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Who needs not wine nor roses, lute nor lyre, navvies for a success or an object which, Scorns life, or quits it by the gate of fire, when attained, they know will be like

Erect and fearless what is that to us ashes in their mouths. They fail in no Who hold him for the dupe of vain desire ?

diligence, no attention, and often in no Can we who wake enjoy the dreamer's dream? self-denial; they do not seclude themselves Will the parched treeless waste less hideous from men; and they live, we think, on the

whole, better lives than of old ; yet they Because there shines before some foolish recognize to themselves the tastelessness

eyes Mirage of waving wood and silver stream?

of everything, - even of the critical insight

from which the recognition comes. They The sixth verse in our quotation is the are weary of it all, even in middle age, and best as well as the saddest of all, and when they have succeeded, so weary, that rounds off the tale of melancholy with a it is scarcely an exaggeration to say, as touch wbich we had half forgotten. With Mr. Payn intimates, that were the choice the loss of the capacity of enjoyment there in their own hands, and one which affected has come no loss of the sybarite shrinking only themselves, they would rather avoid from pain, and clubmen to-day are no more the long life which ancient inoralists promStoics than they are Christians.

ised as one of the rewards of God to those The two utterances, neither of which whom he approved. will perhaps strike our readers as power- Both Mr. Traill and Mr. Payn in subfully as both have struck ourselves, are stance, though under different forms of the more remarkable, because they both words, attribute this growing melancholy come, not from idle dreamers, men sicklied mainly to the loss of a hope which susby continuous enjoyment of leisure, but tained our fathers; and no doubt that loss from men of the world, immersed in affairs, involves a great loss in the capacity of jos, and much more likely to be suffering from but the explanation will not entirely conover-work than to be melancholy from tent any careful observer. It does not idleness. Mr. Payn is a novelist, Mr. cover all the facts. The men of the anTraill a journalist, and neither has much cient civilizations, who had often as little cause to complain of the treatment of hope as Professor Clifford, had often also mankind. Yet both declare, one in num- a deep joy in life ; and that conjunction, bers and one in prose, but both with an air entire disbelief in any other life and a high of sincerity, that the gloom of the world estimate of this one, is said to be a definite they live in, this London world around us, note of character among educated Italians. increases, iill men are so definitely less It is the root of their horror of capital punhappy, that Mr. Traill says they are “in ishment, a horror so deep that no considdespair," and Mr. Payn that they are anx- erations of public safety, however obvious, ious to be “out of it all." These are seem able to overcome it. Moreover, it is exaggerated expressions no doubt, intend- vain to snatch a victory over the sceptics, ed to produce broad literary effect; but as some clergymen try to do in the pulpit, there is, as far as our experience goes, by expatiating on their melancholy, for truth in the description. The Byronic melancholy as deep may be noted in men affectation of fifty years ago has no place with whom the belief in a future state is now; men try to be sincere, even in their not the result of a balance of probabilities, whinings; and the weariness, though ac- but the outcome of an instinctive certainty knowledged, is no more boasted of than a which they could not tear out, if they physical deformity or disqualification would. Melancholy is as present to Ultra- . would be. It simply exists like fog, and montanes as to any Pyrrhos of the drawthe perception of its existence no more ing.room. Nor can we quite explain it by diminishes the virtues, or even the indus- the hardening of the conditions of life, as try, of the men who perceive or feel it than Mr. Payn seems inclined to do, foron the fog does. Indeed, that is the side of some sides at least the conditions have the matter which would most have inter- become less hard. There is more compeested and puzzled our grandfathers. tition, less leisure, more strain ; but there They, good people ! believed, what was is less terror, less physical pain, or more perhaps quite true in their time, that mel. alleviation for it, and far, very far, less ancholy, ennui, weariness call it what oppression. Look how littérateurs like you please

- came only to the idle, and Mr. Payn and Mr. Traill lived a century would have prescribed a good “rousing " and a half ago, and look how they live course of work as the infallible cure; but now! We should be much more ready to to-day it comes chiefly to the workers, and assign the disease to the development of makes men miserable who are toiling like the imagination in most men, producing a

