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che privy-council, and confronted with his ac- Sprat preached, he likewise was honoured with cusers. Young persisted with the most obdu- the like animating hum; but he stretched out rate impudence, against the strongest evidence ; his hand to the congregation, and cried, “ Peace, but the resolution of Blackhead by degrees gave peace, I pray you peace.” way. There remained at last no doubt of the This I was told in my youth by my father, Bishop's innocence, who, with great prudence an old man, who had been no careless observer and diligence, traced the progress and detected of the passages of those times. the characters of the two informers, and pub Burnet's sermon, says Salmon, was remarklished an account of his own examination and able for sedition, and Sprai's for loyalty. Bur. deliverance; which made such an impression net had the thanks of the house; Sprat had no upon him, that he commemorated it through life thanks, but a good living from the King, which, by a yearly day of thanksgiving.
he said, was of as much value as the thanks of With what hope, or what interest, the vil- the Commons. lains had contrived an accusation which they The works of Sprat, besides his few poems, must know themselves utterly unable to prove, axe, “ The History of the Royal Society,” was never discovered.
“ The Life of Cowley,” “ The Answer to SorAfter this, he passed his days in the quiet ex- biere,” “ The History of the Rye-house Plot,” ercise of his function. When the cause of Sa “ The Relation of his own Examination," and cheverell put the public in commotion, he hon- a volume of sermons. I have heard it observed, estly appeared among the friends of the church. with great justness, that every book is of a difHe lived to his seventy-ninth year, and died ferent kind, and that each has its distinct and May 20, 1713.
characteristical excellence. Burnet is not very favourable to his memory; My business is only with his poems. He but he and Burnet were old rivals. On some considered Cowley as a model; and supposed public occasion they both preached before the that, as he was imitated, perfection was apHouse of Commons. There prevailed in those proached. Nothing, therefore, but Pindaric lidays an indecent custom: when the preacher berty was to be expected. There is in his few touched any favourable topic in a manner that productions no want of such conceits as he delighted his audience, their approbation was thought excellent: and of those our judgment expressed by a loud hum, continued in proportion may be settled by the first that appears in his to their zeal or pleasure. When Burnet preach- praise of Cromwell, where he says, that Cromed, part of his congregation hummed so loudly well's “ fame, like man, will grow white as it and so long, that he sat down to enjoy it, and grows old.” rubbed his face with his handkerchief. When
H ALIF A X.
The Life of the Earl of Halifax was proper- , and recommended himself to Busby by his felily that of an artful and active statesman, em- city in extemporary epigrams. He contracted ployed in balancing parties, contriving expedi- a very intimate friendship with Mr. Stepney; ents, and combating opposition, and exposed to and, in 1682, when Stepney was elected at the vicissitudes of advancement and degrada- | Cambridge, the election of Montague being nut tion; but in this collection, poetical merit is the to proceed till the year following, he was afraid claim to attention: and the account which is lest by being placed at Oxford he might be sehere to be expected may properly be proportion- parated from his companion, and therefore soed not to his influence in the state, but to his licited to be removed to Cambridge, without rank among the writers of verse.
waiting for the advantages of another year.
It seems indeed time to wish for a removal; CHARLES MONTAGUE was born April 16, for he was already a school-boy of one-and1661, at Horton, in Northamptonshire, the son twenty. of Mr. George Montague, a younger son of the His relation, Dr. Montague, was then master Earl of Manchester. He was educated first in of the college in which he was placed a fellowthe country, and then removed to Westminster, commoner, and took him under his particular where, in 1677, he was chosen a king's scholar,
Here he commenced an acouaintans
with the great Newton, which contiuued chequer; and, after inquiry concerning a grant through his life, and was at last attested by a of Irish crown-lands, it was determined by a legacy.
vote of the Commons, that Charles Montague, In 1685, his verses on the death of King Esq. had deserved his Majesty's favour. In Charles made such an impression on the Earl 1698, being advanced to the first commission of of Dorset, that he was invited to town, and in the Treasury, he was appointed one of the retroduced by that universal patron to the other gency in the King's absence: the next year he wits. In 1687, he joined with Prior in “ The was made auditor of the Exchequer, and the City Mouse and the Country Mouse," a bur- year after created Baron Halifax. He was, lesque of Dryden's “ Hind and Panther.” He however, impeached by the Commons; but the signed the invitation to the Prince of Orange, articles were dismissed by the Lords. and sate in the convention. He about the same At the accession of Queen Anne he was distime married the Countess Dowager of Man- missed from the council: and in the first parliachester, and intended to have taken orders; but ment of her reign was again attacked by the afterwards, altering his purpose, he purchased Commons, and again escaped by the protection for 1,5001. the place of one of the clerks of the of the Lords. In 1704, he wrote an answer to council.
