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was the invasion and conquest of Egypt by from the hand of a historian who had a tbe Shepherds.

much finer sense. If Josephus were capaThe third great period of Egyptian ble of so bold a falsification of contempohistory which now opens has left its rec- rary history, when nothing but the protecords not at Memphis or Thebes, but at a tion of the reigning family could save him third great site, Tanis in the Delta, the from confutation, it would not be difficult Zoan of the Bible. Here the excavations to understand that he would not have hesi. of M. Mariette have yielded results as in-tated to tamper with the work of an almost teresting and unexpected as those in the unknown historian dealing with a remote Troad and at Mycenæ. We now know age. But the passage is so self-contradicthe race of the Shepherds and their place tory, and so contradicted by what follows in Egyptian history, not that chronological it, that it may be that Josephus bad an place which students are still looking for inaccurate copy of Manetho before him. in vain, but the place in the series of influ- The proper mode of dealing with this ences which form the true history of each difficult but most interesting period of country. Much we have now to unlearn, Egyptian history, the age, as far as we many old theories to discard, but at length know, of the first great war, the first inthere is a sure base on which discovery roads of the Easterns into Egypt, is that of and inquiry are building up a solid and M. Chabas, who has collected all the nalasting structure.

tive documentary evidence. His main The story of the conquest and rule of results may here be given with such addiEgypt by the Shepherds, the great convul. tional evidence as may be gleaned from sion which overthrew the old kingdom, and M. Mariette's discoveries. M. Chabas's by stirring national feeling brought the paper is an admirable criticism of the empire into light, is told in a large frag- written data: he does not, however, deal ment of Manetho's history given by Jose with the not less valuable evidence of phus. Until lately it was accepted without art. question. But the discoveries of M. Ma- We may begin by discarding the timeriette, and the researches of other scholars honored name Hyksos. The etymologies in ancient Egyptian documents, have given of it in the fragment of Manetho shown that this story, though no doubt in cannot, as M. Chabas has noticed, have many respects correct, contains such seri- been given by any one acquainted with the ous errors, that it is not to be trusted where ancient language, and the name is not the monuments and other Egyptian records found elsewhere. The appellation in Maare silent and cannot be cited to confirm netho's list, “Shepherds," is more probor correct it. We have only to lament the able, and leads to the Egyptian Menti-u vast erudition that has been diverted from by which these foreigners seem to be the fruitful study of the earlier documents called, and which certainly means “ Shepfor the vain attempt to build history of herds,” though it is not certain that this these unsound materials, and to ask how is its sense when used ethnically. Unforit can be that the Egyptian historian, gen. tunately the word Menti-u. is a generic erally trustworthy, here fails us. Proba- term. It belongs to a class of appellations bly the true answer is that Josephus writ. given to the hereditary enemies of the ing controversially, and wishing to make Egyptians, which usually, if not always, the Shepherds the same as the Iraelites, have a wide extent. Thus it occurs with has wilfully altered his authority. In an the Amu or Shemites (?) and the negroes age of entire indifference to any but Greek (Chabas, Papyrus Magique Harris," and Roman history, when, moreover, books 49). In an inscription by an Egyptian were only published in manuscript, and it priest who was a partisan of the Persians,

a serious matter to write, perhaps Darius Codomannus is called ruler of from Rome to Alexandria, to verify a Menti, and the Greeks and Persians are passage, authors were not as safe as now. called the Ionians (the corresponding Certainly Josephus is not beyond suspicion Egyptian word having a wide extension) of dishonesty. His character of Titus is and Menti (Brugsch, “ Geogr. Inschr." i... contrary to the general tenor of history; 40, 41. Pl. lviii.). Thus, the Menti-u and if Dr. J. Bernays is right in conjectur- would seem sometimes to mean nothing ing that the ecclesiastical historian Sul more definite than Asiatics, as Dr. Brugscli picius Severus has preserved in epitome a suggests. At present we can go no fur. lost part of the fragmentary fifth book of ther in this line of inquiry. the - Histories” of Tacitus, we have a For the race of the Shepherds we must direct contradiction of the favorable por- look to other evidence. The great result trait which Josephus draws of his patron, l of M. Mariette's researches at Tanis, or

