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affair. Mr. Ruskin himself was unfortu- dress and ornament; all in the most picnately unable to be present, and the ad- turesque and quaintly-worded way. In fact dress from him, which was read, was a many a page is, as it were, stiff with garpoor substitute for his voice and presence; niture of antique phrases, titles, and dig. but even if he had been there, however nities, gathered from wide ranges of his. much greater the interest of the meeting tory, to be revived for modern use; in the would have been, he would have had no midst of which the master's — i.e., Mr. very astonishing marvel to tell; nothing Ruskin's — accounts, household and other, wherewith to strike the imagination, like and Messrs. Tarrant and Mackrell, solicthe acquisition of some bold outlying island itors', letter conveying the information that in which the experiment might be, as the “the Companions of St. George will inpublic would think, fairly tried; nothing deed be capable of holding land, but not
- except, indeed, his own eloquent words as the St. George's Company, that is, not - to lessen the sense of disproportion as a corporation,” and giving warning of which could not but attend the first actual various legal and other dangers, come in setting to work of a society with so lofty as passages of quite unilluminated prose. an aiin, and such vague, imagined possi- But there was no number of the series bilities of all-embracing growth, as are in which did not contain passages of great volved in the design of St. George's Guild. beauty and sterling value, and over and The aim is high, and the framework capa- over again, Mr. Ruskin stated in a clear ble, in its author's hope, of indefinite ex. and direct manner, the objects of the socipansion ; but the lines are so laid that the ety, and what he proposed should be its world will, perhaps, be the better for the methods of action. Everyone knows experiment, if only a small measure of how, in his opinion, and in some other peosuccess, such as it is within reason to hope ple's also, the world is in a very bad way, for, be obtained. The public has heard - selfishness, vanity, and practical atheism less of the essential than of the minor and having wholly undermined the framework somewhat fantastic details of the scheme. of social order, degraded labor, and deThey have been used to regard Mr. Rus- stroyed art. Those, to whom acquiescence kin (when they thought of him as anything in such a state of things is intolerable, are else than a great art-critic, the greatest, asked to form a guild," the object of which perhaps, that ever lived), as one who had is to be the health, wealth, and long life of lost all patience with the world, and who the British nation," or, as he puts it elsehad gone utterly wrong in his views about where, " to buy, or obtain by gift, land in the currency; he was childish about rail. England, and thereon to train into the ways, machinery, and the sacred right of healthiest and most refined life possible, getting the best interest you could for your as many English men, English women, and money; he was a hater of liberty and English children, as the land so possessed progress, — yet positively no better than a can maintain in comfort; to establish for Communist, if all that was said of this them and their descendants a national new brotherhood of his were true. Un- store of continually augmenting wealth ; doubtedly“ Fors Clavigera,” or the pam- and to organize the government of the phlet of that name which he gave to the persons, and administration of the propworld, or to those who took the trouble to erties, under laws which shall be just to write to Mr. George Allen for it, month by all, and secure in their inviolable foundamonth for eight years, until his untoward tion on the law of God.” “ The rents of illness, was, to say the very least, most such land, though they will be required varied and delightful reading. In its pages from the tenants as strictly as those of any Mr. Ruskin has used to the full the license other estates, will differ from common which clearly belongs to founders of imag-rents primarily in being lowered, instead of inary republics, and has given his mind to raised, in proportion to every improvement a great variety of details in the economy made by the tenant; secondly, in that they of his own. He has told us what the na- will be entirely used for the benefit of the tional store - in place of the national debt tenantry themselves, or better culture of
-shall consist of; has fixed his standard the estates, no money being ever taken by of value; chosen his coinage, a most lovely the landlords, unless they earn it by their one, of course the ducat and half-ducat, own personal labor." So much for the with the archangel Michael on one side difficult subject of rent, regarded from the and a branch of Alpine rose on the other, landlord's side. The unselfishness which in gold - the florin and penny, with its is thus largely counted on in the matter of English daisy, and divisions of the penny, gifts of land, to begin with, and the sur. in silver ; has meditated laws regulating render of rents in perpetuity, is, after all,
no larger than that which founded and en- of them on the days of their birth and dowed old-world monasteries. As the death, so that the year shall have its full leases of such lands fall in, the direct calendar of reverent Memory. And on ing power of St. George will come more every day, part of their morning service and more into play. Conditions as to the shall be a song in honor of the hero whose use of steam-power will be made. We birth-day it is ; and part of their evening may observe, by the way, that Mr. Ruskin service, a song of triumph for the fair does not reject “the use of steam or other death of one whose death-day it is; and modes of heat-power under all circum- in their first learning of notes, they shall stances, and would allow it for speed on be taught the great purpose of music, main lines of communication, and for rais- which is to say a thing which you mean ing water from great depths, or other work deeply, in the strongest and clearest pos. beyond human strength.”)