Broomley's speech against occasional conformAfter he had written his epistle on the victory ity. He headed the inquiry into the danger of of the Boyne, his patron, Dorset, introduced the church. In 1706, he proposed and negotihim to King William, with this expression : ated the Union of Scotland; and when the _" Sir, I have brought a mouse to wait on your Elector of Hanover had received the garter, afMajesty.” To which the King is said to have ter the act had passed for securing the protestant replied, “ You do well to put me in the way of succession, he was appointed to carry the enmaking a man of him;" and ordered him a pen- signs of the order to the electoral court. He sion of five hundred pounds. This story, how- sate as one of the judges of Sacheverell ; but ever current, seems to have been made after the voted for a mild sentence. Being now no longevent. The King's answer implies a greater er in favour, he contrived to obtain a writ for acquaintance with our proverbial and familiar summoning the Electoral Prince to parliament diction than King William could possibly have as Duke of Cambridge. attained.
At the Queen's death he was appointed one In 1691, being member of the House of Com of the regents; and at the accession of George mons, he argued warmly in favour of a law to I. was made earl of Halifax, knight of the gargrant the assistance of counsel in trials for high ter, and first commissioner of the treasury, with treason ; and, in the midst of his speech falling a grant to his nephew of the reversion of the into some confusion, was for awhile silent; but, auditorship of the Exchequer. More was not recovering himself, observed, “how reasonable to be had, and this he kept but a little while; it was to allow counsel to men called as crimi- for, on the 19th of May, 1715, he died of an innals before a court of justice, when it appeared flammation of his lungs. how much the presence of that assembly could Of him, who from a poet became a patron of disconcert one of their own body."'*
poets, it will be readily believed that the works After this he rose fast into honours and em would not miss of celebration. Addison began ployments, being made one of the commissioners to praise him early, and was followed or accomof the Treasury, and called to the privy-council. panied by other poets: perhaps by almost all, In 1694, he became chancellor of the Exchequer; except Swift and Pope, who forebore to flatand the next year engaged in the great attempt ter him in his life, and after his death spoke of the recoinage, which was in two years hap- of him, Swift with slight censure, and Pope, pily completed. In 1696, he projected the ge- in the character of Bufo, with acrimonious neral fund, and raised the credit of the Ex- contempt.
He was, as Pope says, “ fed with dedica
tions;" for Tickell affirms that no dedication * Mr. Reed observes that this anecdote is related
was unrewarded. by Mr. Walpole, in his “ Catalogue of Royal and
To charge all unmerited Noble Authors," of the Earl of Shaftesbury, author praise with the guilt of flattery, and to suppose of the “ Characteristics ;" but it appears to me to
that the encomiast always knows and feels the be a mistake, if we are to understand that the words falsehoods of his assertions, is surely to discover were spoken by Shaftesbury at this time, when he great ignorance of human nature and human had no seat in the House of Commons; nor did the life. In determinations depending not on rules, bill pass at this time, being thrown out by the House but on experience and comparison, judgment of Lords. It became a law in the 7th William, when is always, in some degree, subject to affection. Halifax and Shaftesbury both had seats. The editors of the “ Biographia Britannica" adopt Mr. Very near to admiration is the wish to admire. Walpole's story, but they are not speaking of this
Every man willingly gives value to the praise period. The story first appeared in the Life of which he receives, and considers the sentence word Halifax, published in 1715.-C.
passed in his favour as the sentence of discern
ment. We admire in a friend that understand. | perhaps the pride of patronage may be in tima ing which selected us for confidence ; we ad so increased, that modest praise will no longer mire more, in a patron, that judgment wbich, please. instead of scattering bounty indiscriminately, Many a blandishment was practised upon directed it to us; and, if the patron be an au Halifax, which he would never have known, thor, those performances which gratitude forbids had he no other attractions than those of his us to blame, affection will easily dispose us to poetry, of which a short time has withered the exalt.
beauties. It would now be esteemed no honour, To these prejudices, hardly culpable, interest by a contributor to the monthly bundles of adds a power always operating, though not al verses, to be told, that in strains either familiar ways, because not willingly, perceived. The or solemn, he sings like Montague. modesty of praise wears gradually away; and
P AR NEL L.
