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rapid, the favorable inference is strength. I have increased fifty per cent in the last ened. Including both the Ionian and the fifteen years. Ægean islands, the kingdom of Greece Creditable progress has been made, contains about fourteen millions and a half then, by Greece in all the chief branches of of acres. Nearly one-half of this total her agriculture; in some branches, even area is occupied by forests, marshes, or great progress. And yet competent obrocky tracts, and is not at present suscep- servers are generally agreed that Greek tible of cultivation. An inquirer who asks agriculture is still very far from doing juswhat proportion of the total area is actually tice to the patural resources of the country, under cultivation is surprised at first sight | The causes of this defect deserve the by the decrepancy of the different answers. earnest attention of all who wish to see Thus, to take two extremes, M. Mansolas the prosperity of Greece set on a firm says “ nearly one third,” Mr. Tuckerman basis. Mr. Sergeant touches on every one says one seventh,” though it must be re. of the separate causes: but be does not membered that Mr. Tuckerman is writing present them, perhaps, quite in the connecsome six years earlier than M. Mansolas. tion or in the proportions best fitted to The chief source of such discrepancies is make the general state of the matter clear. that the higher estimates include the fal. Want of capital is unquestionably the great lows, while the lower exclude them. M. want of all for Greek agriculture. But, if Tombasis, who has written specially on abundant capital were forthcoming to-morGreek agriculture, is probably a safe row, it would still have to contend with a authority on this point. According to him, special set of difficulties created by the one-fourth of the total area is under culti-want of capital at the critical moment vation; but of this nearly one-half is nearly fifty years ago. After the War of always fallow. Hence not much more than Independence the Greek lands which the one-seventh of the total area is productive Turks had left — on receiving a large at any given time. One-fourth, therefore, compensation at the instance of the powers of the territory which might be cultivated – became the property of the Greek State. is not under cultivation at all. But it is Few wealthy purchasers were found. Part satisfactory to learn from M. Mansolas of the land was granted by the government that some five hundred thousand acres in small lots to peasant holders, subject to have been brought under cultivation taxes on the produce. A great part was within the last fifteen years. The popu- left on the hands of the government and lation of the kingdom is about a million remained unproductive. The system of and a half. It is computed that from one small holdings, the petite culture, has third to one-fourth of this population is lasted to this day, — the partition of land engaged in agricultural or pastoral pursuits. being especially minute in the mountainous The increase since 1830 has been large in districts and in the Ægean islands. This all the staple agricultural products, and system has been a constant bar to the inin some it has been remarkable. The troduction of scientific farming. The cultivation of olives has increased about average agriculturist has been too poor threefold since 1s30; of figs, sixfold ; of sand too ignorant lo attempt it. The mode currants, fifteen-fold; of vines, twenty- of taxation - a modification of the old eight-fold. The progress of the currant rayah system - is such that, as Mr. trade has been tolerably steady since 1858. Tuckerman says, “the husbandman sufM. Moraitinis puts the area occupied by fers delay in bringing his crop to market, currant-vines at nearly forty thousand loses by depreciation while awaiting the acres; M. Mansolas, at even a higher fig- tax-gatherer's arrival, and finally in the
The average yearly production of tax to which it is subjected.” The imcurrants, before the Greek War of Inde- portance of encouraging better methods of pendence, was about ten million pounds' farming has been recognized from the weight. It has lately risen to upwards of earliest days of Greece. Capodistria, when a hundred and fifty million pounds' weight. president of the republic, founded in 1831 The produce from arable land is stated to an agricultural school at Tirynth. This
was, on the whole, a failure, and was closed spread over eighteen years. This should in 1865. “ It was replaced,” Mr. Sergeant tend to bring in a better class of agricul. says, “by a more technical school, which turists, and also by degrees to enlarge the seems to have had no better fortune than cultivated area. its predecessor.” M. Mansolas, however, The want of roads in Greece has been gives a somewhat more encouraging ac. an obstacle to agricultural industry, as to count of the new institution, and it may be enterprise of every kind. Seaboard towns hoped that it will yet do good work. But sometimes import their wheat, when there the case of Greece is widely different from is an ample supply at a distance perhaps that of a country in which the land is oc- of a day's journey inland, simply because cupied chiefly by an educated class of the transport by mules or horses would be large or considerable land-holders. In too expensive. Mr. Tuckerman computes Greece each several holder of one or two that there are about two hundred miles of acres has to be converted to scientific “good highway” in Greece proper : and farming before agricultural reform can if by “good” is meant “thoroughly pracmake way. And the natural conservatism ticable for carriages,” this is perhaps not of an agricultural population is intensified far from the mark.