« VorigeDoorgaan »
time to Cambridge. 11 And it may be conjectured | bought and begun with servitude and forsweara from the willingness with which he has perpet- ing."
PA) 49: Wind 11, uated the memory of his exile, that its cause These expressions are, I find, applied, to the was such as gave him no shame.rajojens tortor 300 subscription of the Articles; but it «He took both the usual degrees; that of more probable that they relate to canonical bachelor din 1628, and that of master in 1632 ; obedience. I know, not any of the Articles but he left the University with no kindness for which seem to thwart his opinions : but its institution, alienated either by the injudicious thoughts of obedience, whether canonical severity of his governors, or his own captious civil, raised his indignation. perverseness. The cause cannot now be known His unwillingness to engage in the ministry, but the effect appears in his writings. His perhaps not yet advanced to a settled resolution scheme of education, inscribed to Hartlib, sue of declining it, appears in a letter to one of his persedès iall academical instructions, being nin. friends, who had reproved his suspended and tended to comprise the whole time which meni dilatory life, which he seems to have imputed usually spend in literature, from their entrance to an insatiable curiosity, and fantastic luxury ópon grammar; still they proceed, as it is called, of various knowledge. To this he writes a cool masters of arts." And in his discourse Mon and plausible answer, in which he endeavours the likeliest way to remove hirelings out of the to persuade him, that the delay proceeds not churchhe ingeniously proposes, that ff the from the delights of desultory study, but from ppofits of the lands forfeited by the act før 84 the desire of obtaining more fitness for his task; perstitious uses should be applied to such acader and that he goes on, not taking thought of mies all over the land, where languages and arts being late, so it gives advantage to be more may be taught togetheri; iso that youth may be fit.", Data
B.M atíonce brought up to a competency of learning When he left the University, he returned to them as bad ithe gift, being enabled to support inghamshire, with whom he
n he lived five years, in themselves (without tithes) by the latter, may, which time he is said to have read all the Greek býl the help of the former, become worthy and Latin writers. With what limitations this preachers./'moon9 961 TOI * 312997010" 215,1971 universality is to be understood, who shall in 3*One of his objections to academical education, form us ? as it was then conducted,ris, that men designed It might be supposed, that he who read so for orders in the church were permitted to act much should have done nothing else; but Milplays ook writhing and unboning their clergy. ton found time to write the mask of “Comus," limbs to all the antio and dishonest igeatures of which was presented at Ludlow, then the re Trincalos, *dbuffoons, and bawds, prostituting sidence of the Lord President of Wales, in the shame of that ministry which they had, sor 1634; and had the honour of being acted by the were near having, to the eyes of the courtiers Earl of Bridgewater's sons and daughter. The and court ladies, their grooms and madenaoi- fiction is derived from Homer's Circe ;* but selles, en ti 2309 5e 09,br "!J55 This is sufficiently peevish in a man who,
* It has, nevertheless, its foundation in reality. when he mentions his exile from the college, re
The Earl of Bridgewater being President of Wales lates, with great luxuriance, the compensation which the pleasures of the theatre afford him. in Shropshire, at which time Lord Brackly and Mt.
in the year 1634, bad his residence at Ludlow Castle, Plays were therefure only criminal when they Egerton, his sons, and Lady Alice Egerton, hią were acted by academics,nos 5 plaj . * Vand daughter, passing through a place, called the zitHe went to the University with a design of wood forest, or Haywood, in Herefordshire, were entering into the church, but in time altered benighted, and the lady for a short time lost : this his mind ;o for he declared, that whoever became accident
at being related to their father, upon their a clergyman must subscribe slave, and take an
arrival at his castle, Milton, at the request of his oath withal, which, unless he took with a con- friend, Henry Lawes, who taught music in the fami. science that could not retch, he must straight lý, Wrote this mask. Lawes set it to music
, and it
was acted on Michaelmas night; the two brothers, perjure himself. He thought it better to prefer the young lady, and Lawes himself bearing each a & blameless silence before the office of speaking, part in the representation.