LIVING AGE, VOL. XXVI. 1316

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Zoan, is that this was a chief city, proba. | ble to illustrate this event from the Bible. bly the capital, of one of the Shepherd It is, however, worthy of notice that dynasties, whose sculptures, though appro- the group of Rephaite tribes were settled priated by later kings, have a distinctive in southern Palestine, and that in the Book character of their own, which gives us the of Numbers the Anakite (or Rephaite) national type. This type, as M. Mariette city, Hebron, is apparently connected, in remarks, is still preserved in the popula- its foundation, with that of Zoan. tion of the neighboring country, whose We cannot yet conjecture the details of peculiarities had already attracted the no- the history of the Shepherds in Egypt, or tice of ancient travellers, as we may judge the duration of their dominion, for it is from the novelists Heliodorus and Achilles not until about its last century that we Tatius. The type on the Shepherd monu- have a basis of fact. It is probable that ments is distinctly Shemite, of a character the first conquest and early rule was distinguished from that of the Assyrians, marked by the violence of which Manetlio as seen on their monuments, by a more speaks. There is in this period an absence marked cast of features. It represents of monuments which is strong negative the same vigorous, muscular race, a race evidence of an age of suffering. The diswith far less refinement but much more like with which the Egyptians speak of energy than the Egyptians.

the Shepherds cannot, however, be said If there were any doubt that the Shep: to prove anything. It is their customary herds were Shemites, it would be removed tone as to foreigners, and would not be by the numerous Semitic geographical least strong when these were foreign enenames to be found in the east of Lower mies ruling Egypt. Egypt, and by the circumstance that under It is probable that the Shepherds ruled the nineteenth dynasty, between two and all Egypt until a national rising caused the three centuries after the expulsion of the war of independence, which, after many foreigners, the Semitic element in Egypt years, enced in the expulsion of the forwas so strong that it became the fashion eigners by Aahmes, or Amosis, the head of not only to use Semitic words in place of the eighteenth dynasty. Marietho's stateEgyptian, but even to give Egyptian words ment as to the extent of the foreign rule and Semitic forms.

its termination in consequence of a revolt Although we thus know the race of these led by a king of the Thebaïs, is confirmed invaders, we cannot tell to what branch of and illustrated by a most interesting Egypit they belonged, whether they were Phæni- tian fragment contained in a papyrus, cians or Arabs, Manetho suggesting both, which probably told how that conflict or whether they migrated from beyond the arose. This document relates how the Euphrates. The later geographical use Shepherd-king Apapi ruled all Egypt, and of the terms Menti-u and Menti suggests having determined to worship Set alone, Asia to the exclusion of Arabia, but of built a temple and instituted festivals. He course does not forbid the notion that they accordingly sent a message, evidently on were Arabs of Syria or Mesopotamia. the subject of this religious innovation, to

It is easy to speculate on a dynastic Sekenen-ra, prince of Upper Egypt, a change which may have caused a migra- Theban dynast, not here designated by the tion to Egypt, or to suggest conditions usual titles of the pharaohs. It appears pointing to the possibility of a regular that the foreign chief conceded the admisinvasion by a powerful Asiatic state, but sion of the worship of Amen-ra in his new these are mere conjectures which can pro- temple. The deliberations caused the duce no trustworthy results. And it may greatest anxiety to the tributary Egyptian be added that we are equally without a prince. It may be that much more is trace of the later history of the Shepherds meant than the local worship of the terri. who left Egypt. It 'may, however, be tory occupied by the Shepherds, but of that but few really went away in a body: this we cannot be certain. Manetho's account may be exaggerated. breaks off, the ancient scribe having begun All we know from trustworthy sources is to copy another document. that, after the final conquest of the foreign- In the ruins of the great temple of Tanis ers in Egypt, and apparently while still at M. Mariette found the name of Apapi war with them, the king of Egypt took the with the titles of an Egyptian pharaoh. city of Sharuhana or Sharuhen in southern. The story of the Egyptian papyrus is conmost Palestine. This gives the direction firmed by the circumstance that at this of the march of the Shepherds out of period Set was the chief object of worship Egypt, which is that which we should ex. here, whereas as late as the time of the pect they would have taken. We are una- I thirteenth dynasty, probably not long be.

