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nected with politics, to the growth of manliness and virtue. A more generous and a nobler people never lived than some of those Alpine Catholics. The same may be said of some parts of Germany. At Heidelberg, we found the pleasing anomaly of Catholic and Protestant simultaneously worshipping in the same church. The people there seem pervaded with the gentle tolerance of Melancthon, who was educated at Heidelberg University. What a shame it is, that the people of Ireland are not permitted to enjoy their own religion with the same freedom with which the Protestants of England enjoy theirs.
Catholicism is as much the religion of the Irish people as Protestantism is that of England. For years its enjoyment, under such officers and in such modes as they might see fit, has been guaranteed. Even the English Lord-lieutenant has addressed the Catholic primates, by the titles which they have here assumed, and has sent soldiers to guard their assemblies from disturbance; when, all at once, on the pretext afforded by Cardinal Wiseman's case, these titles are declared illegal, as well in Ireland as in England; and penalties enacted against those who wear them, as if they were in a horrible conspiracy against the majesty of Victoria. How magnanimous this, most truly! What if the Roman cardinals be corrupt, as no doubt they are; what if English Protestant worship be hardly tolerated at Rome; what if the good-hearted Pope issues his rescript? Is there any danger herein to the English hierarchy? and if there were, shall the Irish clergy be placed under ban and penalty therefor, especially after so long an encouragement? Into what dilemmas and absurdities will not a nation run, that does not strictly adhere to the most unlimited toleration, or that connects its civil with its religious establishment. A great meeting of Irish clergymen and people, has lately been held. There is but one spirit breathing throughout their proceedings,-united resistance to this unexampled aggression. England could not render Ireland more ungovernable by any other act than that of the last session about the ecclesiastical titles, for it strikes
at her religion-the most sensitive part of every society. Let resistance, strong and steadfast, be made; and let the American people, Catholic and Protestant, sympathize in a movement, whose object is to resist the most miserable intolerance that has disgraced the English statute-book since the time when Dissenters and Catholics alike, were at the mercy of Jeffries, and when conformity to the established church, was a principle and a practice, at once repugnant to reason and humanity.
The Church of England can gain nothing, but must lose much, by its coercive measures towards the Catholics. Persecution will do its old work, by creating devotees around the altars of the persecuted.
It is Sunday in Dublin. They call it a "walking Sunday," because there are no festivities or glees on hand, but every one walks about soberly and decently; a prelude to the uproariousness of the coming Fair week. To-morrow the grand fair begins at Donnybrook, a little streamlet, upon whose banks the Irish gather in crowds, to spend and lose all they have, in gaming, drinking and dancing. We took a car, an outside one, and visited the spot, in company with Mr. Mowatt, a friend in Dublin, whose humor was as amusing as his attentions were kind. The car is peculiar in itself, and peculiar to, as well as common in, Dublin. It is a sulky, with low wheels, and seats directly over the wheels. The passengers ride sideways, their feet resting outside the wheels on a footboard, and the driver sits aloft upon a seat in front, full of wit, which, like his whip, is constantly on the crack. Six can ride on the outside. It is like an omnibus on two wheels, with all the top off, and the seats back to backvery light, and a convenient observatory of men and manners in the streets. We arrived at Donnybrook, and found many thousands gathered in the green fields, looking at the erection of the booths, preparatory for the morrow. Already the houses and taverns about were full of revellers. Scotch whiskey, bagpipes and fiddling, were going, in conjunction with pattering feet upon sanded floors. Pipes and apples, toys and cakes, were being
vended by witty rogues. But every thing was decent, and in order. The "bating the police with shillelaghs," and the bloody noses, do not become dramatic, until the fair is fairly opened. Then look out!
Passing fine houses, and through airy streets, enjoying the humorous repartees of our driver, we drove by Nelson's column, and penetrated the Park. It is an extremely large area, full of deer and game, and specially kept for the recreation of the Lordlieutenant. A fine monument to Wellington, not unlike that of Bunker Hill, is in the midst, overlooking the hills of green upon the south, and the city with its river Anne Liffey (named after a King's daughter who was drowned in it whilome), over whose waters are numerous handsome bridges, connecting the city. Nelson and Wellington! England's proudest boast; the hero of the sea, and the hero of the land. Why should they be so conspicuously honored by Ireland? Why? Because they remembered England's glory, and not Irish ruth? The Duke has been indeed "iron," so far as Ireland claimed his sympathy. He has none of the impetuous open-heartedness which ever marks the true son of Erin.