* The fact is that there by the fact that in these matters every has been no great demand for roads on man has hitherto been his own master, the part of the unambitious agricultural with no obligation beyond the payment of class, and the country, with its already his taxes to the State. It is not even the heavy burdens, has felt no sufficiently ambition of the peasant farmer to get as strong incentive to proceed vigorously with much out of the land as he can. The dif. a work of such heavy cost. Road-making ficulties of communication limit his market, is expensive in a country so full of rocky and he is usually content if he can satisfy tracts and intersected by frequent chains the wants of his household, with perhaps of hills : the average cost for Greece has a narrow margin of profit. Tradition and been estimated at about 600l. a mile. The the influence of climate combine to make pressure which must ultimately compel these wants few and simple, and so to re- Greece to complete her road-system will strict the amount of energy employed. In come, not from the agriculturists, but from Greece, as elsewhere, it is in one sense a commerce. Already the exigencies of the misfortune that the peasantry are con- currant-trade and the silk-trade are begintented with so little. Again, the popula- ning to open up the Morea. Last sum. tion of Greece is thin — excluding the mer, in going from Laconia into Messenia, Ionian Islands, it has been computed at I came on the still unfinished road which fifty-eight to the square mile — and the is being made from Kalamata to Tripolitza, system of small holdings increases the and followed it for some way. A few dearth of agricultural labor. The destruc- more such first-rate highways would be the tion of the forests in Greece has been due greatest of boons to the country. There mainly to the long unrestrained reckless- is still no continuous road between Kalaness of the peasants and to the depreda- mata and Patras; there is nothing worthy tions of the wandering shepherds with to be called a road between Tripolitza and their flocks of goats. The destruction of Sparta. The poet tells us that, when the forests has in turn injured the climate Apollo passed from Delos to Delphi, and helped to dry up the rivers. The The children of Hephæstus were his guides, Greek government has not been insensible Clearing the tangled path before the god, to these evils, but it has had to contend Making a wild land smooth; against deeply-rooted prejudices and traditions those, namely, which were en
and every modern tourist will echo the gendered by Turkish rule. Good results wish that the rising Polytechnic School of may be anticipated from a law lately passed, which permits the tax-paying tenant
* Mr. Sergeant states, on official authority, that
" the roads of the mainland have an aggregate length of public land to buy it from the State, and of 889,933 kilometres." Read 889 kilomètres, 933 to pay the purchase-money by instalments mètres: i.e. about
Athens may produce some more “road- | ston predicted a bright future for Greek making sons of Hephæstus.” But it would commerce, and already the prediction has be a mistake to infer, from the deficiency been in some measure fulfilled. Next to of roads which is still felt, that Greece has agriculture, the mainstay of Greece is her been inactive in public works. Some merchant marine trading with Turkey and dozen harbors have been constructed or the ports of the Levant. In 1821 Greece restored, lighthouses have been erected at had only about four hundred and fifty vesall the dangerous points in the Greek seas, sels; the number in 1874 was fifty-two drainage works have been executed in hundred and two, representing an aggreseveral places, eleven new cities have gate burden of two hundred and fifty thouarisen on ancient sites, more than forty sand and seventy-seven tons; and the towns and more than six hundred villages merchant marine of Greece ranks, in the have been rebuilt since the war.
scale of importance as the seventh of the, The manufacturing industries of Greece world. have made rapid progress within the last The question of national education bas
According to M. Moraitinis, from the first days of recovered freedom the Peiræus * did not contain a single engaged the most earnest attention of the steam manufactory in 1868. It has now Greek people. Education is for the Greeks more than thirty such establishments; and of to-day, not merely what it is for every the kingdom contains in all no less than civilized nation, the necessary basis of all one hundred and twelve steam factories. worthy hope; it is, further, the surest Most of these have been established within pledge of their unity as a people both the last ten years. There are, besides, within and without the boundaries of the about seven hundred factories which do present kingdom; it is the practical vindinot use steam. The number of artisans cation of their oldest birthright; it is the employed is about twenty-five thousand, symbol of the agencies which wrought and the annual products represent a value their partial deliverance; it is the living of about six millions sterling. At the witness of those qualities and those traGreat Exhibition of 1851 Greece was rep- ditions on which they found their legitimate resented by thirty-six exhibitors. At Paris aspirations for the future. During three last year it was represented, according to centuries and a half of Turkish rule the the list of M. Mansolas, by five hundred Greek nationality was preserved from efand thirty-three. He notes the progress facement by the studies which fostered its of cotton-spinning, which since 1870 has language and its religion; and when the
1 diminished the importation of that article earliest hopes of freedom began to be felt, by nearly two-thirds. The export of Greek the first sure promise of its approach was wines has also increased very largely. the fact that those studies had been enThe first building that the traveller sees larged and had received a new impulse. as he enters modern Sparta is a silk man- Koraes struck the true note in the preface ufactory, and the large mulberry planta- to his translation of Beccaria " On Crimes tions in the valley of the Eurotas attest and Punishments,” which he dedicated in the growing importance of this industry. 1802 to the young republic of the Ionians. Though government patronage has never “You are now," he said, addressing the been wanting, the rapid progress of recent studious youth of Greece, “the instructors years has been due, M. Mansolas thinks, and teachers of your country, but the time chiefly to private enterprise and to the is fast approaching when you will be called power of association. This power is upon to become her lawgivers. Unite, gradually, overcoming the obstacles long then, your wealth and your exertions in presented by a thin population, by the her behalf, since in her destitution she can want of capital, by the absence of machin- boast no public treasury for the instruction ery, and by the slender demand for luxu- of her children; and forget not that in her ries. It is a good sign that, whereas in brighter days their education was a public 1845 Greece was importing twice the value duty entrusted to her rulers.” If ever of her exports, the ratio of imports to ex. there was a case in which the deliverance ports has lately been less than three to of a people was directly traceable to the two. Forty-seven years ago Lord Palmer- awakening of the national intelligence, that
case was the Greek War of Independence.
