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sult in low cost of labor to the employer. And since large and increasing quantiSuch workmen never have any“ blue Mon- ties of cotton are not only taking the inday.” The workman who in this country land routes by rail for use in Northern habitually becomes intoxicated is soon mills, but also for shipment to Liverpool discharged, and his place is filled by one from New York and Boston, it must be in who respects himself and values his place the nature of things that those who buy in too much to risk his position in dissipa- New York and Boston will have an advan. tion.
tage in price about equal to the cost of Competition with England in supplying shipment to England, with insurance and the markets of Asia, Africa, and South other necessary charges included. This America with cotton goods is now perhaps advantage cannot be less than a farthing the best criterion by which to gauge our or half-cent per pound, and the factory that ability to compete in other branches of uses cotton in the manufacture of coarse manufacture. It has been often assumed and medium goods, such as are wanted in in England that the increasing shipments the markets named, at half a cent a pound of cotton goods from this country have advantage in the price, can pay twenty per been forced by necessity, and merely con- cent higher wages and yet land the goods, sisted of lots sold below cost as a means other things being equal, neutral marof obtaining ready money; but there is no kets at the same cost with its foreign ground whatever for this general assumpo competitors who pay the higher price for tion, even though some small shipments cotton. may have been made at first with this view. Again, in one of the largest mills in this Our export of cotton fabrics amounts as yet country, more than one-half of whose to but seven or eight per cent of our pro- products now go to China and Africa, the duction, and is but a trifle compared to improvements and changes in machinery that of Great Britain ; but it is not made since 1860 have given the following re. at a loss, and it constitutes a most impor- sult. In 1860 the average year's product of tant element in the returning prosperity one operative was 5,317 lbs. of cloth, and of our cotton-mills. The goods exported the average earnings of women in the mill are mostly made by strong and prosperous were $3.26 per week. In 1878 the average corporations, paying regular dividends. year's product was 7,923 lbs. cloth, and the
They consist mainly of coarse sheetings average of women's earnings $4.34 per and drills, and are sold by the manufac-week. It may also be considered that the turers to merchants, who send them to gold dollar of 1878 will buy fifteen to China, Africa, and South America in pay- twenty per cent more of the commodities ment for tea, silk, ivory, sugar, gums, in common use than the gold dollar of hides, and wool. They are not made by 1860. In that factory the average year's operatives who earn less than the recent work of one operative will give about one or present rates of wages in England, but thousand six hundred Chinamen five in most departments of the mills by those pounds or sixteen yards each of cotton who earn as much or more. This compe-drill, and the entire cost of labor in maktition had been fairly begun before the ing the drill, including all payments made, late war in this country, but it is now from the agent who controls the factory tinued under better conditions. The mills down to the scrub who washes the floor, is of New England are now relatively much about one and a quarter cents a yard. nearer the cotton-fields than they were This includes the cost of stamping and then, owing to through connections by packing, the custom of this country being rail. Prior to 1860 substantially all the to conduct all the processes of manufaccotton went to the seaports of the cotton ture and the preparation of the cloth for states, and from there the cost of moving the market in the same establishment. it to the North or to Liverpoof varied but The standard printing cloth, twenty-eight little ; but at the present day a large and inches wide, the fabric more largely proannually increasing portion of the cotton duced than any other, is made at a labor used in the North is bought in the interior cost of less than one centa yard, including markets and carried in covered cars di- also all the salaries and wages paid and rectly to the mills, where the bales are the cost of packing. It will therefore be delivered clean, and much more free from apparent that the reason why our exports damage and waste than those which are of manufactured cotton, and for similar carried down the Southern rivers on boats reasons of other goods and wares, do not and barges, dumped upon the wharves, and increase more rapidly, is not to be found then compressed to the utmost for ship- in any excess of cost or in any fault in ment by sea.
quality, but in the simple fact that during
the fifteen years of war, inflation, railway | new conditions shall have been adopted. mania, and municipal extravagance that our friends abroad must not expect great preceded the hard times from which we and revolutionary changes in the matter of are just emerging, little or no attention was taxation. No oppressive duty on food or could be paid to foreign markets, and compels action, and there are no advocates the very habit of foreign commerce was for rash or rapid changes. Whether right lost. The ways and means of commerce or wrong in principle, our system now in cannot be improvised in a year, or in five force was adopted to meet the emergency years, but the foundations have lately been of war, and our industry has been more or said, and our competition may soon become less moulded by and 'to it. Almost all even more serious than it now is, unless sources of direct taxation are absorbed by the increasing demand of our home mar, the states as their own sources of revenue, kets for the products of our mills shall and the national revenue must of necessity again absorb all that we make. be drawn mainly from duties upon imports. Whether or not we are ready to build mills It would seem that the experience of naof any kind for the purpose of supplying tions during the last five years has proved foreign markets is a question that the fu- that neither protection nor free trade have ture only can determine.