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chasm between what they are, and what | cially those who lead the more excited they would, if they could, be, which they lives of cultivation, till it is exercising the cannot bridge over, - --a sort of dual self effect which over-education has upon in them, in which, to use a terminology we many boys. The English cultivated do would rather avoid, one Ego is always not die like the Australians, but they grow pricking or twitching the other Ego, till sad and weary. The brain is unconsciously rest or peacefulness is impossible. There fatigued till spirits disappear, and the cais a very characteristic letter from the pacity of pleasure is diminished as it is prince consort to his eldest daughter, the by overtraining. Men are jaded, in fact, crown princess of Prussia, in the new vol. and in the trainer's dialect made "stale," ume of his life, about the cause of nostalgia rather than oppressed with true melanor home-sickness, a letter full of his special cholia. If that is true, and it must in part thoughtfulness, and of the priggishness be true, the disease may be temporary, and which hid much of his mental power: pass with the generation, the next one ac

quiring with the effort at self-defence either I explain this hard-to-be-comprehended mental phenomenon thus. The identity of the in: able, a habit of indifference to the calls on

some new strength, or what is more probdividual is, so to speak, interrupted ; and a kind of dualism springs up by reason of this, their minds which will act as a protection. that the I which has been, with all its impres- They will in colloquial phrase instinctively sions, remembrances, experiences, feelings,

“take things easier,” yield more readily which were also those of youth, is attached to and in more india-rubber fashion to the a particular spot, with its local and personal incessant impact from without. We think associations, and appears to what may be we perceive that tendency in the young, called the new I like a vestment of the soul and though exasperating, it may yet be which has been lost, from which nevertheless healthy. "We can conceive no worse prosthe new I cannot disconnect itself, because its identity is in fact continuous. Hence the pain pect than a gradual increase from generaful struggle, I might almost say spasm, of the tion to generation of the weariness of life, soul.

till cultivated Englishmen, like cultivated

Russians, arrived at the conclusion that That fight between two Egos goes on very everything existing was upendurable, and keenly in the men of whom our authors are nothing better was to be expected or despeaking, and is one cause at least of much sired. distressing melancholy. But we are not sure there is not another cause, too, the one which Mr. Payn endeavors, and fails, to express in the phrase "over-education.” We cannot help suspecting that the culti

From The Saturday Review. vated, pressed by incessant advances in

THE EVOLUTION OF GAMES. their knowledge, by rapid developments in The invention and distribution of games their intellectual interests, by constant is a topic which, if we consider it for a temptations to new entraînements, some moment, at once brings us face to face times irresistibly strong, are beginning to with the problems of human history. If feel the melancholy which springs of a we find the same sport, with much the disparity between their brain-muscle to same artificial rules, played, say, in Kamtuse an erroneous but much-wanted term schatka and Madagascar, certain questions - and the work unconsciously required of at once ask for an answer. Does the uni. it. That is the melancholy which kills out formity of human nature go so far that it savages. It is impossible to read the produces a uniformity even in the minute careful observations now made upon red details of amusements ? Or, again, have Indians, some South American tribes, and the pastimes whose distribution and reall the tribes of Australia, without believ- semblance puzzle us been brought from a ing that their sadness, the sadness which common centre, either by migration or in affects their vital powers, is the result of the same way as articles of commerce are contact with a civilization which is too passed on from hand to hand? The an“strong," too perplexing, too complicated, swers given to these questions may vary in too like an atmosphere in its steady pres- each instance, but in any case they must sure, for them to escape it, or struggle be interesting and important. with it, or, with their untrained powers, must be opened so as to see at least two endure it. They die sad, of too continuous great truths first, the fatalism which is excitement of the brain. Knowledge busy even in the sportive action of the comes, but wisdom lingers, and knowledge human mind; secondly, the vast age and is overtaxing the cultivated, and espe- / wide extent of human intercourse.

