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and manner. The tones are deepened, the resonance improved, the pronunciation chastened; all of which are accomplishments greatly to be desired in everyday life.
Training in expression is also valuable as a means of literary interpretation and entertainment. It is a source of pleasure and culture to listen to the skillful reading of passages from the masterpieces of literature, whether in public or in the home or social circle. Such exercise of one's skill is not only entertaining and instructive but is a mark of courtesy and a means of refinement to a community.
But skill in speaking is still more valuable as a means of persuasion. The time will never come when people will not flock to hear men plead causes of vital interest. There will always be a demand for those who can speak well, for business interests require men who can present cases well in the courts. The effective jury lawyer will secure a much larger share of the business of the courts than the man of equal learning and high character who is not effective as a speaker. Leaders in committees, conventions, and other deliberative assemblies are almost invariably effective speakers, for it is a well-known fact that most of the important business of life is shaped by pithy, energetic, short speeches.
The testimony of the great orators is overwhelming in support of faithful and vigorous practice in the art of public speaking. Gladstone declares that "time and money spent in training the voice and body is an investment that pays a larger interest than any other"; and Spurgeon says, "I believe that every one should train his voice and body, first, for the health it affords; second, for its educating effects; third, for the advantage it gives over others for usefulness." And Wendell Phillips, in defense of such training, a very important factor in his own education, declares that "it is useless to waste words on any man ignorant of the vast power of agreeable and eloquent speech in a republic."
The problem of how to teach the subject in a practical way has puzzled the schoolmen and vexed the instructor whose duty it has been to train students in elocution. Clearly the best way to teach the art of public speaking is through the science underlying that art and through practice of its principles, which may be taught and applied as are the principles of other liberal sciences.
That one may progress rapidly and consistently it is necessary that voice and action should be developed simultaneously. To this end every lesson should call forth exercises in vocal culture, breathing, pronunciation, emphasis, and technique of action, drills as necessary to artistic expression as drills in music and painting are to those arts. But the major part of the hour should be given to the study of the principle of expression under consideration and the practice of the illustrative selection embodying that principle. The arrangement of the elements and illustrations affords ample room for the individual methods of the instructor. Each principle is treated as a whole and in combination with other elements in their natural sequence, so that if one has not time for the full course it is complete and logical as far as one goes. The judicious admixture of text drill and illustrative material throughout the course makes the study of elocution both practical and effective. To treat the subject in a dogmatic, "lesson-leaf" fashion would be to discredit the good taste and judgment of the teacher and limit him to a set, mechanical method. The instructor is given the largest freedom in the assignment of work and in the adaptation of the text to the individual needs of his students.
We shall treat the subject under three heads: (1) the speaker, his formation and use of language; (2) the elements of vocal expression by which he is to make himself effective orally; (3) the principles of action by which he satisfies the eye of the audience and reënforces his vocal utterance.
In this division of the book we shall treat certain subjects relating to the speaker and his use of language which are inseparably connected with the art of public speaking but which cannot be classed as elements of elocution. They are (1) Man's Triune Nature, which deals with the avenues through which one receives and gives out impressions; (2) the Vocal Organism as an instrument of expression; (3) Pronunciation, which deals with the formation of sounds and words; and (4) Emphasis, which relates to the enforcement of the ideas of language.
MAN'S TRIUNE NATURE
Impression is essential to expression. We must possess before we can give. The object of elocution is to aid the speaker to give correct outward expression of his inner consciousness. Before the student can hope to master the laws of expression he must know something of this inner nature and the avenues through which he receives his impressions.
An analysis of the psychic being reveals the well-established theory that man is one in consciousness and three in manifestation; that the one being, the ego, has three natures, (1) the Vital, (2) the Mental, and (3) the Emotive.
1. The Vital Nature is made up of bone, muscle, sinews, nerves, the brain, and other organs, all of which are susceptible alike to the buoyant thrills of health and the aches and pains
"flesh is heir to." The body is the seat of the appetites, the dwelling place of the mind, and the "temple of the soul." Through this part of his being man reveals the phenomena of life which lasts while the heart beats and respiration continues. The gymnastic exercises and athletic sports so prominent in high-school and college life are a response to the demand that the Vital Nature be properly developed.
2. The Mental Nature is that part of the being through which man perceives, remembers, reflects, invents, reasons, and attains knowledge. It is presided over by the mind, which in turn has its seat in the brain. The manifestation of this nature is evident in all the mental activities. Its cultivation forms a large part of school and college education.
3. The Emotive Nature is that part of man's being through which his affectional or passional life is manifested. Through it he loves or hates, is sympathetic or bears antipathy, is loyal to his concepts of truth and duty or violates law, order, and morality. It is presided over by the soul, the cultivation of which is the aim of all spiritual education.
These three natures, the Vital, the Mental, and the Emotive, presided over by life, mind, and soul, and revealing sensation, thought, and feeling, all living and blending in one being, form the triangle on which the science of elocution, or, speaking more broadly, the philosophy of expression, is based. Through these three natures man receives all his varied and complex impressions, and through the elements of elocution responding to these natures he may hope to express his own thoughts and feelings and touch responsive cords in the life, mind, and soul of his audience. It then becomes our task in this volume to discover the elements of expression by testing their relation to Man's Triune Nature and showing their revelatory power in the art of expression.
THE VOCAL ORGANISM
The voice as an instrument consists of (1) Organs and (2) Muscles.
SECTION I. ORGANS
The organs of voice are (1) the Lungs, (2) the Trachea and Bronchi, (3) the Larynx, (4) the Pharynx, (5) the Nasal Cavities, and (6) the Mouth.
1. The Lungs constitute the bellows of the voice. Their function is to receive and supply air for the sustaining of life, and for the purposes of speech.
2. The Trachea and Bronchi form the air passages to the lungs and act as resonators for the voice. The flexible rings of cartilage which compose the Trachea, or windpipe, and the muscles which connect them, are capable of being distended or narrowed, lengthened or shortened, so as to affect materially the pitch and resonance of tone.
3. The Larynx, or voice box, is situated at the top of the Trachea. It consists of five cartilages. Some of these act as a
shield to the more delicate parts of the vocal instrument, and others lengthen or shorten, open or close, the vocal cords. These cords are two pearly white ligaments which are attached