No people could have a more cogent prac* Sixty years ago the Peiræus - Porto Leone, under the Turks — had well-nigh ceased to be even a port. tical reason than the Greeks. have for The traces of its ancient dignity were few and modest. believing that knowledge is power; but There was a piece of deal boarding, projecting a few feet into the sea, to serve as a landing-stage for small they do not value it only or chiefly because boats; and there was a wooden but for a guard. it is power. The love of knowledge is an
essential part of the Greek character - an range and the level of teaching are much instinct which their historical traditions the same as in the German gymnasium, or strengthen, indeed, but have not created. in the upper parts of our public schools. After the war, when the troubled period of From the gymnasium the next step is to Capodistria's presidency had given place the University of Athens. In all three to settled institutions, one of the first great grades of schools, and also at the univertasks taken in hand was that of thoroughly sity, instruction is gratuitous. With reorganizing public instruction. M. Bur- gard to the primary schools, Mr. Sergeant
. nouf's remark, quoted by Mr. Sergeant, writes: “ Elementary education in Greece, that public instruction was “almost non- in addition to being gratuitous, is compulexistent” in Greece in 1833, is true in a sory — at least in theory. Children are sense, but needs qualification. It is true compelled by law to attend the primary that there was no complete or uniform schools between the ages of seven and system of public instruction; in the politi- twelve years ” (p. 53). M. Mansolas says cal situation of the Greeks before the war |(p. 36), “ between the ages of five and such a thing had not been possible. On | twelve ;” and, after adding that there is a the other hand, many elements of such a small fine for each day of the child's absystem had been supplied by the strenuous sence, adds the important remark, “but efforts made at many particular centres of this principle has been hardly ever apGreek life during a long series of years. plied.”. In fact the tradition of Greek culture had, It would be interesting to know whether under the heaviest discouragements, been compulsion has been thus absent because preserved unbroken from the conquest of it has been found unnecessary or because Constantinople, though it was only in the it has been thought undesirable. So far latter part of the seventeenth century that as personal observation enables me a few of the schools began to be prosper- judge, I should be disposed to doubt ous or famous. Among these were the whether these words of Mr. Tuckerman's lyceums of Bucharest in Wallachia and can be accepted without reservation : “It Yassi in Moldavia, which had been pro- may safely be asserted that no man, womtected by a series of Phanariot hospodars; an, or child born in the kingdom since the the schools of Janina in Epirus, which organization of free institutions [i.e. say had owed much to the beneficence of the since 1833] is so deficient in elementary brothers Zosima, “the Medicis of modern knowledge as not to be able to read or Greece ; " the gymnasium of Smyrna, the write." However that may be, there can college of Scio, the Greek college at be no doubt that primary education in Odessa, and many more of nearly equal Greece has made extraordinary progress repute. By 1815 almost every Greek com- since 1833 — such progress as could have munity had its school. Ten years of war been made only where the love of knowland confusion interrupted the work. But, edge was an instinct of the people - and in 1833 there were still the materials, how- that at the present time Greece can comever scattered or imperfect, with which to pare favorably in this respect with any begin; and there was a spontaneous pub- country in the world.* The growth of the lic sympathy with the object a syinpathy bigher schools and of the university has which the successful struggle for freedom not been less remarkable. Within fivehad helped not a little to quicken. Under and-twenty years the number of the Helthe system of public instruction adopted in lenic schools has been nearly doubled : modern Greece,* three successive grades of that of the gymnasia has been nearly schools lead up to the university : (1), the trebled; and the total number of pupils demotic or primary national school; (2), have grown in corresponding ratio. In the Hellenic schools, secondary grammar 1841 the University of Athens, then schools; (3), the gymnasia, higher schools recently founded, had two hundred and of scholarship and science, in which the ninety-two students; in 1872 it had twelve
hundred and forty-four. A few years ago • The chief organizer of this system was George it was estimated that about eighty.one Gennadius, the father of the present minister of Greece thousand persons that is about onein England, and a descendant of Gennadius Scholarius, the first patriarch of Constantinople after the eighteenth of the entire populationTurkish conquest. George Gennadius was studying in under instruction in Greece, either at pubGermany when the Greek Revolution broke out.
