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The original word translated predestinate1 (for the noun predestination is not found in scripture,) occurs in the Acts of the Apostles. "To do "whatsoever thine hand and thy counsel deter"mined before to be done:" #powpics, predestinated.2 St. Luke was not an apostle, but he here records the words of the apostles, before St. Paul was numbered among them. A parallel passage in the same book does not indeed contain the compound word, but it has the uncompounded verb, in a connexion amounting to precisely the same. "Him, being delivered by the determinate "counsel and foreknowledge of God, ye have "taken, and by wicked hands have crucified and “ slain.” 3 Τῇ ὡρισμένῃ βυλῇ καὶ προγνώσει τῷ Θεğ must mean the same as predestination: for the foreknowledge and decided purpose or decree are inseparably joined together. The same may be said of another text, "He hath determined the times before ap
pointed.” Ορίσας προτεταγμένες καιρὸς.4 The only dif ference here is, that the preposition pò is prefixed to τελαγμενες, instead of to όρισας : but would any learned man object to the translation, He predetermined (or predestinated) the appointed times?'"'The "Son of man goeth, as it was determined:" xalà tò waμévov.5 Пpò is not here added, either to the participle, or to any other word in the sentence: but surely the meaning is precisely the same; for the word is in the preterite sense, implying a previous determination, or predestination. "But we speak
Пpoopigw prius definio, prius constituo, to determine beforehand, from pò, and ópigw, or opos, a boundary: whence horizon.
Acts iv. 28.
+ Acts xxvii. 26.
Acts ii. 23.
5 Luke xxii. 22.
"the wisdom of God in a mystery, which God "ordained before the world unto our glory:" #popov, predestinated. "Who were before or"dained to this condemnation :" poyey papos, written before hand.2
The result of this investigation seems to be: 1. That predetermination, as to the counsels and works of God, and his dealings with mankind, was an idea familiar to the minds of the apostles. 2. That St. Luke, reporting the words of the other apostles, and not of St. Paul, uses the word ρowρITE, predestinated; and this with respect to the base conduct of the worst of men. But, 3dly, that the word rendered predestinate is never used concerning the eternal estate of men, with respect to any except those "who are chosen unto salvation." And this serves to confirm what has been before advanced; namely, that the scripture, in speaking on this subject, is far more full and explicit, concerning election, than concerning what is improperly called reprobation; and that we are warranted in adopting a similar reserve on the latter subject. The rest of the note is not very perspicuous: but, if the writers were Calvinists, they, on this occasion, seem to have lost sight of their own principles; which is no uncommon case among Theologians.
The Doctrine of our Church on the subjects of this Chapter.
'Having shewn that the Calvinistic doctrines of election and reprobation have no foundation in 'the written word of God, and are inconsistent with the Divine perfections; I shall now proceed 'to prove that universal redemption is also the 'doctrine of our Church. 1
The reader must judge how far this has been shewn satisfactorily, especially as to election. I cannot but anticipate that many, whose hearts are fully opposed to this doctrine, will feel a disappointment that the refutation of it has not been more unanswerable for many persons of this description often meet with the doctrine, and are rendered uneasy by it; and would be cordially glad of any thing which could satisfactorily set their hearts at ease on this subject, so that no subsequent remarks should again unsettle them.The doctrine of general redemption is held by most of the Calvinists in the established church; and the term partial redemption, being ambiguous, is used by none but the opposers of Calvinism.
'Predestination to life is here (Art. xvii.) de'clared to be the eternal purpose of God, to . 'deliver from curse and damnation, and to bring 'to everlasting salvation.-But who are to be
1 Ref. 263.
'thus delivered and saved? Those whom God hath chosen in Christ out of mankind,' that is 'those to whom God decreed to make known the "gospel of Christ. And are all to whom the gospel is made known predestinated to life? No; 'to prevent this conclusion, the Article proceeds 'to describe those who are 'endued with so excellent a benefit of God,' in these words, "They be 'called, according to God's purpose, by his Spirit 'working in due season; they through grace obey 'the calling; they be justified freely; they be 'made sons of God by adoption; they be made 'like the image of his only begotten Son Jesus Christ: they walk religiously in good works; and at length by God's mercy they attain to everlasting felicity: that is, they on their part 'conform to the conditions of the gospel-cove'nant, by obeying the calling, and walking religiously in good works, under the influence ' and assistance of the Holy Spirit; and, as a reward, they are justified in this world, are made sons of God by adoption, are made like the 'image of Christ, and at length attain everlasting felicity.'1
The Article says,2 (and his Lordship has just quoted the words,) to deliver from curse and ' damnation those whom he hath chosen in Christ 'out of mankind, and to bring them by Christ 'to everlasting salvation, as vessels made to 'honour.' Those whom he hath chosen in Christ ' out of mankind; that is, those to whom God 'decreed to make known the gospel!' Now are all, to whom God decreed to make known the 2 Art. xvii.
'Ref, 265. 266.
gospel, 'chosen in Christ, to be delivered from 'wrath and damnation, and to be brought by 'Christ unto everlasting salvation?' Such a comment is an addition to the Article, a total alteration of its plain meaning, and, in fact, substituting another Article in its place. Indeed, if any thing could be wanting to demonstrate that 'chosen in 'Christ,' and 'predestinated to have the gospel 'made known to them,' convey ideas essentially distinct in the minds of our reformers, this instance would do it. For evidently the persons chosen ' in Christ,' are (in this Article,) those, all those, and only those, who are to be brought to ever'lasting salvation, as vessels of honour.' But, his Lordship being judge, by no means all those to 'whom the gospel is made known' are included in this number. And are all, to whom the gos'pel is made known, predestinated unto life?' Thus his Lordship proceeds to argue from his own words, as if they were a part of the Article: and in this way it may be easy to prove any doctrine from any premises. No; to prevent this conclusion, &c.'-What conclusion? that all to "whom the gospel is made known are predesti'nated unto life.'-I cannot conceive that such a thought ever arose in the minds of those who compiled the Article, or of any man who read it without a comment. Are there, then, two sorts of persons spoken of in this part of the Article? • Predestination to life is the everlasting purpose ' of God, whereby, before the foundations of the 'world were laid, he hath constantly decreed by 'his counsel, secret to us, to deliver from curse ' and damnation those whom he hath chosen in