The Lady Alice Egerton, became afterwards the IPI bailum en vor er i 104 1 wife of the Earl of Carbury, who, at his seat called 98 By the mention of this pame, he evidently re- Golden-grove, in Caernarthenshire, harboured Dee fers to Albemazor, acted at in 1614: 18 Jeremy Taylor in the time of the usurpation, norama, mesmother die were med at
at the Among the Doctor's sermons is one on her death in .
which her character is finely portrayed. Her sister, The Tast dramátic performàtice at 'either University Lady Mary, was given in marriage to Lord Herbert, was a The Grateful Fair," written by Christopher of Cherbury. Smart and represented at Pembroke College, Cam- e Notwithstanding Dr. Johnson's assertion, that bridges about 1747.-R. bisi »rony to google hers? the fiction is derived from Homer's Circe, it may be
King, the son
و آ ا و ا قع
we never can refuse to any modern the liberty bolt appears in all his writings that he had the of borrowing from Homer :
usual concomitant of great abilities, a lofty ani Ant
steady confidence in himself, perhaps not with -a quo ceu fonte perenni Vatum Pieriis ora rigantur aquis.
out some contempt of others; for scarcely any
than ever wrote so much, and praised so few. His
s next production was “ Lycidas, "ib'an of his praise he was very frugal 3as he set its elégy, written in 1637, on the death of Mr. value high, and considered i his mention of a
son of Sir John King, secretary for name as a security against the waste of times Ireland in the time of Elizabeth, James, and and a certain preservative from oblixion.yti'19798
much a favourite at Cam- At Florence he could not, indeedz complain bridge, andmf
the Wits joined to do that his merit wanted distinction,94 Carla Dati honour to his memory." Milton's acquaintance presented him with an encomiastic inscription, with the Italian writers may be discovered by in the tumid lapidary style ; and Francini wrote a mixture of longer and shorter verses, accord-him an ode, of which the firsti stanza is only ing to the rules of Tuscan poetry, and his ma-empty noise ; the rest are perhaps too diffuse on lignity to the church, by some lines which are common topics : but the last is natural and interpreted as threatening
extermination. bis beautiful anzib diisi bua 16 to 019726m "He is supposed about this time to have writ- From Florence he went too Siennaýe and from n hig'i Arcades'; for,
for, while he lived at Hor: Sienna to Rome, where he was again received toń, he used sometimes to steal from his studies with kindness by the learned andd the greate a few days, which he spent at
Harefield, the Holstenius, the keeper of the Vatican Library, house of the Countess Dowager of Derby, who had resided three years at Oxford, (introm where the “ Arcades” made part of a dramatic duced him to Cardinal Barberiniziandi hes at a entertainment. vtimur on now to grow wears DAY
musical entertainment, waited for him at the He began and had some purpose of taking in bly. Here Selvaggi praised him tin sa distieti, the Inns of Court, when the death of his and Salsilt in a tetrastio ; neither) of themɔof mother set him at liberty for which much value. The Italians were gainers by this he obtained his father's consent, and 'Sir Henry literary commerce; for the encomiums with Wotton's directions; with the celebrated pre which Milton repaid Satsilli, though not secure cept of prúdence, i vensieri stretti, ed il viso, stion against a stern gramimariany turn the balance to; “thoughts close, and looks loose. " en indisputably in Milton's favoundt oi anb'io 108,
In '1638 he left England, and went first to l Of these Italian testimonies, poor as they are, Paris;
Phere in the favour of Lord Scuda: he was proud enough to publish them before his more, he had the opportunity of visiting Groti- poems ; though he says, he cannot be suspected us, then residing at the French court as ambas- but to have known that they were said non tam sador from Christiana of Sweden. From Paris de se; quam supra sere xt of 3111460 A 3796 he hasted into Italy, of which he had with par- At Rome, as at Florence, she stayed only two ticular diligence studied the language and litera- months; a time indeed sufficient, if he desired ture; and though he seems to have intended a