The story

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fore the Shepherd invasion, his position | Aahmes, head of the eighteenth dynasty, was held by Ptah.

and his successors. He took part in the The chronological place of Apapi is siege of the stronghold of the Shepherds, probably not more than a century before Avaris, attacked by water and land, which the expulsion of the Shepherds. M. Cha- fell before the fifth year of the king's bas argues that of the three kings bearing reign, who then passed into southern Palthe prenomen or official name Sekenen-ra, estine, and captured Sharuhana. the one mentioned in the papyrus was the From the simple recital of Aahmes we first, and the last was the immediate pred- learn that the last effort of the Shepherds ecessor of Aalmes, the conqueror of the was not so important as Josephus states it strangers. He notices the significant fact to have been in his citation of Manetho. that, while each has the same prenomen The king's rewards were given for the and the same name Ta, the epithet follow- capture of a few prisoners. Nor do we ing the name increases in force with the hear anything of an honorable capitulation second and third, the three being called, being granted to the Shepherds : on the “the great,” “the very great,” and “the contrary, the city is taken, and the war is very victorious.” *

carried on into Palestine, evidently in the There can be very little doubt that the form of a pursuit. outline of the war of independence is thus This is all we as yet know of the events shown. The papyrus relates how a differ- of the Shepherd dominion. The happy ence on a religious question arose with one discovery of a new memoir, or another of these kings, whom we may reasonably historical papyrus, may add to these facts. conjecture to be the first of the three bear- As yet there is no other point that may be ing the name Ta, and the Shepherd-king discussed without risk of confutation from Apapi. He raises and maintains the new documents, the constant fate of spec standard of revolt; the next king wins ulation in Egyptology; but it must be greater successes; the last of his line ex-added that to have proved the high civilizpels the Shepherds out of all Egypt except ation of the Shepherds towards the close the north-east, leaving the completion of of their rule, and their influence in Egypthe enterprise to Aahmes, or Amosis, head tian history, is a gain far more valuable of the eighteenth dynasty.

than any amount of detail. The story in the papyrus would seem to In nothing has Manetho, as reported, show that the Shepherds, having adopted been so signally contradicted as in the Egyptian civilization, selected Set the god proofs the monuments of the Shepherds of Lower Egypt, who was also supposed afford that latterly the foreigners accepted by the Egyptians to be the special pro- Egyptian civilization. The result was of tector of their eastern enemies, and thus the greatest consequence to Egypt, for it identified with Baal. This was, however, firmly planted there a strong Shemite popaccompanied by an innovation, the attempt ulation, which was vigorous enough in to exclude all other worship at the chief quality, although assimilated to the nation temple, perhaps in all Egypt, as though in manners, to give back to the Egyptians, Set had been selected to represent the as a kind of return for the evils of conBaal worshipped by the Shepherd tribe. quest, a new element of thought and lanThe institution of new festivals is a proof guage. For a time after the subjugation how thorough the innovation was.

of the Shepherds we have no trace of So much we may infer as to the origin them; probably the early pharaohs of the of the war of liberation. Another docu- empire, those of the eighteenth dynasty, ment relates its close. This is one of repressed the strangers from a natural those memoirs which are the most truly fear of their reasserting their power. The historical and valuable of all Egyptian next line, the house of the Ramessides, records, that of Aahmes, son of Abna at comprising the nineteenth and twentieth El-Kab, on the site of the city of Eileith dynasties, had no such policy. It has even yia. Aahmes relates that he was born in been suspected that their worship of Set, this place under the reign of Sekenen-ra, the divinity of Lower Egypt and especially wbom M. Chabas decides to be the last of also of the Shepherds, and the tendency to the three kings having that prenomen. a Semitic rather than an Ethiopian type in He then records his services under their portraits, indicate that they came of

a stock partly of Shepherd origin. They According to Manetho Apophis was either the last rebuilt Tanis, the foreign capital, and or last but one of the Shepherd Kings of either the greatly beautified its chief temple. Con fifteenth or the seventeenth dynasty. Thus it is not impossible that he placed Apapi immediately or two nected with this policy is the fashion alreigns before the eighteenth dynasty.

ready noticed prevalent among the scribes

of this time of Semiticizing Egyptian.

