ter upon his arrival in South Africa were war. Mr. Trollope travelled through the of the most formidable and complicated colonies in an easy, good-humored manner, description. They were aggravated by the and brought back the impression that fact that his own ministers were absolutely Boers and Kaffirs were both, in their way, a incapable of foreseeing any danger or pro- good sort of people, travelling slowly onviding against any emergency; and that wards on the track of civilization; but he he had at last to dismiss them. When the writes without a suspicion that he had war broke out on the Kei, ber Majesty's been treading on a volcano, or that pas. forces on the frontier consisted of the sions were at work which might speedily, greater part of one regiment, the first bat- in the opinion of Sir Bartle Frere, involve talion of the twenty-fourth, the same corps the whole of South Africa in a conflagra. which has since perished so heroically at tion. Mr. Theal's volume is by far the Insandlana, but with no cavalry and no most accurate and useful compendium that artillery. Even the horses of the infantry exists of the history of South Africa. It soldiers selected for mounted service had derives additional interest from the fact been sold at the request of the Cape min- that it was written, and well written, in the istry. The organization of the frontier country, and printed, and well printed, by police was exceedingly defective; and al- native compositors at the missionary insti. though volunteers were not wanting, both tution at Lovedale. We shall avail ourin the towns and amongst the burgher selves largely in the following pages of the farmers of the district, all regular prepara information it contains. Mr. Theal writes tions for defence had been not only neg. in the enthusiastic spirit of a colonist and lected, but opposed, by the Cape govern- a missionary. He thinks that the Cape ment. This being the case, as is now Colony is destined" by a higher hand than formally stated by the commander of the that of man to bring into the sisterhood of forces in South Africa himself in the vol. nations the people of a continent hitherto ume before us, the wonder is, not that dis- steeped in misery and vice, and that the asters have occurred, but that they did not future cannot be otherwise than grand and occur sooner, and that they have not been bright” (p. 71). We wish to speak with more complete. The war in Kaffraria was, all possible respect of the South African in spite of all difficulties, brought to a suc- missions, who have been the best allies of cessful termination. The details of the civil government, and have done whatever operations are related with simplicity and has been done to implant habits of indusperspicuity by Sir Arthur Cunynghame, try and culture among these savage races. and we do not propose to revert to them, But it is impossible to read Mr. Theal's though the campaign was a much more thrilling narrative without the deepest feelserious affair than Mr. Trollope would lead ings of horror and compassion. The blood his readers to suppose. It suffices for our of civilized and uncivilized man has been present purpose to remark that, in spite of shed in torrents in these dreadful wars. the gallant and successful efforts of a hand- Massacre has succeeded massacre. Flourful of brave fellows in this contest, the ishing villages and homesteads have been impression on the native tribes generally burnt and destroyed. Native tribes have had been that of the extreme weakness of been extirpated.

At the end of every the British power, and all the evidence struggle it has been supposed that this before us proves that an opinion had war was the last, and that the future at spread amongst them that the time was least was “grand and bright.” Civilizacome when the white man might be ex. tion has, we would fain believe, made some pelled from the land and driven into the progress; but nowhere on the face of the

earth has this been accomplished at a more In order to understand more thoroughly frightful cost of human life, and even now this critical state of affairs, we shall avail its steps are threatened and insecure. ourselves of the works we have placed at The “ History of Natal,” by Mr. Brooks, the head of this article. Sir Arthur Cun. an old resident in the colony, is of peculiar ynghame gives us a vivid picture of the value and interest at the present time,


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when the impending contest between bar-dred and twenty thousand square miles barism and civilization is to be fought out more, as much as the whole of Italy. on the borders of Natal itself. The vol. Elsewhere it is stated at forty million ume is extremely well edited by Dr. R. J. acres, of which only four hundred thouMann, and it supplies a vast deal of infor-sand under cultivation. Roughly mation which may be of great utility at speaking, this extent is equal to that of this moment.