To-day we have experienced very cold weather. It may be accounted for here in this wise. It is the 24th of August, St. Bartholomew's day. The Irish have a maxim,
Brings the cold dew."
Upon this day he puts a stone into the waters, which turns the river-water all cold, and the well-water all warm; and this continues until St. Patrick's day, 17th of March, when that clever old saint turns the stone, and renders the wells cold, and the rivers warm. How many scientific disquisitions and meteorological observations are saved by such a simple tradition!
There are two extensive poor-houses here, with over ten thousand in each; and yet the beggars of Dublin are as thick as leaves at Vallambrosa. The country looks finely, the harvests
are heavy, and the large park, eight miles around, seems to smile derisively at the poverty of the people. Land owners live in England, and their agents remain here to rob both them and the tenants. Here is the capital defect of the social system. It needs an axe at the root.
We took but a glance of Northern Ireland, and this portion of the isle is almost a Paradise, compared to the southern portion, where starvation ever cowers and shivers. And yet no part of any land that we have seen, reveals so much destitution, rags and beggary, as the north of Ireland. Of Belfast I can but say, that no American city of the same size presents so much activity and commercial life; while, at the same time, it is laid out with an elegance which betokens foresight and grace. Belfast is the seat of the linen manufacture. The fields in and around it were snow white with linen blanching in the sun; while the country between Drogheda and Belfast waved with the flax, some of which was in process of pulling. But the towns between Dublin and Belfast, including Drogheda-what a picture of poverty did they present! The women, in tatters, hung around our vehicle, and when it drove off, boys by the dozen ran after us, turning somersets, and using every insinuation which native Irish wit could suggest, to obtain alms. "Will you! will you!-gentlemon, throw me a ha'penny?" and with other exclamations, they followed until the ha'penny was thrown, when a young Irish melée occurred in a scramble for the copper, which generally issued in some bloody noses, that required additional coppers to stanch. It was no better, if bread was thrown. A company of famished wolves could not dart with more singleness, or less ferocity of purpose, after the bread. And yet in this depth of poverty the gleams of an invincible humor flashed from the laughing lips of the little starveling imps; as it were, gleams of sunshine in bright cheerful bars, irradiating a dungeon's dark
How kindly is that Providence distributed, which thus lightens the fetters of circumstance. Who knows what genius
lives, waiting development, in these elfish urchins, that emit such sparkles of fun, as they run after the traveller for the penny? The atmosphere of gross earthliness encircles and taints the clear beams of that soul which God has created with such subtle yet latent apprehension. It is solid truth, that there are hidden energies under the clouds of ignorance. This is the seminal principle of our educational systems—the germ of that hopeful ness, from which the stability of the future, as well as the pro gressiveness of the race, spring. Would that these young blos soming energies, only blooming to be nipped by "the eager air" of poverty and crime, could be early transplanted to a more genial soil!
The country looks as if already deserted by its working people. Houses are empty, fields look neglected, and hedges are untrimmed. True, there is a heavy harvest; but it is gathered by hands that work slowly, and that lack the impulse which proprietorship and enjoyment ever bestow. We understood that those who were gathering the crop of wheat, and of flax, received but a ha'penny per day! To be sure they were found-but a cent a day for harvest hands! Some index of the prevailing destitution may be found in the signs so common, 66 Licensed to sell spirits," and the crowd of idlers which such signs always collect. This may, in part, account for the mud-houses, where filth and poverty are the presiding Penates. But where are the gilded flies that fatten on this corruption? Where are the landlords who dole out their ha'pennies per diem to these images of God, for the use of their muscles and energies? Oh! living in England most sumptuously. They heed not the shriek of penury for bread. They affect to believe that no faces are sallow, that no sunken eyes peer out of their tenant mud-houses. The curses of the destitute muttered in secret, give them a sullen joy, that their lot is not like that of the ungovernable, untractable, and whiskey-drinking Irish.
Even Belfast, so beautiful and prosperous, is not wanting