From The Cornhill Magazine. Curiously enough this influence and sym- THE DUTIES OF IGNORANCE. pathy is connected with a great literary activity. In no age do the Egyptian scribes THE question what is the right attitude seem to have been so prolific. The Egyp- of mind to be maintained in regard to subtians were always literary for the sake of jects on which we are at once deeply interpreserving history; at this time they ap- ested and very imperfectly informed, is one pear to have been literary for the mere of considerable practical importance for pleasure of writing. In our present state most of us. Every decently educated perof knowledge, the contrast between this son must be conscious of great tracts of and other times is most remarkable; and ignorance lying on all sides of the subjects if later discoveries do not modify the he has really studied, if not of dark chasms facts, we may consider the literature of running right across those very subjects the Ramses period as having been fertil- themselves. Education, indeed, seems ized by Semitic literature, as the Latin in rather to increase than to lessen the sense the last days of the republic and the be of ignorance. It reveals as many uncerginning of the empire owed its develop- tainties as it removes. And the increased ment to Greek. Of course it might be diffusion of knowledge which has taken said that the foreign writers or speakers place of late years tends greatly to confuwho changed for a time the Egyptian style, sion, and makes the art of groping our way and probably influenced it permanently, among doubts every day more indispensa were dwellers beyond Egypt, but it is far ble. Every year the machinery for spreadmore likely that they were settled in that ing news over the length and breadth of country. "It is, indeed, not probable that the land becomes more complete and they were either enemies or newly-con- effective, and the flood of discussion of all quered subjects. It is far more likely that sorts of subjects penetrates more and they were fellow-countrymen speaking more thoroughly into the most secluded another language and with a literature per- corners. haps unwritten of their own. No race has If the subjects which are thus thrust been more literary but less monumental upon our attention were matters of purely than the Shemite. The most destructive speculative interest, we might be content criticism must allow a great antiquity to with carving out for ourselves a certain Hebrew literature. The Arabs must have portion for careful study; leaving the rest cultivated poetry for ages before they wrote to flow idly past, without disturbing ourout their intricately measured odes. If selves about what we could not thoroughly the Shepherds in Egypt had this true understand. To recognize the limits of Shemite faculty, the problem before us our knowledge, and suspend our judgment receives its solution.

when imperfectly informed, would be all The Shepherd period has another re- that was required. But this world is not markable characteristic in its influence on so peacefully ordered as that. We cannot the Egyptians. It was the real cause of calmly suspend our judgment when our the empire. A national war of indepen- dearest interests are at stake. It is easy dence formed the military qualities that, to avow our ignorance, but it does not when the country was free, could no longer therefore cease to torment us. For the resist the desire to carry the national arms last five-and-twenty years, wars and ruinto the enemy's land. The Egypt of the mors of wars, in which, is not actually enempire is no longer the Egypt of the old gayed, we have been keenly interested, Memphite and Theban kings : extension have succeeded each other almost without of territory is desired, not only for pur- intermission. Famines, and pestilences, poses of commerce, but also for the grati- and revolutions, and financial crises have fication of ambition. A material aid to filled up the intervals, and fatal accidents these designs was afforded by the intro- of the inost extensive and dramatic kind duction of the horse and the war-chariot. send a succession of shocks through the Both are unknown in Egypt before the length and breadth of the land. Each of eighteenth dynasty; both are used by its these events, whose reality the most scep. first king, at least in the final campaigns tical cannot doubt, raises a multitude of against the Shepherds, and thenceforward questions which the most ignorant and became common. There can be little doubt apathetic can hardly put aside altogether, that the Shepherds brought the horse into and on which the best informed are widely Egypt, and so afforded the Egyptians a and apparently hopelessly at variance. means without which they could never Besides passing events, and the burn. have made distant conquests.

ing questions which they raise, the air is REGINALD STUART Poole.