only to ramble with an vexplainer off its anvery quick perambulation of the country, stayed tiquities, or to view palaces and count pictures ; two months at Florence; where he found his but certainly too short for the contemplation of way into the acadernies, and produced his com learning, policy, or manners. Tasula sit doido positions with such applause as appears to have
From Rome he passed on to Naplesy in com exalted him in his own opinion, and confirmed pany of a hermit, a companion from thom little kim in the hope, that, by labour and intense could be expected ;; yet to him Milton :owed his study, which,” says
** I take to be my por- had been before the patron of Tasso, b, Mause
men introduction to Manso, Marquis of Villa, who tion in this life, joined with a strong propensity of nature,” he might" leave something so writ
was enough delighted with his accomplishments ten to aftertimes, as they should not willingly to honour him with a sorry distich, in which he let it die."?* : ;dung anisotoim qo 0958 0W
commends him forrevery thing but bis religion: R39 190 119" a" barvil, at
and Milton, in return, addressed thim i inaa La
tin poem, which must have raised a highrepin conjectured," that it was rather taken from the ion of English elegance and literature. Comus of Erycius Action of a dreamteanus, in which, nnder the His purpose was now to have visited Sicily attendants are delineated, and the delights of'sensul tween the King characters of Commus and his and Greece ; but, hearing of the differences be
parliament, he thought it alists exposed and reprobated. This little tract was published at Louvain in 1611, and afterwards at Ox
proper to hasten home, rather than pass his life ford in 1634, the very year in which Miltonin foreign, amusements while his countrymen
yndranto) were contending for their rights, . He therefore Milton evidently was indebted to the " ola Wives came back to Rome, though the merchants, in, Tale of George Peele for the plan of "Comusi”LR. formed him of plots laid againsti him by the
"Comus” was written.-H.
Jesuits, for the liberty of his conversations on re- ism in a private boarding school. This is the ligion. He had sense enough to judge that there period of his life from which all his biographers was no danger, and therefore kept on his
way, seem inclined to shrink. They are unwilling and acted as before, neither obtruding nor shun- that Milton should be degraded to a school-masning controversy. He had perhaps given some ter; but, since it cannot be denied that he offence by visiting Galileo, then a prisoner in taught boys, one finds out that he taught for the Inquisition for philosophical heresy; and at nothing, and another that his motive was only Naples he was told by Manso, that, by his declar- zeal for the propagation of learning and virtue; ations on religious questions, he had excluded and all tell what they do not know to be true, himself from some distinctions which he should only to excuse an act which no wise man will otherwise have paid him. But such conduct, consider as in itself disgraceful. His father was though it did not please, was yet sufficiently alive; his allowance was not ample; and he safe ; and Milton stayed two months more at supplied its deficiencies by an honest and useful Rome, and went on to Florence without moles- employment. tation.
It is told that in the art of education he perFrom Florence he visited Lucca. He after- formed wonders; and a formidable list is given wards went to Venice; and, having sent away of the authors, Greek and Latin, that were read a collection of music and other books, travelled in Aldersgate-street by youth between ten and to Geneva, which he probably considered as the fifteen or sixteen years of age. Those who tell metropolis of orthodoxy.
or receive these stories should consider, that noHere he reposed as in a congenial element, and body can be taught faster than he can learn. became acquainted with John Diodati and Fre- The speed of the horseman must be limited by derick Spanheim, two learned professors of di- the power of the horse. Every inan that has vinity. From Geneva, he passed through France; ever undertaken to instruct others can tell what and came home, after an absence of a year and slow advances he has been able to make, and three months.
