Greek roots is noticeable ; for example, in swered. On turning to the chapter that the words gnosophes (priests), koriam (lord), treats of “the situation, etc., of the isle," kay (and), etc. On this point, however, the we find a passage not contained in the author does not comment, although men- first edition wherein the sun's verticality tioning the curious fact that Greek is gen- at midsummer is curtly mentioned. To erally taught in the public academies. unenlightened readers these passages

The first edition of the work was rap- might seem commonplace announcements. idly sold, and a second called for in the fol- “ Řem acu tetigisti!cried those in the lowing year. In the interval Psalmanazar secret. The eminent astronomer and his was sent to Oxford by the Bishop of Løn- learned companions, Drs. Mead and don and other patrons, in order to com. Woodward, gave their own version of the plete his education and prepare himself for conversation referred to. When they returning as a missionary to the island. questioned him respecting the sun's posiSome account of an interview with him at tion and the length of twilight, he was this period has been left by a contempo utterly dumb-foundered. In any one less

Being questioned respecting the remarkable for exact observation and average duration of life in Formosa, he retentive memory, a lapse on such points stated it to range from one hundred to might not excite suspicion; in Psalmanaone hundred and twenty, a longevity which zar's case the savans, coupling it with the he ascribed to the national practice of other incredibilities of his story, can arrive sucking warm viper's blood in the morn- at but one conclusion that he is an iming. A lady of the party expressing hor- pudent impostor. ror at its being the custom of Formosan Slowly and reluctantly the public mind husbands to cut off the heads of their un- was brought to acquiesce in this view. faithful wives, he protested that he could For a considerable time the adventurer not even now consider it a sin, but admitted braved exposure, and retained a congregasmilingly that it was certainly "unman- tion of believers. Some influential patrons nerly." He did not remain long at Oxford, procured him private tutorships, a regibeing called to London that he might mental clerkship, and other appointments, superintend the issue of his second edition. but he failed to keep them. His next The preface and several passages of the stroke of imposture was to lend his name text testify to the growth of a formidable to the advertisements of one Pattenden, crop of objections to the truth of his narra- the inventor of a “white Japan enamel," tive since the first edition appeared. Of which the public was requested to believe these the author deals with twenty-five, had been prepared from a Formosan some of which would perplex a skilled recipe. The public, however, either ques. casuist; but with charming agility he man- tioned the statement, or whether, if true, ages either to evade or leap over every the enamel was recommended by its origin difficulty. His statement, for example, at any rate declined to purchase it. He that eighteen thousand boys' hearts were maintained his assumed 'character neverannually sacrificed, has been questioned on theless for some years longer, and so late the ground that such a practice would long as 1716 found a sufficient number of subsince have depopulated the island ; but he scribers to make up an annuity of 2ol. or explains that he only referred to this num- 301. for him as a “convert." He evenber as legally required by the priests. tually underwent what appears to have Bribery, prompted by parental affection, been a genuine conversion, abandoned his no doubt tended greatly to diminish it. career of imposture, and set about obtainDoes any one question his ability to remem-ing an honest livelihood. ber the precise words of the letter written have ended their days so creditably. by Meryaandanoo ? The answer is sim- Through the aid of a kindly publisher he ple and sufficient: “My father has a copy procured employment as a literary drudge, of the letter by him."

and for half a century worked upon the The preface briefly alludes to a recent “ Universal History" and other meritorious conversation which the author had with but now obsolete productions. He long “ Captain Halley, Savilian Professor of the outlived his infamy, and the world - if it Mathematics, Oxford, and some other gen- beard his name at all – knew it only as tlemen,” touching the sun's position at that of a learned, assiduous, inoffensive midday and the duration of twilight in man of letters. Dr. Johnson delighted in Formosa, all their inquiries upon which his society, and has recorded him with subjects he declares were satisfactorily an affectionate praise as one of the best men

he had ever known. He died in 1763, • Gentleman's Magasine, vol. XXXV., P: 78. leaving directions that his MS. autobi.

