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tage and hall. Her people prize the boon, and transmit to posterity the landscape, with new features of loveliness.
The highest refinement of rural beauty in England, and even, it was said, in the world, was to be found at Chatsworth, the prime country-seat, among seven others, belonging to the Duke of Devonshire. To have left England without having seen Chatsworth, would have argued us insensible to the voice of undisputed rumor, which located the modern Paradise over the moors beyond Sheffield, whither upon yesterday we were bound. It was our last sight in the Old World, and anticipation made it the culminating point of our voyaging. The reputation of the Duke's manager, who is none other than Paxton, the designer of the Crystal Palace, added a zest to anticipation: while the leisure of a complete day was dedicated to its fruition.
Sheffield has little to attract. Its smoky factories almost darkened our hopefulness as we drove down its streets. the beautiful environs we found compensation for the coaly effluence. Chatsworth was 17 miles from Sheffield, and the luxury of an open carriage enabled us to enjoy the intervening scenes. We drove by the residence of the cutlers, among which was that of Rogers, the King Cutler, whose steel is as famous as that of Damascus. In the valley were distributed different manufactories for cutlery, which, before fit for the market, undergoes various processes in different establishments, from the smelting of the metal up to its grinding, tempering, and polishing.
As we approached Chatsworth, the view became enchanting. The moors appeared in the hazy distance covered and colored with the purple heather, or ling, as it is called in England, which gives the aspect of a blooming garden to these wastes. We had not expected to see such extensive wastes near the great marts of Sheffield and Manchester, in a county more densely populated than any other part of the island. But so it was. Why? The Duke of Rutland owned the range for hunting. The Duke of Devonshire yonder heath for the same.
Grouse hide under the ferns, and feed upon the blossom of the heather. The land is let by the thousand acres, at $250 for that area for hunting, besides which the lessee has a large outlay for preserving the game. We saw lazy fellows sitting near the bars preserving the game from the poachers, and we saw, too, 'chaps' with their phaeton in the road, innocently looking over the walls, while a man with setters was starting up the game, which the 'chap' from the road would as innocently fire at as it rose. This is what is called, taking it on the' sly.' Grouse were rising on all sides. Huntsmen were on the distant hills The smoke and flash were visible-otherwise all was desolate. Bleak rocks, scattered about like those at Vesuvius, but unlike them adorned with ferns and ling, are upon the summit of the moor, which looks over a vast range of country, taking in Chatsworth, with its palace and park, where we soon arrived.
We went first to the kitchen gardens, and found ingress. Long ranges of walls and hot-houses, as far as the eye could reach, met our view, with neat grass and flower-plots between. A machine was at work, used by the hand, which clipped the grass while it rolled it smoothly and carried the clippings along. I wondered no more at the velvet elegance of the English lawn. On the larger lawns, we saw larger machines drawn by horses, which performed the same function. We entered the principal hot-house, where tropical plants flowered in every hue of the chromatic scale, and in every form which an Infinite Creator moulds. The Paxonian hung its rich pink pendants beside the large straw-colored alamander which crept upon the ceiling, over beds of exotics perfumed to a sense of faintness. In another green-house, water-lilies alone were kept in a mimic lake, which was not suffered to stagnate; for little water-wheels fretted it continually. Lilies, did I say? There was but one lily, called the Victoria Regia, from which twenty large leaves, as 'round as my shield,' and five feet in diameter, were spread upon the surface. These leaves seemed like green tables, supported, for all that I could see, by water-nymphs. A large lily was in
flower; while another, ghostly pale, was bursting its verdant cerements. I always loved the lily; so pure, so stainless, so emblematic of innocence. It is a quaint myth, which accounts for its origin. Jupiter, in order to make Hercules immortal, clapped him to the breast of Juno, when she was asleep. The young embodiment of Strength drew so hard that, too great a gush of milk coming down, some slipped upon the sky, which made the Galaxy, or Milky Way, and out of some which fell upon the earth, rose the lily. A queenly origin hath the proud white flower! The Regia of Chatsworth does no discredit to its celestial lineage. A curious flower, called the stanopia, which grows out below instead of above the root, was in full bloom. Tall futia in red, great cup and pitcher flowers; indeed, every style of vegetable beauty, in hues which the sea-shell can never rival, warmed into life in the heated air.