France, Germany, Belgium, and Holland To these works must be added Herr von united, or five times the area of Great Weber's “Four Years in Africa," wbich is Britain. The land rises in ridges from a comprehensive and most entertaining the shores of the Indian Ocean to a level narrative of life in South Africa by a Ger. plateau at an elevation of three or four man gentleman who resided there for some thousand feet. The rivers, descending time, and actually worked a claim at the from this height, are rapid and not navigadiamond fields in his own behalí. His ble – impassable torrents at one season, account of this diamond traffic is by far or dried up in rocky channels at another. the best we have met with, and he after. Forests are scarce, and therefore fuel not wards visited all the British South African abundant. The want of wood, both for colonies and the Free State. Herr von construction and for fuel, tells in a variety Weber's sympathies are all with the Boers. of ways. Thus there is scarcely a boarded He hates the Kaffirs with the fervor of a floor in the whole upper country, and fires Dutchman, although he is in fact a Saxon. are only made for cooking. There is no He thinks that South Africa is to be colon-hay, an inconvenient circumstance in a ized and civilized by men of the German country where everybody rides or driyes; race, and he is not always just or kindly to horses and oxen are foddered on green his English neighbors. It is not worth corn-stalks dried. Hence the employment while to correct his blunders and misstate-of cavalry and artillery in the country is ments, though he calls Sir Bartle Frere an difficult, for horses are liable to a pecul. admiral, and speaks of Demerara as an iarly fatal disease, and they must carry island ! Upon the whole, as it is good to their forage with them. Mr. Trollope see ourselves as others see us, we are affirms that the transport of a load of wood obliged to him for his criticisms; and he from the coast to Bloemfontein costs 151. has certainly contrived to afford us a good Everything at the Cape depends on the deal of amusement and information, though supply of water, and this is regulated by we cannot accept his conclusion that South artificial means. With water you can grow Africa will one day be turned into a Dutch corn, hay, and trees; the difficulty lies in federal republic.

the process of irrigation. These details The South African dependencies of the are characteristic, because they affect the British crown are not only of amazing conditions of social life. The soil is fertile extent, but they comprise a variety of when moistened, but it is parched in sumpeculiar conditions dissimilar to those of mer, when the lack of water is felt, the any other colony. The combination of surface being rich but not deep. This these circumstances presents a problem want of water is supplied to the flocks of of extreme intricacy both to the govern. sheep and herds of deer by the extraorment at the Cape and to the government dinary abundance of succulent plants on of Great Britain. At the present moment which these animals feed. It is therefore it may be of interest if we endeavor briefly a pastoral, not a corn-growing country, and to point out what these conditions are. is in most parts ill adapted to support a The territory of the Cape Colony has a large civilized population. Famines are breadth of about three hundred miles, and not unknown; the natives sometimes die a length from east to west of about eight by myriads of starvation, and even the hundred, comprising an area of four hun. British troops have suffered from the want dred and fifty thousand square miles, not of supplies. Except meat and fish, almost including the recently annexed territory of all the necessaries of life are dear. The the Transvaal, which consists of one hun. | wool of South Africa sells in England for

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one-third less than the wool of Australia, ( of slavery or of freedom, are not incapable the quality being inferior.

of receiving instruction in the arts of civilHence South Africa is not to be comized life. It is there that the Christian pared with North America or Australia as missions and schools have produced the a field for emigration from Europe. The most creditable results ; and in the Cape result is that the white population is still Colony, the Kaffir, earning 1os. a week and extremely small, not exceeding four hun- bis food, enjoys and exercises the frandred and fifty thousand souls. Of these chise and all the rights of a citizen of a Mr. Trollope calculated that not more than free country. But it would be a mistake one hundred and twenty thousand are of to suppose that the progress of civilization English descent. Herr von Weber allows has effaced the hostility of races so widely us only ninety thousand Englishmen, and different from each other. After all, its Mr. Trollope says that there are only five influence must be extremely superficial. It thousand English occupiers of land. But appears from the census of 1875 that of if the white population is small, the black the Kaffirs within the Cape Colony whom or native population outnumbers it four- we have invested with the franchise, only fold, and in some parts (as in Natal) this 1:86 per cent. can read. The prevailing disproportion amounts to sixteen to one. vices are indolence and drunkenness. In The average is eight to one. The white spite of the enormous native population, population of Natal, which is chiefly Brit- but a small proportion of the Kaffirs or ish, has only increased from sixteen thou. Zulus will work. The land is infested with sand to twenty thousand in the last twenty idle savages; wbile, to plant the sugaryears, and it seems that the progeny of canes of Natal or the mealie-gardens of the white parents can with difficulty be reared Cape, coolies and Chinese are imported there. Moreover, beyond the confines of from Asia. There are ten thousand cool. British territory lies the inexhaustible na. ies in Natal. Herr von Weber would tive population of the African continent people the Cape with yellow men. The innumerable races of men, savage, super-country suffers from a redundant popula. stitious, and warlike, who are brought into tion of strong wild men and yet a scarcity contact with the advancing pioneers of of labor. The citizens of the Free State, civilization, and attracted, rather than re-wiser in their generation, admit no Kaffic pelled, by the prospect of plunder, by the within their frontier who will not work. wages of labor, by ihe desire of drink, or, This loafing class is of course the least above all, for the acquisition of arms. civilized and the most dangerous part of Whatever else the black man has learned the native population. of us, he knows that the possession of a The existence of the white settler in rifle makes him formidable; and such has South Africa, and probably of his descendbeen the infatuation or the corruption of ants for many generations, must be one of the local government that we believe seven danger, if not of warfare. He carries his hundred and fifty thousand stand of arms, life in his hand. The very laborers he muskets or rifles, have been sold within employs may become his enemies. The the last few years to the natives. These wages he pays them will be spent in arms, native races, which are far too numerous which may be used against him. Six ever to be exterminated, like the New Kaffir wars have broken out in half a cenZealanders or the Australian aborigines, or tury, and hideous tales of domestic massato be driven back into their wildernesses, cre are not infrequent. No wonder that like the North American Indians, are dar- the British emigrant, free to choose his ing and brave. Some of them, we know, future home in lands where life and prophave made considerable progress in the art erty are secure, declines to expose him