availed much to prevent disaster, and perIt may here be proper to say that perhaps from this conviction it now happens haps the migration of industrial centres, that there is less discussion on these disso ably treated in a recent number of the puted theories than there was ten years Fortnightly Review,* is not to be either since, but rather an earnest desire on the promoted or prevented by the possession part of almost all men, whatever their con. of great deposits of coal and iron. May victions may be, that contention shall be it pot be true that as less and less power avoided, and that whenever the reform of is required, as machinery is simplified and our war tariff is fairly undertaken, it shall made to run with less friction, and as im- be entered upon with care and deliberaprovements are made in the combustion of tion, and proceed with as much regard to coal to the utilization of a larger portion of caution in making changes as was had in the force contained in each ton, the mere England in the conduct of the great reproximity of coal and iron, and the mere forms begun in 1842 under the sagacious possession of these crude forces will not leadership of Sir Robert Peel. suffice, but that the control of great It may also be well for our English branches of industry will depend on what friends to consider that according to their may be called finer points. It is not very present theory the removal of duties on many years since a young man came to imports enabled them to manufacture at New England froin the far West to visit less cost and greatly enlarged their marthe works where ploughs were made : be kets. If such was the effect of the gradtold the New England craftsmen that they ual and cautious method of change adopted did not fully understand the nature of the at the instance of Sir Robert Peel, and prairie soil, that they had not calculated first applied to the materials which entered the true curves of least resistance, and into the processes of English manufacture, that he intended to establish a plough fac- what might be the effect of the same tory on the Mississippi. They did not method in our case ? If we begin by much fear his competition, but now his abating the duties on materials, while great factory, employing hundreds of moderately reducing those on finished workmen, furnishes ploughs even for east- products which must be kept at a revenue ern use.
point in almost any case, may not our comThe recent period of depression has petition become greater rather than less ? taught the lesson of economy in all manu- If it is becoming serious while we are faciures, and the northern or manufactur- handicapped according to the English ing states are just ready to begin work theory by a very high war tariff, what may under the conditions of a sound currency it be when by common consent without and a system of taxation which, though contention it is modified and reduced in a yet onerous and unfit in many ways, is but judicious way, and one carefully considered a light burthen compared to what it has so as not to cause disaster by too radical been. The country is fairly launched upon changes ? That such must be the method the discussion of economic questions, a of change all are now agreed, to whatever discussion which will not end until the sys- school they belong: tem of national taxation best fitted to our In reading articles written in England
regarding the effect of tariff legislation in • Living Age, No. 1808, p. 323.
the United States, it frequently appears
to be the opinion of the writers that the our vast fields of adjacent coal and iron people of this country have made a mis- could long remain unused. Even in these take in undertaking any branch of manu- last three or four years of extreme depresfacturing industry, and that they would sion, a large number of new furnaces have have been much more prosperous had they been constructed and put in blast in the confined their attention mainly to agricul- Hocking Valley of Ohio, and the producture; conversely that the manufactures of tion of the best iron is increasing with the United States would cease to exist if great rapidity at that point. Neither can they were not sustained by a very high it be assumed that with our advantage of and in many respects prohibitive tariff. position in respect to the production of An example of this method of reasoning cotton and food, we could be prevented is found in the reprint of a series of other from at least manufacturing the coarse wise very able articles by Mr. A. J. Wil and medium goods that constitute far more son, under the title of the “Resources of than one-half of the world's demand for Foreign countries.”. Mr. Wilson says : cotton fabrics; or that a people whose “There is no use in denying the plain fact ancestors had clothed themselves in homethat the States have succeeded by their spun woollen cloth, could long be prevented high-tariff policy ip diverting a consider- from applying machinery to at least the able part of the industrial energies of the common fabrics that serve the purposes of community from the pursuits natural to, the million. and most profitable in, a new country, to Apart even from these special branches, the highly artificial, and, for America, we should surely retain our work in steel mostly very expensive industries of long- wares, for which we even now import a settled and civilized nations. Were the part of the raw material, and yet send the sheltering tariff swept away, it is very finished product back to Sheffield to be questionable if any, save a few special sold; we should retain our great manufacmanufactures of certain kinds of tools, ture of leather and all its products; of iron machinery, railway cars, and fancy goods, wares of every name and nature; of all and a few of the cruder manufactures, the products of wood in which we excel; could maintain their ground.”