Few rogues

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ography should be published for the bene- There can be no doubt that one or both fit of his executrix, an old woman in whose of these astute knaves had formed a house he had long lodged. This singular shrewd estimate of the character of the narrative, published in the following year, society which they undertook to delude. contains a full confession of what the The inception of the scheme was due to writer calls “the base and shameful im- Psalmanazar, but Innes must be credited posture of passing upon the world for a with the idea of executing it in England, native of Formosa and a convert to Chris- and cloaking it in the attractive garb of tianity, and backing it with a fictitious religion. In the excited state of the pubaccount of that island and of my own trav- lic mind upon that subject, no bait could els, conversion, etc., all or most of it be better timed than a fiction which aggrahatched in my own brain withouc regard to vated the Protestant hatred of Jesuitical truth or honesty."

craft and exalted the via media of AngliWhile maintaining reserve as to his canism above all the rest of the Reformed real name, parentage, and place of birth, Churches. That the religious world of he confesses that “out of Europe I was England had recently begun to feel internot born, nor educated, nor ever trav- ested in missions to the heathen, was elled.” He received his early training un- another fact which the chaplair with his der the Jesuits in the south of France, to professional training was not likely to overwhom he was indebted for his proficiency look. The historical details of the fraud in Latin and the acquaintance which he were concocted by Psalmanazar alone, displayed with the current questions of after he had resided for some months in theological polemics. Preferring a vaga. England, and enjoyed ample opportunities bond life in France and Germany to any of observation. The systematic shape in settled occupation, but finding it difficult which they appear in his work may thus to subsist, he assumed the disguise of a be regarded as embodying his deliberate Japanese convert for the purpose of ex. calculation of the extent to which the pubciting sympathy. Failing in this attempt, lic appetite for marvels would bear cram. be adopted the role of a heathen fugitive, ming. No society, perhaps, ever afforded and invented the outlines of the impos- a better subject for experiment than that ture which he subsequently elaborated in in which he found himself. The faithful his “ Account of Formosa.' Having been mirror of the time which Steele and Addi. pressed into the service of the elector of son held up for it in “The Spectator," has Cologne, and accompanying his regiment reflected one feature of its likeness as to Sluys, he there fell in with Innes, who especially prominent. Athens, Rome, and undertook to convert him to Christianity. Paris, in their most frivolous days, cannot During the colloquies that ensued, the have displayed a more feverish eagerness chaplain discovered and taxed him with “ to tell and to hear some new thing,” than the imposture ; but, instead of disclosing possessed the London of Anne. In one it, proposed to become his accomplice. A paper, marked by his favorite vein of quiet scheme which should be mutually advan- satire, Addison ridicules “the general tageous was then matured between them. thirst after news” which could not be sated Innes saw the opportunity which offered without some daily draught, however vapid of securing a reputation for professional or stale. " It is notorious,” he says, “ that zeal and a prospect of preferment, while men who frequent coffee-houses and dePsalmanazar was ambitious of obtaining light in news are pleased with everything his discharge from the army and figuring that is matter of fact, so it be what they as a lion in London society. Having gone have not heard before. A victory or a dethrough the farce of “converting” his con- feat is equally agreeable to them; the federate, Innes found a dupe in Brigadier shutting of a cardinal's mouth pleases Lauder, who consented to stand as spon- them one post, and the opening of it sor at the baptism. The story was then another. They read the advertisecommunicated to the Bishop of London, ments with the same curiosity as the artiwho unhesitatingly received it for gospel, cles of public news, and are as pleased to and gave the chaplain and his proselyte hear of a piebald horse that is strayed out the desired invitation to England. Soon of a field near Islington as of a whole after their arrival, a lucrative regimental troop that has been engaged in any foreign chaplaincy in Portugal became vacant, and adventure. In short, they have a relish was placed at the disposal of Innes, who for everything that is news, let the matter left Psalmanazar to carry on the fraud of it be what it will; or, to speak more alone, which he proceeded to do in the properly, they are men of a voracious apmanner already toid.

petite but no taste.” The writer in whose

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mouth he puts these observations is repre. I for curing cataracts upon the credit of sented as a “projector who is willing to having, as his bill sets forth, lost an eye in turn a penny by this remarkable curiosity the emperor's service. His patients come of his countrymen,” and accordingly pro- in upon this, and he shows the muster-roll, poses to start“ a daily paper which shall which confirms that he was in his Imperial comprehend in it all the most remarkable Majesty's troops, and he puts out their occurrences in every little town, village, eyes with great success.' and hamlet that lie within ten miles of It was on the symptoms of this epidemic London."

