicans want knowledge than any public body can have to control the too great influence of the of a religious or irreligious order, to say of Catholic Church, their course is clear. it, “ You may leaven the adult community Let them do justice strictly between the with your teaching, if you can, but you Church and those who reject her, and preshall not teach the children even of those vent anything like persecution on her part. whose parents you have convinced.” That Let them take the best means in their is a fineness of discrimination which we power to compel all educational bodies, say, without doubt, no legislature, - com religious or secular, to teach secular knowl. posed as legislatures are, and judging by edge in the soundest way. Let them give ihe sort of criteria on which they are com- all such teachers a fair field, and no favor. pelled to judge, - ever yet attained. Let them trust to parents to select their
Hence we believe that the French Re- children's teachers, from the natural desire publicans will have entered definitely on of parents for their children's best inter. the evil course of a policy of persecution, ests. But let them not return persecution if they pass the seventh clause of M. Jules for persecution; let them not try to pubFerry's bill. This is an age in which all lish a sort of Index Expurgatorius of religious principles and all irreligious prin- persons who are not to be trusted with the ciples are being tested afresh, and there is young, or they will be soon told that with no less, perhaps more danger, of the latter out the excuse of devout belief, they are being insidiously conveyed in the process borrowing from the Church her most obof education, than the former. If ihe Re-jectionable methods and her most deadly publicans do not wish to invite attacks on weapons. That the French Republicans the propagandist secularism and atheism have not yet learnt to be tolerant towards of the present day, they should not initiate those who profess principles of intolerance, attacks on the propagandist dogmatism of we are not surprised to see. But that they a former day. Have they no confidence in are prepared to be actively intolerant tothe natural progress of principles of lib. wards those who, if not even as tolerant erty and serious investigation? If the as their neighbors, are yet not distinctly Jesuits gain pupils, as it is said they gain distinguishable from them, - that they are
thein, by attending far better to their pu- not even prepared to make tolerance the pils' physical health, recreation, and char. rule and intolerance the exception, acter than the masters of the ordinary do learn, at once with surprise and the lycées, why they deserve their success; deepest regret. Here is the great danger and the parents are quite right, so far, to of the Republicans, - and it seems to be prefer schools in which the children are so a danger which they are bent on making much better looked after. Moreover, it is imminent. childish to suppose that because a boy has
No. 1825. — June 7, 1879.
S From Beginning,
New Quarterly Review,
Blackwood's Magazine, .
DRICK OF Calcor House. By the author
Saturday Review, .
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ON THE WATER.
FROM THE GERMAN OF GEIBEL.
Now will the peak and valley shortly bloom, The wind is soughing through the treetops
gloom, The woodhorn's clangor dies in evening red; I would be happy, but my heart is dead. My friends are rowing swiftly from my sight, The water's ripples sparkle in starlight, The cittern sounds, in time the boatmen tread; I would be happy, but my heart is dead. The moon is rising, louder comes the jest, And songs are gushing out of every breast, The wine glows in the goblet, dark and red; I would be happy, but my heart is dead. And if my love should step from out her grave, With all the joy that once to me she gave, If she should say, what once to me she said, In vain! For gone is gone, and dead is dead.
W. P. A.
Of love we trample down to reach
Our hearts a dreadful care;
In rapture or despair.
In every human life;
A vain ideal strife,
God guide our feeble will !
All The Year Round.
ON HEARING A LARK IN JANUARY. THE snow had hardly melted from the field;
In rifts the dull grey sky had changed to And the cold sun came slowly struggling
thro', With yellow lustre, like great golden shield. Up sprang a lark, blithe in the air to yield His tribute thankful; up and up he flew, And poured his notes, as tho’ they would
renew The promise of soft summer soon revealed. Oh, bird of faith and meek content, I draw
A lesson from thy song so piercing sweet, And would with thee rise to the blissful law. Up would I spring in shining moments too, And sing between the showers. Some lag
ging feet With song may swifter move their work to do. Good Words.