of all the tools and machinery of agriculIt probably escaped Mr. Wilson's notice ture and of the railway service; of all the that a nation that had passed through a fittings for the building of houses ; of clothpopular national election under the most ing, of carriages and wagons; in short, of exciting conditions possible, such as the all the lesser branches of manufacturing last election of president, without an act and mechanical industry which may not of violence in the whole land, had a sort impose upon the imagination by the inagof claim to be called civilized; but apart nitude of the buildings in which they are from this unconscious slip of the pen the conducted, but yet give employment to whole assumption may be questioned. millions where the operatives in the speThe fallacy lies in the common unthinking cial branches to which the term manufachabit of confining the term manufactures tures is apt to be limited can be counted to the product of great textile factories, only by hundreds of thousands. The time iron-mills, and metal works. It is not even has gone by for any one to dream of rele. necessary to remind writers as able as gating the people of this country to the Mr. Wilson that the war of the Revolu- single pursuit of agriculture under any tion was greatly promoted by the attempt possible policy, or even to the crude forms of Great Britain to prevent the establish-of manufacture. Foreign nations can ment of iron and steel works and manu- never again supply us with any large profactures of wool in the American colonies; portion of the staple goods or wares that but we may admit that if the sheltering constitute the principal part of our use of tariff were suddenly swept away, great manufactured articles. Goods which dedisaster might ensue to special branches pend upon fashion, fancy, and style, and of industry that have undoubtedly been articles of comfort or luxury that we can developed or promoted by its enactment. afford to buy abroad, we shall import in Even then the vast proportion of our ever-increasing quantities as our means of manufactures would remain unimpaired, payment increase with our returning prosand the industries barmed by “sweeping perity, and we shall, doubtless, continue to changes such as not even the most pro- collect a large revenue from them. It may nounced believers in ultimate free trade also be considered that the repugnance to would now dream of proposing, could only direct taxation is so great that even if it be retarded in their development. It can were generally admitted that indirect taxa. not be assumed by any observant man that I tion was much more costly, the majority of
the people would still choose to indulge in our alleged greatness, while those who the luxury of the indirect method, and can like a great Southern statesman then afford to do so if they so choose.
“dreaded the future of our country when It is beginning to be perceived that not they remembered that God was just,” kept only the great moral curse of slavery has silent. Now we make no boast, but only been removed, but that in that removal mark the fact that even abundance may perhaps the greatest industrial revolution cease to be a blessing when it cannot reach ever accomplished has happened. What those who need it. We are seeking to ever may have been the abuses of the bal. cure evils that war had left behind, and lot granted to the negro up to this time, it now that we stand once more upon the has yet so far protected him that the in- firm ground of a sound currency and feel centive to labor has not been wanting, and that we have learned the true lesson of the mere fact that the last eight crops of economy and thrift, we look with sadness cotton raised by free labor exceed the nine at the distress in other lands and hope ante-war crops of slavery is alone proof that we may help to remove it. sufficient of the advance in the production
EDWARD ATKINSON. of wealth that has already ensued. Refer: Boston, MASSACHUSETTS, ence has already been made to the rapid January, 1879. progress of Texas, but Georgia invites the immigrant to easier conditions of life. The upper pine lands of the great state are now to be bought by the hundred thousand
From Blackwood's Magazine. acres at half a dollar to a dollar an acre, A MEDIUM OF LAST CENTURY. the true country for the abundant produce tion of wool where no winter shelter for sheep is needed and where all the condi- THOSE West India balls of the olden tions of health exist. The almost unknown time have been described by so many valleys that lie between the Blue Ridge powerful pens that I must again take the and the lateral ranges of Virginia and liberty of abbreviating Mr. Clifton's someNorth Carolina offer homes for hardy men, what' lengthy description, which when Dearer the centre of civilization than the it was written being new, would no doubt far West, but passed by until now because have been infinitely amusing. Quiet of the curse of slavery. If the well-trained as he was, he seems to have had a keen tenant farmers of Great Britain who are sense of huinor; and as he wrote be. dow surrendering their farms should turn fore there was a Michael Scott or their attention to the opportunities offered Marryat, he did well to indulge his in many parts of Virginia, they would find talent. He tells of the wonderful dresses that it needs only brains and industry to of the company, which to his eye, fresh put that great state once more on the list from Europe, presented an appearance examong the rich and prosperous communi- quisitely quizzical. He was more im ties. °Land can be bought in fee simple for pressed by the degree and quantity of a fraction of the annual rent of an English beauty in the ladies than by their dresses; farm, while its proximity to the North but the men he evidently considered to be gives assurance of ready' markets for its what we should now call “guys." The products.