."* In another paper Addison phrenitis, while yet in an early stage, that illustrates the avidity with which the quid. Psalmanazar reckoned for success. Hay. nuncs of the day seized upon any material ing already secured the suffrages of the for gossip, however untrustworthy, by re- religious world, he proceeded to draw the counting how he tracked from coffee majority of his dupes from the class to house to coffee-house the passage of a which Steele refers as “ignorant people of casual report that the king of France was quality." The Sir Plumes and Dapper. dead, and how the serious discussions to wits, who passed their lives in retailing which it gave rise suddenly collapsed upon club and coffee-house gossip, required no the arrival of another report that his Maj. better evidence of his savage origin than esty had just taken an airing.t

that he ate roots and raw meat, and told The advantage which charlatans took of monstrous stories of cannibal atrocity and this disposition in the public mind to ac-repulsive modes of life. The fine ladies cept any statement for truth is the subject to whom these marvels were repeated were of other papers from the pen of Steele. well-disposed to a visitor who described a Of Duncan Campbell, the deaf and dumb state of existence so unlike their own. fortune-teller, already named, he says An affected love of simplicity is a familiar “that the blind Tiresias was not more characteristic of the most artificial socie. famous in Greece than this dumb artist ties, and there are always to be found has been for some years last past in the “Mrs. Merdles,” who, though forced to cities of London and Westminster.” † All live in the fashionable world, “ are pastoral classes of society showed an equal readi- to a degree by nature, and would have ness to take pretenders at their own valu- been charmed to be savages in the tropical ation, and a robustness of faith that was seas.' Psalmanazar had wit to discern the staggered by no demonstration of their prevalence of a tendency which had already falsehood. “ There is hardly a man in the given rise to " Arcadian " verse, and was world, one would think, so ignorant as not about to develop the “Dresden-shepherd to know that the ordinary quack doctors period” of art, and played his game acwho publish their great abilities in little cordingly. His invention of a barbarous brown billets, distributed to all that pass alphabet and grammar was plausible by, are to a man impostors and murderers. enough to mystify even men of culture, Yet such is the credulity of the vulgar and acquainted only with the classical lanthe impudence of these professors that the guages of Europe, and ignorant of the affair still goes on, and new promises of rudiments of comparative philology. Litwhat was never done before are made erary critics were equally baffled by the every day.” After quoting one of these ingenuity with which, while pretending to advertisements from a “professed surgeon, rectify the misstatements of previous hislately come from his travels, after twenty- torians, he pieced together so much of four years' practice by sea and land,” who their information as sufficed, with additions affects to cure “all diseases incident to of his own, to compose an independent men, women, and children,” Steele pro- narrative. It was not until the light of a ceeds —“There is something unaccount positive science had been brought to bear ably taking among the vulgar, in those who upon his fabrication that its true character come from a great way off. Ignorant peo- was detected. ple of quality, as many there are of such, Early in 1795, Mr. Samuel Ireland, well doat excessively this way, many instances known in the literary world of London as of which every man will ggest to him a collector of rare books and prints, and self, without my enumerating them.” the author of several contributions to Among the impostors who profitably traded belles-lettres, publicly announced that he upon this footing, he names si a doctor, in bad come into possession of a large numMouse Alley, near Wapping, who sets up ber of MSS. in the handwriting of Shake. * Spectator, No. 452.

speare, the authenticity of which he was † Ibid., No. 635. Ibid., No. 474.

* Spectator, No. 444.