how much patience it requires to recal vagrant At his return he heard of the death of his inattention, to stimulate sluggish indifference, friend Charles Diodati; a man whom it is rea- and to rectify absurd misapprehension. sonable to suppose of great merit, since he was The purpose of Milton, as it seems, was to thought by Milton worthy of a poem, entitled teach something more solid than the common “ Epitaphium Damonis," written with the literature of schools, by reading those authors common but childish imitation of pastoral life
that treat of physical subjects ; such as the He now hired a lodging at the house of one Georgicand astronomical treatises of the ancients. Russel, a tailor in St. Bride's church-yard, and This was a scheme of improvement which seems undertook the education of John and Edward to have busied many literature projectors of that Philips, his sister's sons. Finding his rooms
age. Cowley, who had more means than Miltoo little, he took a house and garden in Alders- top of knowing what was wanting to the emgate-street,* which was not then so much bellishments of life, formed the same plan of out of the world as it is now; and chose his education in his imaginary college. dwelling at the upper end of a passage, that But the truth is, that the knowledge of exterhe might avoid the noise of the street. Here nal nature, and the sciences which that knowhe received more boys to be boarded and in- ledge requires or includes, are not the great or structed.
the frequent business of the human mind. Let not our veneration for Milton forbid us
Whether we provide for action or conversation, to look with some degree of merriment on great whether we wish to be useful or pleasing, the promises and small performance, on the man
first requisite is the religious and moral knowwho hastens home, because his countrymen are ledge of right and wrong; the next is an accontending for their liberty, and, when he reach-quaintance with the history of mankind, and es the scene of action, vapours away his patriot- with those examples which may be said to em
body truth, and prove by events the reasonable* This is inaccurately expressed : Philips, and Dr.
ness of opinions. Prudence and justice are virNewton after him, say a garden-house, i. e. a house
tues and excellences of all times and of all places situated in a garden, and of which there were, especially in the north suburbs of London, very many, if
we are perpetually moralists, but we are geomcot few else. The term is technical, and frequently etricians only by chance. Our intercourse with occurs in the Athen. and Fast. Oxon. The me intellectual nature is necessary; our speculations thereof may be collected from the article, Thomas upon matter are voluntary, and at leisure. Parnaby, the famous schoolmaster, of whom the au- Physiological learning is of such rare emergence, thor says, that he taught in Goldsmith's-rents, in that one may know another half his life, withe Cripplegate parish, behind Redcross-street, where
out being able to estimate his skill in hydrostatwere large gardens and handsome houses. Milton's house in Jewin-street was also a garden-house, as
tics or astronomy; but his moral and prudential were indeed most of his dwellings after his settle character immediately appears. ment in London.-H.
Those authors, therefore, are to be read as
is in every thing else
hehere is no reason
5ds til tong path St JGTC Direi Su agortseig com inte viiadil sa behools that supply most axloms of prudence, this. Answer Confutation was attempted by most principles of moral truth, and most mate- the learned Usher; and to the Confutation Milrials for conversation; and these purposes are ton published a reply, entitled, “ Of Prelatical best served by poets, orators, and historians. Episcopacy, and whether it may be deduced
Let me not be censured for this digression as from the Apostolical Times, by virtue of those pedantic or paradoxical ; for, if I have Milton Testimonies which are alleged to that purpose
against me, I have Socrates on my side. It was in some late Treatises, one whereof his labour to turn philosophy from the study of
Name of James, Lord Bishop of Armagh. If nature to speculations upon life ; but the innova- I have transcribed this title to show, by his estors whom I oppose are turning off attention contemptuous mention of Usher, that he had
from life to nature. They seem to think that we now adopted the puritanical savageness of mancare placed here to watch the
the growth of plants, ners. His next work was, « The Reason of or the motions of the stars : Socrates was rather Church Government urged against Prelacy, by of opinion, that what we had to learn was, how Mr. John Milton, 1642. In this book he disto do good, and avoid evil.
not with ostentatious exultation, but with 2
calm ρα: "Όττι του ένα μίγαρισι κακόντ’ αγαθόντε τέτυκται. 13 axabóna virumpets thing, he yet knows not what
, that may be of
own powers; and promises to undertake soineOf institutions we may judge by their effects
. use and honour to his country. This," says From this wonder working academy, I do not
do not be that's tertentu "Spirit that can enrich with all
“ is not to be obtained but by devout prayer know that there ever proceeded any man very
nal eminent for knowledge : its only genuine pro
utterance and knowledge, and sends out his seduct, I believe,
history of poetry, raphim with the hallowed fire of his altar, to written in Latin by his nephew Philips, of which touch and purify the lips of whom he pleases. perhaps none of my readers has ever heard..