busha from Higson's Gap, perspiring in a May it not perhaps be in the order of laced velvet coat, is celebrated by him, as events that our competition with England also the wearers of various costumes, some in supplying neutral markets with manu- including thick wigs. But especially he factured goods, will be warded off by the notes the hilarity of the whole company, home demand on our mills and workships where nobody was blasé or cynical, and all to supply the needs of one of the great the world seemed determined to have a tidal waves of population that seems about night of thorough enjoyment if possible. to be directed upon our shores from for- He was astonished to observe how all eign lands, and that this great cycle of these people, so languid and inanimate in change, which began in our war of 1861, the daytime, became now at night filled will be ended upon the same soil by the with the very spirit of action: how they incursion of a great industrial army de. tore and scampered about the room, the voted to the arts of peace to whom that ladies more alive if possible than their war has opened the way by destroying partners, their eyes sparkling, their cheeks slavery? When this country was cursed glowing, their feet iwinkling; while the by slavery it was natural that those who barbarous music screained, and scratched, toasted at all should boast too much of land brayed, and clanged, but entirely an.
swered the purpose for which it was. pro: everybody was tolerably unrestrained. vided. Spite of his quiet habits he found Old Sandy Chisholm appeared there at himself more than once in the stream first the very pink of good-humored conwhich, like that brook which brags that it descension. He joked with the young goes on forever, flowed incessantly towards ladies, and had his cracks with the men. the “ tap” where a dozen colored people Everybody was ambitious of drinking dispensed powerful refreshments through healths with this great man, who bore the a window opening on a veranda, and freely process exceedingly well, and seemed only exchanged compliments and observations to become more good-humored and jocular with their customers. He understood, for (perhaps a little broader in his fun) as the he sympathized with, the thirst of his own hobnobbing went on. After supper, he sex; but it made him open his eyes to see swore he would have a reel; and calling dainty, delicate girls come up to the bar forth some of his countrymen and counand toss off tumblers of beer, while the trywomen, roared at the orchestra for attendants remarked to them, — “My, “ Loard Macdonald.” But to the “ spring” missy, you really lubly dis evening ! me the native band was quite unequal: howlong for come hax you to dance ;” or beit, a hard-baked Caledonian of the com“Hei, my sweet inissy, you too hapsom! pany, laying hold of a musician's feedle, you pleay de debbil wid de buckrah gen- made it as potent as the chanter of Alister tlemen to-night; fifty or a hunded of dem, M'Alister, and set them working like derme hear, like a-mad, preasin' for you vishes. Old Chisholm vaulted and wrig, beauty: Gad sen'dere doan't nobody gled and tossed his nose in the air, and killed before de mornin', dat all me say ! snapped his fingers, and, every time the and he marvelled to see them, thus re- tune recommenced, shouted like a Stentor. freshed, return to the business of the Never mind if it was in the tropics; the evening with a ten times better will than fit was on, and the dance kept going with when they began. The entertainment, he such animation as was never seen before, says, took place in the court-house. The and never since, except, perhaps, in Allofresh night air was let in from all sides, way Kirkyard. By Jupiter, it appears to and would have been more agreeable than have been great fun! But the ensign it was if, in passing through the verandas could not, he says, have given his descripand doors and windows, it had not swept tion of it at the time, or for years after. over some hundreds of negroes and ne- His eyes took in all that was going on, but gresses who thronged these communica- his mind was intent on far other things. tions, and laughed and shouted and made He had gone to the ball determined to remarks with tolerable freedom, so as to bring his suspense to an end, if only elicit sometimes from within a hint of Arabella could be wrought for a while into cowskin.
a serious mood. But he was thrown off “ I hear you, Sam Swig; look out for his balance, at first entering the room, by fum-fum to-morrow, hear 'ee?"
the sight of Mr. Spence dancing with Miss “S’ep me gad, massa, it not me! it dis Chisholm and looking much at his ease Bungo; for him dam v'ice fabour mine. nay, supremely happy. This need not Hei, Bungo! is you not asheamed of have discouraged the ensign, but it was in you'self? my king ”*
those days his disposition to be timid and And then such a supper! which for diffident'in matters of feeling. He was solidity, the ensign says, was fit to put be like enough to be shy and unready at the fore famished troopers in northern Europe. best of times; but an unfavorable incident The viands disappeared, though, at a great might have the effect of painfully increasrate; and the flying of corks kept up a ing his bashfulness. He was conscious feu-de-joie till long after daybreak. Some that his resolution had received a check, few gentlemen, it is hinted, did not, after and angry with himself that such was the the third or fourth visit to the supper-room, case; while into his mind, as he stood leave that apartment again until they were gazing half entranced at the dancers, came assisted out into the sunshine; and some some lines of a poet * who was known to others who did leave it stood about youths of that time as well as Moore is to the walls of the_ball-room, a little noisy those of the present day:and facetious. But offences like these
Every passion but fond love were easily condoned; for, says Clifton,
Unto its own redress does move;
But that alone the wretch inclines * “For him"
“his:" “fabour" for "fa"resembles." The Jamaica negro com
To what prevents his own designs; monly forms his possessive pronoun by putting for before the personal.