's Schools and sible way." museums, always small and instantly ser- The great doctrine of the value to mind viceable, will be multiplying among the and body of a fair proportion of manual villages, youth after youth being in- labor will be well kept in view, — labor, structed in the proper laws of justice, that is, with tools, not machines. The patriotism, and domestic happiness.” thought of the studious person will be Those of the companions who can, will re made wholesome by bodily toil, the toil of side, and see that St. George laws, as the laborer noble by elevated thought. well as those of the land, are duly obeyed. Nay, Mr. Ruskin would have us “able to
These St. George's laws" will, most of imagine (not an easy thing, he declares, for them, bé merely old English laws revived, any person trained in modern habits of and the rest Florentine and Roman; none thought) a true and refined scholarship, of will be constituted but such as have which the essential foundation is to be already been in force among great na- skill in some useful labor.” Even coarse tions." No persons will be appointed to work, in pure air and in the midst of nature lordships who cannot show proofs of a which has not been unfairly dealt with, right divine to rule. Higher by the head, ought not of itself to tend in any degree to broader by the shoulders, and heartier in render any human being unable to love the will, the lord of land and lives must beautiful things in nature and feel greatever be than those he rules." There is to ness in art. As for art and artists, "and be no equality in St. George's domain, some forms of intellectual or artistić labor
no competitive examinations" - here we inconsistent (as a musician's) with other turn to the educational side of the scheme manual labor,” St. George cannot be said
' but contrariwise, absolute prohibition to look over-kindly on them! “Scholars, of all violent and strained effort – most of painters, and musicians may be advisedly all, envious or anxious effort - in every kept on due pittance, to instruct and amuse exercise of body and mind;" the natural the laborer at or after his work, provided mental rank will be as carefully sought the duty be severely restricted to those out, we suppose, as it ever was by Jesuit who have high special gifts of voice, touch, instructors; each scholar will be taught to and imagination, - to the few, in fact, koow his place, to be content with his who will sing, or preach, or paint, however faculty, while putting it to the best use he badly they may be paid, all from pure love, can, and to cultivate reverent admiration and with a stiff examination as to technical of superior faculties as one of the first of skill to be gone through before license of duties. Wordsworth's line,“ We live by exhibition is granted them at all. Here, admiration, hope, and love," seems to rep- again, pure air and unspoiled nature are resent the ever-present, up-lifting thought reckoned on as all-powerful helpers. “No of Mr. Ruskin's mind, when dealing with great arts,” says Mr. Ruskin,
were prac. the subject of education : “ All boys ticable by any people, unless they were shall learn either to ride or sail, the power living contented lives, in pure air, out of of highest discipline and honor being the way of unsightly objects, and emancivested by Nature in the two chivalries of pated from unnecessary mechanical occu. the Horse and Wave.” “ Children shall pation." learn, in the history of five cities — Athens, We have left ourselves no space for the Rome, Venice, Florence, and London – confession of faith and vow which every so far as they can understand, what has companion is required to write out and been beautifully and bravely done; and sign. The first article, “I trust in the they shall know the lives of the heroes and Living God," is followed by one which deheroines in truth and naturalness; and clares trust " in the nobleness of human shall be taught to remember the greatest | nature, in the majesty of its faculties, the
fulness of its mercy, and the joy of its | thing he touched. Many are the hints love." Nor can we give here any sketch that some of our first physicists and chemof the constitution of the society, and the ists have received from his fertile brain. conditions of companionship. We had But it is not only as a scientist that Prointended to convey to our readers a notion fessor Clifford is known, and that his of what we take to be the essential objects memory will llve; he was also well recog. of Mr. Ruskin's design, keeping aside nized as a moral philosopher, and whether much which represented only the indul- at a meeting of that most select of all select gence on the founder's part of his own societies – the Metaphysical — or among brilliant fancies in State-making, as well as less distinguished friends, his arguments the wide-sweeping arrangements which, as bore the genuine stamp of deep thought, he himself says,
are thought out in the and when he ridiculed — and he could do scale of European work." Some very so in the most scathing manner
- it was small bits of various parishes being all the done for the sake of truth, and with a firm society has to begin with, we wished to conviction that the subject in hand degive only such extracts from “ Fors” as served it. It will interest many to know would fit this modest scale, and be capable that he held the strongest anti-Russian
- assuming a certain amount of unselfish- views, and often regretted the inactivity of ness - of being put in practice within it; England and Europe during the late war. but the temptation to quote some sen- Shortly before he left England he wrote tences at length which go beyond this, and two letters to a journal known for its show how much that is noble is contained strong opposition to Russia, which were in the author's ideal of education and life, published, though not with his signature. has been too much for us now and then. He greatly deplored the attitude of the
The society, however, exists, and we may Liberal Opposition in this country. possibly one day give some account of the Few are aware that at one period of his meeting, presided over by an ex-mayor of life he was an ardent believer in what are no mean city, and attended by real, hard- called High Church views, and that he working companions, with which its public then studied theology with that zeal which life may be said to have commenced. characterized all he did. His knowledge
of the Fathers was perhaps unequalled by that of any bishop on the Bench. It was this which gave him such power in his attacks on superstition. He knew his
own strength and the weak points of the PROFESSOR CLIFFORD.