simple in its elegance. Each
The kith and kin all lived they bent to each other or
Without, the arrangement was class of flowers had its own plot. neighborly, and smiled happily as looked up into the sky. The walls were warmed with subterranean flues, and clad with peach and apricot, flatly trimmed against them. The pine-apples were growing under glass, finer than I ever saw them at home. The grapes, purple and white, larger than no matter; it is too toothsomely luscious to talk about, as it was too tempting to the larcenously inclined fingers. What Elia says of roast pig (oh! reader, forgive the savory illusion in this unnatural connection), may I not say of those clusters, that they produced a premonitory moistening-or overflowing of the nether lip, and the idea of tasting them created a delight-if not sinful, yet so like to sinning, that a tender-conscienced person would do well to pause. We paused.
We walk out again to hear the bees hum from flower to flower, and see them at work in their straw hives. Large beds of vegetables of the largest development are ranged near. This smacked of the kitchen; all else might well become seraglios and palaces.
As we move through the great gate, we are conducted into the palace, which is a superb structure, topped with figures and urns, and rich in bass-reliefs and carvings. We pass through halls of paintings by masters, through apartments where were the coronation chairs of England's royalty, through rooms where the presents of the Emperor Nicholas to the Duke were arranged, and through others, where the greatest collection of sketchings in the world is exhibited. From the windows, in each of which there is but one pane, we have prospects of the hills and woods; of the Derwent water, in which hundreds of Durhams are wading or ruminating; of the Park, where sheep and deer together nip the herbage; of sheets of water, glancing under the sun, reminding us of the water-views down the leafy avenues of Versailles, and of fountain-jets, playing out of manifold forms of Triton and God. Not another fabric is to be seen on the premises not one. Nothing, upon the whole sixteen hundred acres, appears to mar the complete diversity of rural loveliness. There is no point which has not contributed its portion to the manifest unity of Beauty, which embraces so much variety in its magic
The hall of statuary has not a fragment nor a blotch. Every piece is a gem. The pure Parian glistens in tasteful array and graceful form. A door opens, and a conservatory, with elegant and costly vases, filled with oranges and flowers, is presented; out of which, as from an enchanter's realm, we walk upon paths of pulverized spar, shining like diamonds, and surrounded by lawns spongy to the foot and as neatly trimmed as tapestry. Here another guide meets us, and leading us by pillars vine-clad, by temples copied from classic models, and by statuary, guarding the old trees under whose shade they stand, gives us a vantage ground from which to see the glory of Chatsworth. See-Far up in a woody mountain, from natural springs, whose supply is exhaustless, there leaps the live water-falls; so high and distant, you may not hear their music. These gather to a head and fall over a temple's dome, from which they leap, but
to rebound into fountains, where they are bespread in veils of fleecy whiteness, and hasten down a succession of steps, some three hundred yards long and fifteen feet wide. As we reclined on the soft turf, at the foot of these steps, the guide let on a full volume of water, which leaped, gushed and sprung, danced, sang and glittered, until at our feet it disappeared under ground, to emerge, perhaps at lower points in other capacities. How much has motion to do with the loveliness of a landscape!
Passing under copses of shaggy-trunked trees, which we did very leisurely, we are invited to enter cool, rocky retreats, artificially arranged, and not without their fern and heather. Here the genius of Paxton is seen, in those huge masses of rock which apparently block up our path, but yield to a gentle push as they swing upon their pivots. Rocking stones of immense weight are around, mobile to a child's strength. Among the roots of pine trees and out of rocky fissures, little rills played, and laughed as they ran around stones and through moss, as if at the theatrical imposition which the artificial was acting for our admiration. Birds hopped and chirruped as unconsciously as if Nature and not Paxton had given them their bowers. But the cunning carollers, we did not see any of them alight on a certain tree, which deceived my perception, if it could not their instinct. New Haven gentleman-a wag, by the way-wished me just to examine its bark; it was so very odd. I was going up for that purpose, when I observed the tree bleeding water-drops; and before I could look again, to be sure it was no phantasy, every point and pore of twig and branch spurted its jet, and the turf under my feet became suddenly alive with subtle fountains! Of course, I retired. Of course, I was food for merriment. Of course, invidious remarks, comparing my verdancy with the curious vegetable production, were made. Of course, I had to join the roar of laughter. 'New Haven' had procured the guide to say the Open Sesame' to a rock, behind which he touched a spring, whose magic proved my discomfiture and his fun.
It was by this rocky path that we went to see the Crystal