lic or at private establishments. The sum served in the war: he was a prominent speaker in the assemblies; and on the settlement of the State he devoted his life to public education. Many of the bishops * In 1835 there were about to primary schools, with and scholars of Greece have been his pupils; and the less than 7,000 scholars; in 1945, about 450 schools, memory of his unselfish energy is still held in deserved with 35,000 scholars; in 1874, about 1,130 schools, with honor.
spent by Greece on public instruction is agriculture is under a system which gives rather more than five per cent. of its total little scope to the higher sort of intelli- ; cxpenditure -a larger proportion than is gence, while there is neither public nor devoted to the same purpose by France, private capital enough to provide employItaly, Austria, or Germany. When Mr. ment for many architects or civil engi. | Tuckerman claims for Greece that “she neers, it is natural that an unduly large stands first in the rank of nations — not proportion of university graduates should excepting the United States - as a self- turn to one of the liberal professions, or to educated people,” the claim, rightly under- some calling in which their literary trainstood, is just. It means, first, that no-ing can be made available. Mr. Tuckerwhere else does the State spend so large a man has described vividly the process by fraction of its disposable revenue on public which “the coffee-house politician is education ; secondly, that nowhere else is developed. A young man, of somewhat there such a spontaneous public desire to better birth than the agricultural laborer profit by the educational advantages which or the common sailor, finds himself at the State affords.
eighteen a burden on a household which is Closely connected with the progress of hardly maintained by the industry of his the higher education in Greece is a phe- father. If he followed in his father's steps, nomenon which every visitor observes, his lot would be to till the soil for what, which almost every writer on Greece dis- when rent and taxes have been paid, is cusses, and which has hitherto remained little more than a bare livelihood, or peran unsolved problem of modern Greek haps to subsist on the salary of a small society. This is the disproportionately public office. But the boy has been at a large number of men who, having received school of the higher grade, and, with a a university, education, become lawyers, natural taste for learning, has conceired physicians, journalists, or politicians. M. the ambition to make something better of Mansolas, after observing that the “dom- his life than this. What, then, is he to inant calling” in Greece is that of the do? He would be glad to get a clerkship agriculturist, assigns the second place to in one of the commercial houses of Athens, "the class of men who exercise the liberal Patras, or Syra; but there are hundreds of professions, of whom the number is exces applicants whose chances are better than sive relatively to the rest of the popula- his. Even if he could afford to try his tion.” Mr. Sergeant quotes on this sub- fortune in a foreign country, the risk would ject part of a report drawn up in 1872 by be, in his case, too great. Athens, the Mr. Watson, one of our secretaries of lega- busy centre of so many activities, is his tion at Athens. “While there is felt in one hope. Surely there he will find someGreece," Mr. Watson says, “a painful thing to do. He makes his way to Athdearth of men whose education has fitted ens, attends the university, and becomes them to supply some of the multifarious interested in his studies. His years of material wants of the country - such, for university life are made tolerably happy by instance, as surveying, farming, road-mak- the companionship of fellow-students ing, and bridge-building there is, on the whose situation resembles his own. Lit. other hand, a plethora of lawyers, writers, erary and political discussion, enjoyed over and clerks, who, in the absence of regular the evening coffee and cigarette, comes to occupation, become agitators and coffee. be his chief delight. At last he takes bis house politicians." As lately as last June degree. He must choose a profession. the correspondent of the Times at Athens The bar is already overcrowded. A perwrote as follows : “Public life is here the petual series of epidemics would be remonopoly of the class exercising the so- quired to provide moderate occupation for called liberal professions - of advocates half of the physicians. He has not patience and university men, whose name is legion, to undertake the duties of a schoolmaster
an upper sort of proletariate, divided among the Greeks of Turkey. It remains into two everlastingly antagonistic factions that he should be a politician. He writes of place-men and place-hunters.” It is for the newspapers, and awaits the moeasy to assign one set of causes for this ment when his party shall hold its next state of things. Where a school and uni. distribution of loaves and fishes. versity education is offered free of charge ceives, perhaps, a small post, or to a people of keen intellectual appetite, it other reward. Thenceforth he is devoted is natural that an unusually large propor. to his new career. Through years of tion of persons should go through the uni- plenty and years of leanness, he is content versity course; and where, as in Greece, I to wait on the revolutions of the political