The Life of Dr. PARNELL is a task which I At the ejection of the whigs, in the end of should very willingly decline, since it has been Queen Anne's reign, Parnell was persuaded to lately written by Goldsmith, a man of such change his party, not without much censure variety of powers, and such felicity of perform- from those whom he forsook, and was received ance, that he always seemed to do best that by the new ministry as a valuable reinforcewhich he was doing; a man who had the art of ment. When the Earl of Oxford was told that being minute without tediousness, and general Dr. Parnell waited among the crowd in the without confusion; whose language was copious outer room, he went, by the persuasion of without exuberance; exact without constraint, Swift, with his treasurer's staff in his hand, to and easy without weakness.
inquire for him, and to bid him welcome; and, What such an author has told, who would as may be inferred from Pope's dedication, adtell again? I have made an abstract from his mitted him as a favourite companion to his conlarger narrative; and have this gratification vivial hours; but, as it seems often to have hapfrom my attempt, that it gives me an oppor-pened in those times to the favourites of the tunity of paying due tribute to the memory of great, without attention to his fortune, which, Goldsmith.
however, was in no great need of improve
ment. Το γαρ γίρας έστι θανόντων. .
Parnell, who did not want ambition or vanTHOMAS PARNELL was the son of a common- ity, was desirous to make himself conspicuous, wealthsman of the same name, who, at the Re- and to show how worthy he was of high prestoration, left Congleton, in Cheshire, where ferment. As he thought himself qualified to the family had been established for several cen become a popular preacher, he displayed his eloturies, and settling in Ireland, purchased an cution with great success in the pulpits of Lonestate, which, with his lands in Cheshire, des- don; but the Queen's death putting an end to cended to the poet, who was born in Dublin, his expectations, abated his diligence; and Pope in 1679; and, after the usual education at a represents him as falling from that time into grammar-school, was, at the age of thirteen, intemperance of wine. That in his latter life admitted into the College, where, in 1700, he he was too much a lover of the bottle, is not became master of arts; and was the same year denied; but I have heard it imputed to a cause ordained a deacon, though under the canonia more likely to obtain forgiveness from mankind cal age, by a dispensation from the Bishop of the untimely death of a darling son; or, as Derry.
others tell, the loss of his wife, who died (1712) About three years afterwards he was made a in the midst of his expectations. priest; and in 1705, Dr. Ashe, the bishop of He was now to derive every future addition Clogher, conferred upon him the archdeaconry to his preferments from his personal interest of Clogher. About the same year he married with his private friends, and he was not long Mrs. Anne Minchin, an amiable lady, by whom unregarded. He was warmly recommended by ae had two sons, who died young, and a daugh-Swift to Archbishop King, who gave him a ler who long survived him.
prebend in 1713; and in May, 1716, presented
him to the vicarage of Finglass, in the diocese , read, I could not find it. The “ Night-piece of Dublin, worth four hundred pounds a year. on Death” is indirectly preferred by Goldsmith Such notice, from such a man, inclines me to to Gray's “ Church-Yard :" but, in my opinbelieve, that the vice of which he has been ac- ion, Gray has the advantage of dignity, variety, cused was not gross, or not notorious.
and originality of sentiment. He observes, But his prosperity did not last long. His end, that the story of the “ Hermit” is in More's whatever was its cause, was now approaching. “ Dialogues” and Howell's “ Letters,” and He enjoyed his preferment little more than a supposes it to have been originally Arabian. year; for in July, 1717, in his thirty-eighth Goldsmith has not taken any notice of the year, he died at Chester, on his way to Ireland. · Elegy to the old Beauty,” which is perhaps
He seems to have been one of those poets who the meanest; nor of the “ Allegory on Man," take delight in writing. He contributed to the the happiest of Parnell's performances; the hint papers of that time, and probably published of the “ Hymn to Contentment” I suspect to more than he owned.
He left many composi- have been borrowed from Cleiveland. tions behind him, of which Pope selected those The general character of Parnell,
not great which he thought best, and dedicated them to extent of comprehension, or fertility of mind. the Earl of Oxford. Of these Goldsmith has Of the little that appears still less is his own. given an opinion, and his criticism it is seldom His praise must be derived from the easy safe to contradict. He bestows just praise up sweetness of his diction : in his verses there is on “ The Rise of Woman,” “ The Fairy Tale," more happiness than pains; he is sprightly and “ The Pervigilium Veneris;" but has very without effort, and always delights, though he properly remarked, that in “ The Battle of never ravishes; every thing is proper, yet every Mice and Frogs,” the Greek names have not thing seems casua). If there is some appearin English their original effect.
ance of elaboration in the “ Hermit,” the narHe tells us, that “ The Book-Worm” is bor- rative, as it is less* airy, is less pleasing. Of rowed from Beza; but he should have added, his other compositions it is impossible to say with modern applications: and, when he dis- whether they are the productions of nature, so covers that “ Gay Bacchus” is translated from excellent as not to want the help of art Augurellus, he ought to have remarked that art so refined as to resemble nature. the latter part is purely Parnell's. Another This criticism relates only to the pieces pubpoem, “ When Spring comes on,” is, he says, lished by Pope. Of the large appendages, which taken from the French. I would add, that the I find in the last edition, I can only say, that I description of barrenness, in his verses to Pope, know not whence they came, nor have ever inwas borrowed from Secundus: but, lately quired whither they are going. They stand searching for the passage, which I had formerly upon the faith of the compilers.
