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MORAL ESSA Y S,

EPIS T L E III,

то
Allen Lord Bathurst.
A R G U M E N T.

Of the Use of RICHES.
WHAT it is known to few, most falling into one of the

extremes, Avarice or Profusion, x 1, &c. The Point discussd, whether the invention of Money has been more. commodious, or pernicious to Mankind, 21 10 77. That Riches, either to the Avaricious or the Prodigal, cannot afford Happiness, scarcely Necessaries, 89 to 160. Tbat Avarice is an absolute Frenzy, without an End or Purpose, x 113, &c. 152. Conjectures about the Molives of Avaricious men, Ý 121 10 153. That the conduet of men, with respext to Riches, can only be accounted for by the Order of PROVIDENCE, which works the general Good out of Extremes, and brings all to its great End by perpetual Revolutions, x 161 to 1978. How are Miser axts upon Principles wbich appear to him reasonable, X 179. How a Prodigal does the same, v 199. The due Medium, and true use of Riches, x 219. The Man of Ross, x 250. The fate of the Profuse and fbe Covetous, in two examples; both miserable in Life and in Deach, w 300, &c. Ihe Story of Sir Balaam,

339 to the end.

1. Blakcy inv.s del

GScotin fculp · Mo sees pale Mammon pine amidsthis Store,

Sees but a backward Steward for the Poor; na
This Year a Reservoir, to keep and spare);
The next, a Fountain ,spouting thro his Heir...

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EPIST L E III.

P. W H O fhall decide when Doctors disagree, W And foundest Casuists doubt, like you

and me? You hold the word, from Jove to Momus giv'n, That Man was made the standing jest of Heav'n;

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"Some whwhich are these wordter to the Earl ofe;

COMMENTARY. Epistle III.] This Epistle was written after a violent outcry against our Author, on a fupposition that he had ridiculed a worthy nobleman merely for his wrong taste. He justified himself upon that article in a letter to the Earl of Burlington; at the end of which are these words : “ I have learnt that there are 6 some who would rather be wicked than ridiculous; and there“ fore it may be safer to attack vices than follies. I will there“ fore leave my betters in the quite possession of their idols, their “ groves, and their high places; and change my subject from “their pride to their meanness, from their vanities to their mi“ series ; and as the only certain way to avoid misconstructions, " to lessen offence, and not to multiply ill-natured applications, “I may probably, in iny next, make use of real names instead “ of fictitious ones," P.

VER. ).. Who Mall decide, &c.] The address of the Introduction (from y 1 to 21) is remarkable : The poet represents himself and the noble Lord his friend, as in a conversation, philosophising on the final cause of Riches; and it proceeds by way of

Notes. Ver. 3. Momus givn,] Amongst the earliest abuses of reason, one of the first was to cavil at the ways of Providence. But as, in those times, every Vice as well as Virtue, bad its Patron-God, Momus came to be at the head of the old Friethinkers. Him, the Mythologists very ingeniously made the Son of Slcep and Night, and lo, consequently, half-brother to Dulness. But having been much employed, in after ages, by

And Gold but sent to keep the fools in play, s.
For some to heap, and some to throw away.

But I, who think more highly of our kind,
(And surely, Heav'n and I are of a mind)
Opine, that Nature, as in duty bound,
Deep hid the shining mischief under ground: 10

COMMENTARY.
dialogue, which most writers use to hide want of method; our
Author only to foften and enliven the dryness and severity of it.
You (says the poet)

- hold the word from Jove to Momus giv'n,
But I, who think more highly of our kind, &c,

Opinc that Nature, &c. As much as to say, “ You, my Lord, hold the subject we are “ upon as fit only for Satire; I, on the contrary, esteem it a “ case of Philosophy, and profound Ethics : But as we both “ agree in the main Principle, that Riches were not given for the reward of Virtue, but for very different purposes (Sec Éjjay on Man, Ep. iv.) let us compromise the matter, and confider “ the subject jointly, both under your idea and mine, i. c, Satirically and Philosophically.--Ánd this, in fact, we fall find to be the true character of this poem, which is a Species peculiar to itself, and partaking equally of the nature of his Ethic Epifles and his Satires, as the best pieces of Lucian arose from a combination of the Dialogues of Plato, and the Scenes of Aristophanes. This it will be necessary to carry with us, if we would see either the Wit or the Reasoning of this Epistle in their true light.

NOTE S. the Greek Satirists, he came, at last, to pass for a Wit ; and under this idea, he is to be considered in the place before us.

Ver. 9. Opine,] A term sacred to controversy and high debate.

VER. 9.--that Nature, as in duty bowd, ] This, though ludicrously, is yet exactly, expresled; to lhew, that, by Naturi,

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