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full of controversies of the most vehement is the remedy? How can such vulnerable and penetrating kind on all the fundamen- wayfarers learn to encounter the difficulties tal doctrines of faith and morals. Proba- of a path in which they can neither see bly there is scarcely a child out of the nurs- their way nor stand still? ery, or a day-laborer able to read, who What we want, both for peace and for does not know that the existence of God usefulness, is to clear a space, however and of a future life, and the distinction small, within which, at all events, order between right and wrong, and therefore shall reign. We want to be centres of everything else that we have ever held light, not of darkness - of clearness, and sacred, are now treated on all sides as not of confusion. We want not to try to open questions. Who can possibly pass grasp a greater number of facts than we through such times unmoved? Can the can rightly place in our minds; and yet, loftiest intelligence attempt to solve, or not to shut our minds to any facts which anything short of brutal insensibility to ought to affect our conclusions. The ignore, such questions as these? Can we difficulty is how to choose when by the calmly suspend our judgment and rest in hypothesis we have not knowledge enough our ignorance, while all the dearest inter- to choose by. Unless we leave out of ests of our friends, our nation, and our account some facts and some whole sub. souls, are, as it were, ranged in battle array jects, and a vast proportion of the opinions before our eyes ?

we hear, we have no chance of coming to And yet, what task could be more hope any conclusions at all; but how are the less than the attempt to disentangle and ignorant to decide which are the facts, the to deal with all these agitating perplexi- opinions, and the subjects which they may ties? Any one of the subjects I have re- safely disregard ? ferred to is vast enough to, engross a life- Take for instance that pleasing collec.. time; and each of us has many other tion of perplexities which we describe as pressing matters of more immediate con- the Eastern question. There are probably cern to attend to besides. Must we then few of us who have not by this time some resign ourselves to a chronic state of anx. rather strong feeling on the subject, but jous uncertainty? Is there no solid ground how many of us can give any intelligent for the soles of our feet, and no art by and consistent justification of that feeling? which the ignorant may steady themselves, What proportion of those who are in the so as to pursue at least a useful, if not a habit of discussing the question have ever peaceful course, in the midst of the taken the trouble to consider what are the storm?

facts it would be necessary to know in I believe that the duties of ignorance order to form a fair judgment about it? ignorance which cannot be uninterested, It is easy to say that one does not pretend but would fain not be prejudiced or ob- to have followed it from the first, or to be structive — deserve more careful attention fully qualified to pronounce upon all its than they often receive. Those who are parts; but this general avowal of comparaliable to find themselves at any moment out tive ignorance certainly does not prevent of their depth should lose no time in learn the use of strong language and excited ing to swim. Where roads may fail we feeling. It is not altogether easy to say must learn to read the stars and to use the to what extent it ought to check either compass. And surely there is a faculty feeling or speech. If no one ever took by which some people contrive to take sides on public questions of this kind withtheir bearings in the midst of perplexities out mastering complicated historical, geo. which they have no means of clearing up; graphical, and political questions in all a faculty which can be cultivated, and their details, we should have to leave our which is better worth cultivation than affairs even much more than we do in the many of which we think more. Some peo- hands of a few experts. Public opinion, ple are so happily gifted with this quality instead of being the strongest, would be

call it common sense, mother-wit, judg- about the weakest of influences in all large ment, instinct, veracity, force of character, questions, especially in questions of for. or what you will — that they go steadily on eign and colonial policy. It is evident their way in what looks like actual uncon- that, according to our usages at least, there sciousness of the bewildering confusion of are some legitimate substitutes for comthe world and its ways. But for those who plete information. We are all familiar are not so armed, for those who feel their enough with the use of them in practice, hearts burdened and their spirits wearied, but we might use them much more intelliand their very appetite for knowledge gently, and to much better purpose, if we quenched by perpetual uncertainties, what were a little clearer about them in theory.

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