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The tradition of races whom Europe has of traders and adventurers in the dateless koown only in times comparatively recent past, or perhaps in migrations of which the often points to some half-mythical inter- record has perished. Before examining course with civilization. Again, the archi- his argument it may be as well to note a tectural remains of peoples whose very point which we think is omitted in his paname is forgotten, whose hieroglyphics are per. The point, to be sure, is so imporunread, whose gods have survived their tant that it needs a separate article to itself. makers, prove that in Northern and South. It is this. Supposing a rude race to be in ern America cultivated tribes have passed casual contact with the people of a more away, like waves of the sea. Further, civilized country, what are the institutions there can be no doubt that, as far as land that the former is likely to borrow from runs unbroken by seas, caravan roads have the latter? Again, supposing that the existed from times beyond the ken of his Mexicans had migrated from Asia, what tory. Thus M. Lenormant has traced, in are the kinds of practices they would nat. a very suggestive paper, the trade-routes urally carry away, and what would they of the Phænicians, which formed a kind leave behind? We ask these questions of chain between the tribes on the Baltic, because, among the institutions common to the Mediterranean, the Euphrates, the widely separated races, it seems almost Nile, the Oxus, and the Amour. We can certain that several, and these strange and not tell how far south in Africa these En- complicated ones, were not carried abroad glish of the old world may have pushed. or casually borrowed. The most primitive Again, there seem always to have been forms of marriage law are excessively comcasual communications between India and plicated, and almost incredibly odd; yet the isles that stretch to Sumatra ; and pos- these, which clearly date from times of sibly, in some earlier conditions of the utter savagery, are the most widely spread earth's surface, the Polynesian archipela. of human ideas. Superstitions, again, of goes and New Zealand were not unaffected equally obvious savage origin, yet so by alien civilization. Thus it is never ab. strange that civilized people are puzzled to solutely impossible that identical or similar conceive low men ever invented things so practices among races however widely sev- wild, are of equally wide distribution. ered, and ignorant even of each other's They are far more complicated, and far existence, may be importations. On the more widely spread, than a simple mechanother hand, who can say where the mere ical invention like the bow and arrow. uniformity of production which character. Here then we possess (and this rather izes human nature stops working? Let us makes against Mr. Tylor's view of the dischoose a strong example. If an Egyptian tribution of games) examples of complicartouche were found in an old Fijian cated ideas, almost universally distributed, grave, here, we might say with certainty, and yet probably not carried abroad by any is an imported article. Take an example process of transmission. Do games beequally strong on the other side. Let a long to this class, or must one race have flint arrow-head of precisely the red In: taught them to another? Here it must dian pattern be found in Athenian soil, and again be noted that artificial games are in we merely recognize the uniformity of hu- question. The imitative sports of chil. man invention in an early stage. The in- dren depend on the practices of their eldstruments and the needs of the ancient ers. Children build sand-houses by the dweller in Attica were precisely the same seashore in the Iliad, and probably will as those of the Iroquois or Seneca Indian; always do so where there are houses to and hence comes the identical product, the imitate and “ quantities of sand” to use. Aint arrow.head.

The problem becomes difficult when we Games, like many other things, occupy reach more complicated games. Mr. Ty. the debatable ground. The fancy can con- lor takes the example of ball-games played ceive that they were passed on from peo- with a stick or racquet. Now one would ple to people, or it can, perhaps, imagine naturally suppose that these grew up by the that they grew up alike, from separate mere substitution of a stick for the feet in germs, in different soils. Mr. E. B. Tylor hockey, of a racquet for the palm of the has contributed to the May number of the hand in fives and in tennis, and of a bat Fortnightly Review a learned and amus- for the hand in stool-ball and cricket. ing article on the history of games. On Cricket, indeed, is an example at once of the whole, Mr. Tylor is rather inclined to progress and of degradation in games. It hold that “artificial games,” with their began with a stool for wicket, and the hand. rules, have been carried from continent to or a stick for bat. At schools and elsecontinent, from isle to isle, by the activity I where where cricket is impossible "little