enemy's fortress, while his honesty of pur. It is with the deepest feelings of regret pose and his love of truth made him a that we record the death, at the early age difficult foe to encounter. What rank he of thirty-four years, of Professor W. would have taken, had he lived ten years Kingdon Clifford, F.R.S., late fellow of longer, among the philosophers whose Trinity College, Cambridge, and professor thoughts influence men for all time we of applied mathematics and mechanics cannot say, but it is certain that he gave at University College, London. In power every promise that his more matured proof original mathematical investigation it is ductions would take their place side by not too much to say that he showed genius side with those of the first thinkers of any of the very highest order, and the value of age. But it is as a man that his friends his contributions to the most abstruse will remember him; they will think of branches of mathematical science will be that charming gentle manner, of that appreciated even more than it is now by pleasant smile, of that face that was never future workers; for he was a pioneer with seen in anger, of those cheering words whom few could keep pace. Professor always at command, of his consideration Clifford's powers of exposition were al. for others, of all his lovable qualities, and most marvellous, and he was absolutely they will find a blank left which can never unrivalled in the facility with which he be filled. would explain the results of the most ab- For him we can do nothing, but profit struse calculations so as to make them in- by the example he has left us. But for telligible to the meanest capacity. It is those nearest and dearest to him, from seldom that these two faculties are found whom he has been snatched, it is our duty in one individual; but Professor Clifford as well as our privilege to make that prowas also a thinker in many branches of vision which his short life and slender science, and threw some new light on every-I means prevented him from insuring.
From The Examiner.
CONTENTS. I. WALTER BAGEHOT,
author of “Castle Daly,” “Oldbury,” etc.
Contemporary Review, .
thor of “What She Came Through,” “ Lady
Blackwood's Magazine, .
Pall Mall Gazette,
Macmillan's Magazine, X. THE FRENCH FLAG,
Pall Mall Gazette,
163 170 181 186 189 190 191
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FROM MY ARM-CHAIR.
TO THEOCRITUS IN WINTER. TO THE CHILDREN OF CAMBRIDGE
έσορών των Σικελάν ες άλα. Who presented to me, on my Seventy-Second Birth
Id. viii. 56. day, February 27, 1879, this Chair, made from the
Wood of the Village Blacksmith's Chestnut-Tree. AH, leave the smoke, the wealth, the roar Am I a king, that I should call my own
Of London, and the noisy street,
For still, by the Sicilian shore,
The murmur of the muse is sweet.
Still, still, the suns of summer greet
The mountain-grave of Helikê,
And shepherds still their songs repeat,
And gaze on the Sicilian sea !
What though they worship Pan no more,
That guarded once the shepherd's seat, Well I remember it in all its prime,
They chatter of their rustic lore,
They watch the wind among the wheat ! The affluent foliage of its branches made
Cicalas chirp, the young lambs bleat, A cavern of cool shade.
Where whispers pine to cypress tree;
They count the waves that idly beat, There by the blacksmith's forge, beside the
And gaze on the Sicilian sea. street,
Its blossoms white and sweet
Theocritus ! thou canst restore
The pleasant years, and over-fleet ;
With thee we live as men of yore, And when the winds of autumn, with a shout, We rest where running waters meet ! Tossed its great arms about,
And then — we turn unwilling feet The shining chestnuts, bursting from the And seek the world, so must it be : sheath,
We may not linger in the heat,
And gaze on the Sicilian sea !
Master, when rain, and snow, and sleet And now some fragments of its branches bare, Shaped as a stately chair,
And northern winds are wild, to thee Have by my hearthstone found a home at last,
We come, we rest in thy retreat,
And gaze on the Sicilian sea !
A. LANG. Repel the ocean tide, But seated in this chair, I can in rhyme
Roll back the tide of time.
BY THE LATE WILLIAM CULLEN BRYANT,
I see again, as one in vision sees,
The blossoms and the bees,
And the brown chestnuts fall.
I hear the bellows blow,
The iron white with heat !
“ A broken and contrite heart, O God, thou wilt not
Love never yet forsook !
In deep compassion look.
Aid our weak steps and eyesight dim
The paths of peace to find,
Who died to save mankind.
And thus, dear children, have ye made for me
This day a jubilee,
Brought back my youth again.
And in it are enshrined
The giver's loving thought.
Give life to this dead wood,
HENRY W. LONGFELLOW.
For many a frail and erring heart
Is in thy holy sight,
From the plain way of right.
Yet pleased the humble prayer to hear,
And kind to all that live,
Christian at Work.