To this must be ad
added, "Industrious and select That in his school, as in every which he undertook, he i
e reading, steady observation, and insight into all laboured with
h great di- seemly and generous arts and affairs ; till which ligence, there
doubting. One in
in some measure be compassed, I refuse not "* part of his method deserves general imitation. I sustain this expectation.
From a promise like He was careful to instruct his scholars in reli- | this, at once fervid, pious,
Sious, and rational, might
Paradicsont twice so namphEvery Sunday was spent upon theology; be expected the “ Paradise gion. of which he dictated a short system, gathered He published the same year from the writers that were then fashionable in lets, upon the same question. To one of his anthe Dutch universities. In any 2x and
tagonists, who affirms that he was a vomited lily He set his pupils an example of
xample of hard stu
study out of the University;" he answers in general spare diet;
only now and then he allowed terms. The fellows of the college wherein I a day of festivity and 1 indulgence spent some years," at
parting, after had with some gay gentlemen of Gray's Inn.
taken two degrees, as the manner is, signified He now began to he times, and lent his breath to blow the them that was for the common engage in the con
controversies many times how much better it would content flames of contention. In 1641 he published a approbation that place
as now it is, treatise of Reformation, in two
wo books, against that I should esteem vor disesteem myself the the established "church; being willing
more for too simple is the answerer, if he the puritans, who were, he says, “ inferior to the
Son the the
phyggelsen actiee were prelates in learning." Hall, bishop of Norwich, had published an
and her sister have of lon
of long time vomited, that the bo to which, in the Humble Remonstrance, in
worser stuff she strongly keeps in her stomach, wyce of episco- 2697 whose names the first letters made the celebrat- queasy ;
vomits now out of sickness ;-but ed word Smectymnuus, gave us, gave their Answer, or before it y
before it will be well with her, she must vomit poBITTE TOIM,
by strong physic. The University, in the time Johnson did not here allude to Philips's Thea- of her better health, and my younger judgment,
Tavoit trum Poetarum,” as has been ignorantly supposed, I never greatly admired, but now much less. but (as he bimself informed Mr. Malone) to another work by the same author, entitled, “ Tractatulus del. This is surely the language of a man who
thinks that he has been injuved. He proceeds 97 Carmine dramatis Poetarum Veteram præsertim in to describe the course of his conduct, andithe
; and, because he has been utar compendiose, enumeratio poetarum (saltem quo. suspected
gives an account of -te tum fame maxim emituit) qui a tempore
091 bi Atigini, usquead hunc ætatem claruerunt,
his own purity; . that if I be justly charged,” -J.B.
e says he t' with this crime, it may come upon Stephen Marshall, Eamuna Cålamy, Tuomas me with tenfold shame.'l yo teoru hesbai su ** Young, Matthew Newcomen,
William Spurstow.-R. The style of his piece is rougb, and such per
haps was that of his antagon st. This rough, famous assembly at Westminster, procured that ness he justifies by great examples in a long di- the author should be called before the Lords ; gression. Sometimes he tries to be humorous : “ but that House,” says Wood, “ whether ap“ Lest I should take him for some chaplain in proving the doctrine, or not favouring his achand, some squire of the body to his prelate, one cusers, did soon dismiss him.” who serves not at the altar only, but at the There seems not to have been much written court-cupboard, he will bestow on us a pretty against him, nor any thing by any writer of emimodel of himself; and sets me out half a dozen
nence. * The antagonist that appeared is styled phthisical mottoes, wherever he had them, hop- by him, A serving man turned solicitor. Howel, ping short in the measure of convulsion fits; in in his Letters, mentions the new doctrine with which labour the agony of his wit having escaped contempt ;t and it was, I suppose, thought narrowly, instead of well-sized periods, he greets
more worthy of derision than of confutation. us with a quantity of thumbring poesies. And He complains of this neglect in two sonnets, of thus ends this section, or rather dissection, of which the first is contemptible, and the second himself.” Such is the controversial merriment
not excellent. of Milton; his gloomy seriousness is yet more
From this time it is observed, that he became offensive. Such is his maliguity, that hell grows
an enemy to the presbyterians, whom he had darker at his frown.