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cricket” is played; and we have known, see no use in the industrial arts, is a point in a dormitory environment, a pair of socks in Mr. Tylor's favor which le bas neg. used for ball and a hair-brush for bat. lected to score. It is his strongest arguThis is a degradation of cricket into some- ment almost that European children only thing milder than the original stool-ball. learned the use of kites and of battledore But to return to Mr. Tylor; he finds no and shuttlecock within the last three cenancient ball.games played with stick or turies. We may take it for granted that, bat. The Persians, who wanted to play on if kites were to be found on Greek vases, horseback, were the first who found a long or on Roman reliefs, or in mediæval MSS., stick necessary. This stick they called Mr. Tylor or M. Becq de Fouquières chugan; hence the Byzantine šukavičelv, would have found them there. On the and the French chicane, in which lawyers other hand, southern Asia is as much the bandy about the unlucky clients. From centre of kite-fying as England is of the chugan came the croquet-mallet, the cricket, and the sport is found (connected golf-club, with all the family of spoons, with religion) in the South Sea Islands and drivers, cleeks, bunker-irons, putters, and in New Zealand. The Maoris say that niblicks, came also the hockey-stick, and kites, made of leaves or bark cloth, were probably the bat, which was at first a thick invented by their native hero Maui, who club with a curved foot, a terrible weapon hauled New Zealand itself out of the sea in the hands of a "slogger.” We are not one day when he was fishing. Mr. Tylor quite so sure that the chugan was the thinks it looks as though kite-flying were father of the racquet. In Byzantine de part of the drift of Asiatic culture which scriptions of the game, a staff ending in a is evident in many other points of New broad bend, filled in with a network of gut- Zealand life.” Here one would like to strings, is mentioned. Was the network know what the other points are, and added to the staff by adapting a tennis- whether the apparent Asiatic influence is glove to the new instrument ? Here we more than a mere coincidence. It is cermeet another difficulty. We do not see tainly in Mr. Tylor's favor that these isl. that it is proved that the red Indians bor- anders, or rather that islanders even more rowed from Europe the racquet with which backward, have a natural turn for picking they play their splendid national game. up games, and forgetting matters which The game has a religious sanction, and is many Europeans think more important. accompanied by the singing of a song to If European influence were withdrawn the Great Spirit. The Indians have a tra- from Australia for two or three centuries, dition that it was once played with hockey- the blacks would be rediscovered playing sticks. Now the Spaniards might have at a degenerate but recognizable cricket, introduced the racquet ; but it does not and utterly oblivious of guns, boots, Chris. seem to us probable that the Indian ball- tianity, whisky, and clothes. Thus, to take game with sticks was either brought in by another example, the Mexicans may have them (did they play it ?) or borrowed by the got their backgammon from the Indian Mandans from Persia. It is worth the form of the game, which theirs very closely notice, however, of Mr. Tylor that, of all resembles, while they forgot to bring, or European institutions, cricket (and claret. neglected to borrow, the more useful insticup, etc.) alone has a firm hold on the Aus- tution of wheels. It is bardly an answer tralian black fellows. Mr. Moseley in vain to say that the Mexicans had no beasts of tried to bribe long-leg to leave the game burden and no need of wheels; for men and shoot for him an Ornithorhynchus were their beasts, and would have found paradoxus. The Kanekas of New Cale. wheels uncommonly useful. But what a donia, and even the inhabitants of more people like the Maoris do gives us no line outlying isles, also took to cricket like good as to what a people like the Aztecs would ones as soon as it was introduced.