In short, the South African colo- self and family to these dangers. We nies are permeated and surrounded by therefore assert with entire conviction that hosts of savages armed with the weapons these South African territories will never of civilized men. But it must also be said be colonized or cultivated by any large that some of these tribes are friendly to number of settlers from this country. The the British government, though no great Englishmen who have gone there are reliance can be placed upon them; and either traders or speculators, in the ports, that the Kaffir race shows some aptitude or mines, or diamond fields. for labor and industry which raises it above The Dutch Boers accepted these hard the North American or Australian Indians, conditions, but they accepted them with or even the Maories of New Zealand. feelings of mutual batred and distrust. To The most encouraging feature of the case them the slavery of the native races apis that the Africans, whether in the state peared to be inseparable from their posi

of war.


tion, and the philanthropic policy of the were constructed. Nearly a million was British government utterly unintelligible. promised for the completion of Port ElizHence, even within the slender ranks of abeth. The colonial ministers largely the white population, discord prevailed, availed themselves of the influence de. and our administration has found it as rived from this plethora of wealth. Strange difficult to deal with the Boers as with the stories are told, but which we are unable to natives.

verify, of the contracts and bargains they The discovery of diamonds in what is made. At any rate an immense amount of now called West Griqualand, in 1871, in- patronage was thrown into their hands, and creased and aggravated these difficulties with patronage power. Hence these minisby the introduction of the element of sud-ters of the Cape Colony thwarted and opden and excessive wealth. A fresh popu- posed, for their personal and local interests, lation of civilized men was attracted to the all the efforts of the imperial government diamond fields from all parts of the earth to deal in a becoming spirit with the general by the love of adventure and the hope of interests of South Africa. They defeated gain ; but they consisted for the most part the confederation scheme which had been of the wails and strays of humanity. recommended by Lord Carnarvon and Mr. Fresh bordes of natives were also drawn Froude. They utterly neglected the deto the diamond fields by the enormous fence of the provinces, and made no pro. wages which could be earned there, to be vision for the improvement of the colonial spent in the purchase of arms and gun- military establishment. They refused to powder.* It has been computed that the acknowledge the danger at their gates, value of the diamonds found in the last even when it was pointed out to them; seven years has reached ten millions ster. and, provided the traders in Cape Town ling, and that the wages paid to natives at and the western districts were making the diggings in four years amounted to large profits, they affected a sublime indif. 1,800,oool. Here, then, we have a curious ference to the perils of Natal and Kaffrasequence of events. The precious stones ria, and even invaded the restrictions which and the ostrich feathers, which form two the legislature had tardily attempted to of the most important parts of the wealth place on the sale of arms. It must, how and exports of the Cape Colony, serve to ever, in fairness be stated that these gratify the vanity and avarice of Europe ; remarks apply to the late Cape adminis. but on the country producing them they tration rather than to the present ministers, have bestowed the still more fatal gift of who have endeavored to atone for some of the means and implements of internecine the errors of their predecessors.

In 1853 constitutional government was Another curious result may be traced to established at the Cape of Good Hope, the same cause. The Cape Colony, which which had previously been

a crown colony: down to 1871 had been one of limited | In 1872 the Responsible Government Bill financial resources, suddenly became rich. (as it was termed) was passed by a majority The larger part of the profits made in the of one in the Cape Parliament, aná the diamond diggings passed, of course, into principle of popular representative and the pockets of the adventurers who had ministerial responsibility carried to the flocked to Bloemfontein and Kimberley. fullest extent. But the outlying provinces, But an impulse was given to trade, imports, and the separate colony of Natal, are not and expenditure, which told immediately included within the limits of the constitu. on the finances of the colony. The im- tion. Hence there is the utmost diversity ports, which had been 2,352,0431. in 1870, rose to 5,558,2151. in 1875. The colonial the estimates, whilst the actual expenditure has been revenue was 831,2111. in 1870; nearly two considerably below the estimated expenditure. The millions in 1874; and about a million and revenue in 1875 was equal to 21. 45. 6d. per head of the

population, the total population (including, natives) a half in 1876 and 1877. The consequence being 720,984; the total revenue 1,602,9181. ; the public was that the colonial government largely debt was 3,847, 108l. ; and the annual charge 187,229. extended its operations. Great public The object of the new loan 'of four millions was the