favoured before. He that changes his party by His father, after Reading was taken by Essex, his humour, is not more virtuous than he that came to reside in his house; and his school in- changes it by his interest; he loves himself creased. At Whitsuntide, in his thirty-fifth rather than truth. year, he married Mary, the daughter of Mr.
His wife and her relations now found that Powell, a justice of the peace in Oxfordshire. Milton was not an unresisting sufferer of inHe brought her to town with him, and expected juries; and perceiving that he had begun to put all the advantages of a conjugal life. The lady,
bis doctrine in practice, by courting a young however, seems not much to have delighted in the pleasures of spare diet and hard study; for, of one Doctor Davis, who was however not
woman of great accomplishments, the daughter as Philips relates, “ having for a month led a philosophic life, after having been used at home ready to comply, they resolved to endeavour a lity, her friends, possibly by her own desire, St. Martin's le-Grand, and at one of his usual to a great house, and much company and jovia- re-union. He went sometimes to the house of
one Blackborough, his relation, in the lane of made earnest suit to have her company the remaining part of the summer ; which was grant, another room, and implore forgiveness on her
visits was surprised to see bis wife come from ed upon a promise of her return at Michaelmas.”
Milton was too busy to much miss his wife ; knees. He resisted her intreaties for a while : he pursued his studies; and now and then visit
“ but partly," says Philips, “ his own generous
nature, more inclinable to reconciliation than to od the Lady Margaret Leigh, whom he has mentioned in one of his sonnets. At last Michael- perseverance in anger or revenge, and partly the mas arrived; but the lady had no inclination to strong intercession of friends on both sides, soon return to the sullen gloom of her husband's ha- brought him to an act of oblivion and a firm bitation, and therefore very willingly forgot her league of peace.” It were injurious to omit,
that Milton afterwards received her father and promise. He sent her a letter, but had no anhe sent more with the same success. It
her brothers in his own house, when they were could be alleged that letters miscarry; he there- distressed, with other royalists. fore despatched a messenger, being by this time
He published about the same time his Areopatoo angry to go himself. His messenger was gitica, a Speech of Mr. John Milton for the Libersent back with some contempt. The family of ty of unlicensed Printing. The danger of such the Lady were cavaliers.
unbounded liberty, and the danger of bounding In a man, whose opinion of his own merit it, have produced a problem in the science of gowas like Milton's, less provocation than this vernment, which human understanding seems might have raised violent resentment. Milton
hitherto unable to solve. If nothing may be soon determined to repudiate her for disobedi-published but what civil authority shall have ence; and, being one of those who could easily previously approved, power must always be the find arguments to justify inclination, published standard of truth: if every dreamer of innova(in 1644) “ The Doctrine and Discipline of Di- tions may propagate his projects, there can be vorce;" which was followed by “ The Judgment of Martin Bucer, concerning Divorce ;" and the next year, his Tetrachordon, “Exposition of Milton's name, by Bishop Hall, in his Cases
• It was animadverted upon, but without any men. tions upon the four chief Places of Scripture of Conscience Decaie, 4, Case 2.-J. B. which treat of Marriage.”
+ He terms the anthor of it a shallow brain'd puppy; This innovation was opposed, as might be ex- and thus refers to it in his index, “ Of a noddy wbo pected, by the clergy, who, then holding their wrote a book about winning."–J. B.