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desirous of submitting to the opinion of all great that Mr. Ireland's house in Norfolk competent judges. His latest illustrated Street was besieged by visitors, and he work had been devoted to the scenery of had to limit their number by orders and the Warwickshire Avon, which he had ex- the days of admission to three in the week. plored with the particular object of glean- The publication of the MSS. by subscriping any unknown memorials relating to the tion was soon announced, and the first poet, of whose genius and fame he was a volume was issued in 1796 at the price of fervently avowed worshipper; so that this four guineas, under the editorship of Mr. momentous discovery appealed to the sym- Ireland. The list of subscribers for this pathy of all like-minded enthusiasts as the handsome folio included many persons of legitimate reward of much pious labor. celebrity, besides those already named, His invitation to inspect the MSS. was and the committees of several public libraaccepted by a large concourse of the ries. brotherhood, including several men of high In an ornate preface the editor, describliterary distinction. Few living scholars ing the instalment as a part of that valuwere more erudite than Dr. Parr, Dr. able treasure of our Shakespeare, which Valpy, and Dr. Joseph Warton. George having been by accident discovered in Chalmers and John Pinkerton were ex. MS., has since been deposited in his perts, specially skilled in old English liter- hands," assures the public that from the ature. The professional antiquaries were “ first moment of their discovery he has well represented by Sir Isaac Heard, labored by every means to inform himself garter-king-at-arms, and Francis Towns- with respect to the validity of these interhend, Windsor herald; and miscellane-esting papers;” that "he has courted, he ous' men of letters by R. B. Sheridan, Sir has even challenged the critical judgment Herbert Croft, H. J. Pye, the poet laure. of those who are best skilled in the poetry ate, and James Boswell. After carefully or phraseology of the times in which collating the principal MSS. with the Shakespeare lived, as well as those whose poet's undoubted autographs, these critics profession or course of study has made expressed a firm conviction of their au- them conversant with ancient deeds, writthenticity, and a certificate to that effectings, seals, and autographs ;” that, not was numerously signed. A collection of content with having them tested by " the rarer literary and biographical value was scholar, the man of taste, the antiquarian, certainly never offered to the world. It and the herald,” he has submitted them to comprised the entire MS. of “ Lear," vary. the “practical experience of the paper. ing in some important respects from the maker," and, as the result of these investiprinted copies ; a fragment of “ Hamlet;" gations, has “the satisfaction of announciwo unpublished plays, entitled “Vorti- ing to the public that, as far as he has gern” and “ Henry the Second; a num- been able to collect the sentiments of the of books from the poet's library, enriched several classes of persons above referred with copious marginal notes; besides let. to, they have unanimously testified in favor ters to Anne Hathaway, Lord Southamp- of their authenticity, and declared that ton, and others; a “ Profession of Faith,” where there was such a mass of evidence, legal contracts, deeds of gift, and auto- internal and external, it was impossible, graph receipts. The external evidence for amidst such various sources of detection, the authenticity of these precious remains for the art of imitation to have hazarded was pronounced by the attesting critics to so much without betraying itself, and conbe strikingly confirmed by their internal sequently that these papers can be no other evidence. The inimitable style of the than the production of Shakespeare himmaster was to be clearly discerned in the self.Respecting the source whence they unpublished writings. After hearing the were obtained, some little reserve was “ Profession of Faith ” read, Warton ex- unavoidably necessary. The editor “reclaiined, “We have very fine things in our ceived them from his son, Samuel William Church service, and our litany abounds Henry Ireland, a young man then under with beauties; but here is a man who has nineteen years of age, by whom the discovdistanced us all!” Boswell, before sign- ery was accidentally made at the house of ing the certificate of authenticity fell upon a gentleman of considerable property.” his knees to kiss “the invaluable relics of The contracts to which Shakespeare was a our bard,” and, “in a tone of enthusiasm party were “first found among a mass of and exultation, thanked God that he had family papers, and soon afterwards the lived to witness the discovery, and . : . deed of gift to William Henry Ireland, could now die in peace." The public in- described as Shakespeare's friend, in conterest excited by the discovery was so sequence of having saved his life from.