These figures were, however, subsequently enlarged. works were undertaken. Loans were con- extension of public works; but the Cape government tracted. Five hundred miles of railroad seem to have lost sight of the fact that they cannot be

allowed to throw on the mother country the expenses

of war, whilst they are raising money for profitable inHerr von Weber states that the sales of gunpowder vestments for their own benefit. The Cape Colony to natives at Kimberley in fifteen months from April 1, receives the customs duties on the supplies from Eu1873, to July 1, 1874, ainounted in value to 75,000l. rope which are consumed in the interior; hence it levies

| A Cape of Good Hope government loan for four taxes on a portion of the territory and the population millions was issued on July 10, 1878. The memoran- which do not belong to it, and even on the Free Orange dumn for the information of investors states that the State, which is surrounded on all sides by British provo actual revenue has for several years largely exceeded l inces


in the administration of the country. The / ures which may become necessary, fall governor alone represents the common in within the competency of the colonial govterests of the whole territory, and the ernment or legislature. These are measpower of the governor is at the Cape ex- ures which the imperial goverument has tremely limited. As at least two-thirds of reluctantly been compelled to take. Minthe white population are Dutch, the En- isters are responsible for them not to a glish settlers, who reside chiefly in the Cape Parliament elected by a strange medeastern province, are, of course entirely ley of colonists, Dutch Boers and Kaffirs outnumbered and outvoted by the Dutch (for even the Kaffirs have votes), but to the party. So that even within the Cape Colony House of Commons.

The whole ques the western and the eastern districts are at tion must be dealt with as one of imperial variance. Had the duties of government policy; and although we should have much been purely local, they might probably preferred to leave the Cape colonists, the have been sufficiently well performed by Boers, and the Kaffirs to settle their own these local politicians. But when they quarrels, since we have been compelled to rose to the importance of the affairs of an interfere with a large detachment of the empire — the military defence of a huge forces of Great Britain, we may fairly territory, the organization of an efficient claim to determine the future policy to be police, the conduct of difficult negotiations pursued in South Africa by larger considwith subt or hostile native chiefs and erations than the politicians of Cape Town tribes, and the adoption of a system of might embrace, especially as in many impolicy embracing the whole of South portant particulars their interests are at Africa - it is not too much to say that the variance with our own. Cape statesmen were utterly incompetent It would be difficult to show that the to the discharge of these duties, and that people of the United Kingdom derive any they bave miserably failed in the perform- direct advantage from the possessions of ance of them. The result has been not the crown in South Africa, except that only disgrace and defeat, but danger to which consists in the occupation of an imevery civilized interest in the country. portant naval and commercial station at For aught the Cape ministry, could or Cape Town and in Simon's Bay. This truth would have done, the whole native popula- has been repeatedly recognized by British tion might have risen, and the organized statesmen. As far as England is conforce of the Zulus might have ravaged the cerned, it would be far better to occupy land. It is evident from Sir Bartle and fortify a position not much larger than Frere's despatches and from General the fortress and territory of Gibraltar, at Cunynghame's reports that these perils the extremity of South Africa. For the were not imaginary. Their apprehen- reasons given above, South Africa can sions have since been confirmed by more never compete with North America, or serious events. They were foreseen and Australia as a field of emigration and settlepointed out by Herr von Weber, who said ment. Although it has been in our own posin 1876 that the sword of Damocles hung session for seventy years, and in that of over these colonies. And the end of it is, the Dutch for two centuries, the European for the present, that the British govern population is small. Natal, with subtropiment, which resisted as long as it could cal climate, has been occupied for thirty the pressing appeals for reinforcements, years; yet it barely contains twenty thouhas been compelled to despatch an army sand white men. The bulk of the populain hot haste to the eastern coast, and to tion of South Africa consists, and must lay on the table of the House of Commons continue to consist, of semi-reclaimed savan estimate of a million and a half as the ages. In countries in which the laboring first instalment required for the present by population consists of an inferior race, another Cape war. We say “for the pres. the dignity of labor itself suffers: the ent,” because we entertain no doubt that white man, whether under a system of the South African colonies both can and slavery or of freedom, scorns to perform ought to defray the cost of their own tasks which he can delegate to helots. defence. It is quite enough to lend He conceives himself to be an overseer of them British troops without laying the colored men, not a fellow-laborer. No burden on the British taxpayers. From English agricultural laborer will work side the

moment that British' troops are by side with a Kaffir. If the South Afriin the field, and that this country is can territories were in reality a Britconducting military operations in South ish-born colony, we should place more Africa, it is impossible to admit that the reliance on the power of the race to work control of the forces, or the political meas. Tout its own destinies. But the population


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