They do. cannot make bats, still less balls, exactly In regard to such games as require the like ours, but they can come nearer the casting of dice, Mr. Tylor brings forward true article than the hair-brush and pair-of- a theory which slightly clashes with the stockings pattern. Though this is a di- hypothesis to which, on the whole, he ingression, we cannot but hope that the M. clines. Dice, in their earliest form, were C. C. will start an S. P. C., and induce the lots, and to cast lots was a religious or a missionaries to publish, in the dialects of magical ceremony, which degenerated into these interesting islanders, the well-con- sport. Mr. Tylor will not maintain that sidered laws of the game.

the religious or magical castior of dice is The alacrity and earnestness with which an imported custom, or anytning but a the Australians take to cricket, while they pormal growth of superstitious fincy.

even

come

Thus we have one natural half of all | penalty for the third offence. That is, the games of the backgammon sort. Whether committee mean the bill to put down the draughts might not be separately invented teaching of members of unauthorized rein dozens of places and then combined | ligious bodies with a very strong hand. with dice is a. question which every one And so meaning, they mean to persecute, must decide for himself. We certainly and to persecute, as it seems to us, without think that the original elements, the com- the slightest reason or justification. We bination, and the various improvements on should not say the same if, on moral it, might all occur to separate minds. It grounds, the French government regarded is a well-known fact, which causes much any one of these religious communities as scientific hatred, that different people are so great a danger to France as to expel it constantly hitting on, and even patenting, from the country. We ourselves, indeed, the same invention. Thus we can readily do not believe that any known religious entertain the idea that something like chess body – not the Jesuits might have been invented more than once. within this definition. The Jesuits in EnSo that, after all, in the present state of gland have long been harmless, and some the evidence we are left to conjecture. In of them, indeed, amongst the most cultithe spread of games some will recognize vated and wide-minded of Catholic bodies. more of fatalism than of prehistoric inter- But we quite admit that in former times, course between distant peoples, others principles have been advocated by the Jesmore of prehistoric intercourse than of uits of the greatest possible danger to or. fatalism.

dinary morality, and that the practical effect of strict Jesuit teaching has at times seemed to justify the fears which the nature of their doctrines with regard to obe

dience and to veracity inspired. Still,

From The Spectator. there is no religious and no irreligious REPUBLICAN INTOLERANCE IN FRANCE. community in either England or France

IN the new French Education Bill, that has not at times approached the conespecially as it has now been altered by fines of teaching that is morally dangerous. the committee, we have exactly what we Much of the Calvinistic teaching seems to have most feared from the Republicans, us almost as dangerous as the teaching of the outbreak of intolerance against a num- the Jesuits. Much of the socialistic and ber of religious orders, which, if the pro- agnostic teaching seems to us more danposal of the committee become law, will gerous still. It must always be a very be deprived of the right of teaching – critical question at what point the State not merely their own faith, but anything at shall determine that any given school of all — in France. Clause 7 is to read thought is so subversive, and inculcates thus : “No person is allowed to direct doctrines so pernicious to the society in a public or private establishment of any which it lives, that the State should put it kind, or teach therein, if he belong to a down with a strong hand, and we hold non-authorized religious community; "and most sincerely that there is far more danthis means, as we are told, if he belong to ger in a restrictive than in a lax view of a community not authorized expressly for the question where this point ought to be teaching purposes. There are religious fixed. If the State does not interfere communities the existence of which is needlessly, the instinct of parents in judypermitted in France without their being ing for themselves will be far more irusiauthorized to teach. But no member of worthy than if it does. Where distinctions such a community is to be permitted to are difficult for private affection and reteach, any more than any member of a sponsibility, they are far more difficult for community the mere existence of which in the State. We have no doubt that JesuitFrance is not legal, though it is suffered to ism and atheism should both be let alone remain on French soil. Further, it is pro- by the State. The instincts of parents will posed to make the penalty on any member save them from trusting too much either of a religious community who teaches to recklessly subservient ecclesiastics or without being authorized to teach, a very to recklessly defiant sceptics. We do not

For the first offence, a fine of believe that the plan of expelling any irrefrom four to forty pounds sterling may be ligious or religious community from the imposed; for the second, a fine of from land is a sound one, though while it stays forty to a hundred and twenty pounds ster- in the land it must obey the laws. Still, if ling; and the closing of the establishment we are asked which is the worse policy, where such a teacher teaches, is to be the which is the more intolerant and the less

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