J. A. P.
The snow has passed away;
This February day.
On mossy garden ways;
Of love and lengthening days.
With daisies gold and white,
With equable delight.
With spring's first breeze and beam;
By meadow, lawn, and stream.
With coveted perfume ;
With honest, hopeful bloom.
Our pathway on the earth;
Yet counted little worth.
Translated for THE LIVING AGE from the Berlin
Once sunk 'neath waves that sever,
Still rest the fair and brave; Pillowed to sleep forever
Deep in their watery grave. The sea will naught deliver
Of all its depths once hid, In that green hall closed ever
Lies the great coffin's lid.
Their soft, sound sleep is best;
W. P. A.
BY W. E. GLADSTONE,
From The Nineteenth Century. nor held by believers alone. Voltaire has PROBABILITY AS THE GUIDE OF CONDUCT. used nearly the same words:
Presque toute la vie humaine roule sur des The doctrine of Bishop Butler, in the probabilités. Tout ce qui n'est pas démontré introduction to his “ Analogy," with regard aux yeux, ou reconnu pour vrai par les parties to probable evidence, lies at the root of his évidemment intéressées à le nier, n'est tout entire argument; for by the analogy which au plus que probable. L'incertitude étant he seeks to establish between natural re- presque toujours le partage de l'homme, vous ligion and that which is revealed, he does vous détermineriez très-rarement, si vous atpot pretend to supply a demonstrative tendiez une démonstration. Cependant il faut proof of Christianity, but only such a kind prendre un parti : et il ne faut pas le prendre and such an amount of presumptions in its au hasard. Il est donc nécessaire à notre nafavor as to bind human beings at the least d'étudier les probabilités avec autant de soin,
ture faible, aveugle, toujours sujette à l'erreur, to take its claims into their serious consideration. This, he urges, they must do, métrie.
que nous apprenons l'arithmétique et la géoprovided only they mean to act with regard to it upon those principles, which, in all
Voltaire wrote this passage in an essay, other matters, are regarded as the prin- not on religion, but on judicial inquiries : * ciples of common sense. It is therefore and the statement of principle which it essential to his purpose to show what are propounds is perhaps on that account even the obligations which, as inferred from the the more valuable. universal practice of men, probable or pre
If we consider subjectively the reasons, sumptive evidence may entail.
upon which our judgments rest, and the But indeed the subject-matter of this motives of our practical intentions, it may introduction has yet a far wider scope. It in strictness be said that absolutely in no embraces the rule of just proceeding, not case have we more than probable evidence only in regard to the examination of the to proceed upon; since there is always pretensions of Christianity, but also in room for the entrance of error in that last regard to the whole conduct of life. The operation of the percipient faculties of former question, great as it is, has no men, by which the objective becomes subpractical existence for the vast majority, jective; an operation antecedent, of neceswhether of the Christian world, or of the sity, not only to action or decision upon world beyond the precinct of the Chris- acting, but to the stage at which the pertian profession. It is only relevant and ception becomes what is sometimes called material (except as an exercise of sound a “state of consciousness.” + philosophy) to three descriptions of per
But, setting aside this consideration, and sons; those whom the gospel for the first speaking only of what is objectively pretime solicits ; those who have fallen away
sented as it is in itself, a very small portion from it; and those who are in doubt con- indeed of the subject-matter of practice is cerning its foundation. Again, there are or can be of a demonstrative, or necessary,
Moral action is conversant portions of these classes, to whose states character. of mind other modes of address may be almost wholly with probable evidence. So more suitable. But every Christian, and that a right understanding of the proper indeed every man owning any kind of modes of dealing with it is the foundation moral obligation, who may once enter upon of all ethical studies. Without this, it any speculation concerning the grounds must either be dry and barren dogmatism, which lead men to act, or to refrain from or else a mass of floating quicksands. acting, is concerned in the highest degree Duty may indeed be done, without having with the subject that Bishop Butler has been studied in the abstract; but, if it is opened incidentally for the sake of its rela- to be studied, it must be studied under tion to his own immediate purpose.
its true laws and conditions as a science. The proposition of Bishop Butler, that
* " Essui sur les probabilités en fait de Justice." — probability is the guide of life, is not one Works (4to, Geneva 1777), vol. xxvi., p. 457. invented for ihe purposes of his argument, 7 Nineteenth Century, supra, pp. 606-7.