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drowning in the Thames.". The owner of | In like manner the phrase "presented the papers was struck by the coincidence nakedness" in the quarto has been corthat they should be discovered by a name. rupted from “Adam-lyke nakednesse" in sake of this person, who bore the same the MS. The poet's own opinion of these arms, and when further searches disclosed variations between the original and the the existence of some title-deeds which printed text of his plays is plainly declared established his right to a valuable estate, in a deed of trust to John Hemynge, he generously rewarded the young anti- which forms part of the present collection : quary's services by a present of all the “Shod they bee ever agayne imprintedd I Shakespearian MSS. that could be found doe orderr thatt tbeye bee soe donn from at either of his houses in town or country. these mye true writtenn playes, ande nott The most precious portions of the collec. from those nowe prynted." tion were brought to light at the latter. The preface concludes with a glowing Permission to publish them had been given announcement of the yet unpublished man. by the owner, but with the express stipu- uscripts, including the “play of. Vortigern,' lation that his name should not appear. now preparing for representation at Drury His reasons for withholding it the editor Lane." Facsimiles are then given of the did not feel justified in asking, nor would acknowledged autographs of Shakespeare he importune him" to subject himself to for comparison with the signatures atthe impertinence and licentiousness of tached to the following documents. Passliterary curiosity and cavil, unless he ing over such as are of a formal character, should himself voluntarily come forward." we will select extracts from those which The supposition that a disclosure of the illustrate the personal indicia of style rename was requisite to remove any doubts lied upon by the editor and his fellowrespecting the authenticity of the MSS. experts as the crucial evidence of authenwould be scouted by “the real critic or ticity. The first shall be from a letter antiquarian” as an insult to his “art or addressed by the poet to“ Anna Hatherrescience.” “ So superior and transcendent waye,” enclosing a braided lock of his is the genius of Shakespeare, that scarce hair: any attempts to rival or imitate him, and those too contemptible to notice, have ever with thye balmye kysses, forre thenne indeede

I praye you perfume thys mye poore locke been made.” The style would speak for shalle Kynges themmeselves bowe and paye itself. “ To the man of taste and lover of homage toe itte. I doe assure thee no rude simplicity, to the sound critic ... it will hande hath knottedde itte-thye Willye alone be apparent, upon collating the printed hath done the worke. Neytherre-the gyldedde copies of " Lear” with the MS. now dis- bawble thatte envzronnes the heade of Maj. covered, that the alterations in the former estye noe norre honourres moste weyghtye were introduced by the players, and are woulde give mee halfe the joye as didde thysse

The feelinge soul and simple diction which so eminently thatte whiche commeth nyghest unto God, deviations from that spontaneous flow of mye. lyttle worke forre thee.

thatte dydde nearest approache untoe itte was distinguish this great author of nature.'

meeke and gentle charytye, forre thatte virrtue Parallel passages from the MS. and the O Anna doe I love, doe' I cheryshe thee inne quarto of 1608 are adduced for compari- mye hearte, forre thou arte ass a talle cedarre

In Act II., scene 2, the speech of stretchynge forthe its branches, and succourGoneril's steward is thus given in the ynge the smalle plants fromme nyppynge winnequarto:

terre or the boysterousse wyndes. Farewelle,

toe-morrowe bye times I will see thee, tille Tript me behinde, being down, insulted, raild, thenne Adewe sweet love, And put upon him such a deal of man That worthied him, got praises of the King

William Shakespeare. For him attempting who was self-subdued, And in the flechment of this dread exploit

We have next a copy of verses to the Drew on mee heere againe ;

same lady, of which the following is a

specimen : where the MS. reads :

Though Age with witherd hand doe stryke Tript mee behynde beynge downe insultede The forme moste fayre, the face moste bryghte, raylde,

Stille dothe she leave unnetouchedde and And putte onne hymme soe much o the manne

trewe, That' worthydde hymme and gotte hymme Thye Willye's love and fryendshyppe too.

prayses o the Kinge And forre the attempte of thys his softe subdud A letter of acknowledgment to Lord exployte

Southampton for an act of bounty runs in Drew onne mee heere agayne.

this strain :


Thine everre,

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