Now, probability is the nearly universal | dishonesty to any doctrine, which should form or condition, under which these laws give a warrant to acts of moral choice upon are applied : and therefore a sound view evidence admitted to be less than certain. of it is not indeed ethical knowledge itself, Their disposition is deserving of respect, but is the organon, by means of which it when it takes its rise from that simple unis to be rightly handled. He who by his suspecting confidence in the strength and writings both teaches and inures inen to clearness of truth, which babitual obedithe methods of handling probable or im- ence engenders. It is less so when we perfect evidence, gives them exercise, and see in it a timidity of mind, which shrinks by exercise strength, in the most important from measuring the whole extent of the of all those rules of daily life which are charge that it has pleased God to lay upon connected with the intellectual habits. us as moral agents, and will not tread, even
Different forms of error concerning prob- in the path of duty, upon any ground that able evidence have produced in some cases yields beneath the pressure of the foot. moral laxity, in others scrupulosity, in The desire for certainty, in this form, enerothers unbelief.
vates and unmans the character. Persons To begin with the last named of these. so affected can scarcely either search for It is a common form of fallacy to suppose duties to be done, or accept them when that imperfect evidence cannot be the offered, and almost forced upon
their foundation of an obligation to religious notice. As a speculative system, this tenbelief, inasmuch as belief, although in its dency has appeared among some casuists infancy it may fall short of intellectual of the Church of Rome, and has been conconviction, tends towards that character in demned by Pope Innocent XI. its growth and attains it when mature. The position of many among her divines Sometimes, indeed, it is assumed by the with reference to the danger of moral controversialist, that belief, if genuine, is laxity opens much graver questions. The essentially absolute. And it is taken to " Provincial Letters ”' of Pascal gave an be a violation of the laws of the human universal notoriety to the doctrine of probmind that proofs which do not exclude abilism. Setting apart the extremes to doubt should be held to warrant a persua- which it has been carried by individuals, sion which does or may exclude it. In- we may safely take the representation of deed, the celebrated argument of Hume, it
, as it is supplied in a manual published against the credibility of the miracles, in- for the use of the French clergy of the volved the latent assumption that we have present day. According to this work, it a right to claim demonstrative evidence is allowable, in matters of moral conduct, for every proposition which demands our that if of two opposite opinions, each one assent. From this assumption it proceeds be sustained not by a slight but a solid to deny a demonstrative character to any probability, and if the probability of the proofs, except those supplied by our own one be admittedly more solid than that of experience. And the answer, which Paley the other, we may follow our natural liberty has made to it, rests upon the proposition of choice by acting upon the less probable. that the testimony adduced is such as, This doctrine, we are informed, bad been according to the common judgment and taught, before . 1667, by one hundred and practice of men, it is rational to believe, fifty-nine authors of the Roman Church, while he passes by without notice the and by multitudes since that date. it question of its title to the rank of specula- appears to stand in the most formal contive certainty.
tradiction to the sentiments of Bishop Next, with regard to the danger of Butler, who lays it down without hesitation scrupulosity. This has perhaps been less that the lowest presumption, if not neuconspicuous in philosophical systems, than tralized by a similar presumption on the in its effect on the practical conduct of life opposite side, and the smallest real and by individuals. There are persons, cer- clear excess of presumption on the one tainly not among the well-trained and well- side over the presumptions on the other informed, who would attach a suspicion of side, determines the reason in matters of