SAMUEL GARTH was of a good family in York zeal for the Dispensary; an undertaking, os shire, and from some school in his own country which some account, however short, is proper became a student at Peterhouse, in Cambridge, to be given. where he resided till he became doctor of physic Whether what Temple says be true, that on July 7th, 1691. He was examined before physicians have had more learning than the the College, at London, on March the 12th, other faculties, I will not stay to inquire; but, 1691-2, and admitted fellow June 26th, 1693. I believe, every man has found in physicians He was soon so much distinguished by his con great liberality and dignity of sentiment, very versation and accomplishments, as to obtain very prompt effusion of beneficence, and willingness extensive practice; and, if a pamphlet of those to exert a lucrative art where there is no hope times may be credited, had the favour and of lucre. Agreeably to this character, the Col. confidence of one party, as Radcliffe had of lege of Physicians, in July, 1687, published an the other.
edict, requiring all the fellows, candidates, and He is always mentioned as a man of benePolence; and it is just to suppose that his desire of helping the helpless disposed him to so much • Dr. Warton ask-, “ less than what ?"-E.
licentiates, to give gratuitous advice to the dour, but soon remitted, and at last died gradual. neighbouring poor.
ly away. This edict was sent to the court of aldermen; About the time of the subscription begins the and, a question being made to whom the appel- action of “ The Dispensary.” The poem, as lation of the poor should be extended, the Col- its subject was present and popular, co-operated lege answered, that it should be sufficient to with the passions and prejudices then prevalent, bring a testimonial from the clergyman officiat- and with such auxiliaries to its intrinsic merit, ing in the parish where the patient resided. was universally and liberally applauded. It
After a year's experience, the physicians found was on the side of charity against the intrigues their charity frustrated by some malignant op- of interest, and of regular learning against liposition, and made, to a great degree, vain by centious usurpation of medical authority, and the high price of physic; they therefore voted, was therefore naturally favoured by those who in August, 1688, that the laboratory of the Col- read and can judge of poetry. lege should be accommodated to the preparation In 1697, Garth spoke that which is now callof medicines, and another room prepared for ed the Harveian Oration; which the authors of their reception; and that the contributors to the “ Biographia” mention with more praise the expense should manage the charity.
than the passage quoted in their notes will fully It was now expected, that the apothecaries justify. Garth, speaking of the mischiefs done would have undertaken the care of provid- by quacks, has these expressions : :-“ Non tamen ing medicines; but they took another course. telis vulnerat ista agyrtarum colluvies, sed theThinking the whole design pernicious to their riaca quadam magis perniciosa, non pyrio, sed interest, they endeavoured to raise a faction pulvere nescio qno exotico certat, non globulis against it in the College, and found some phy- plumbeis, sed pilulis æque lethalibus interficit.” sicians mean enough to solicit their patronage, This was certainly thought fine by the author, by betraying to them the counsels of the Col- and is still admired by his biographer. In lege. The greater part, however, enforced by October, 1702, he became one of the censors of a new edict, in 1694, the former order of 1687, the College. and sent it to the mayor and aldermen, who ap Garth, being an active and zealous whig, was pointed a committee to treat with the Colo a member of the Kit-cat club, and, by conse.ege, and settle the mode of administering the quence, familiarly known to all the great men charity.
of that denomination. In 1710, when the goIt was desired by the aldermen, that the testi-vernment fell into other hands, he writ to monials of churchwardens and overseers should Lord Godolphin, on his dismission, a short be admitted ; and that all hired servants, and all poem, which, was criticised in the “ Examiner," apprentices to handicraftsmen, should be con- and so successfully either defended or excused sidered as poor. This likewise was granted by by Mr. Addison, that, for the sake of the vindithe College.
cation, it ought to be preserved. It was then considered who should distribute At the accession of the present family his the medicines, and who should settle their merits were acknowledged and rewarded. He prices. The physicians procured some apothe- was knighted with the sword of his hero, Marlcaries to undertake the dispensation, and offered borough; and was made physician in ordinary that the warden and company of the apothe-to the King, and physician general to the army. caries should adjust the price. This offer was He then undertook an edition of Ovid's rejected ; and the apothecaries who had engaged “ Metamorphoses,” translated by several hands, to assist the charity were considered as traitors which he recommended by a preface, written to the company, threatened with the imposition with more ostentation than ability: his notions of troublesome offices, and deterred from the are half-formed, and his materials immethodi. performance of their engagements. The apo-cally confused. This was his last work. He thecaries ventured upon public opposition, and died Jan. 18, 1717-18, and was buried at Harpresented a kind of remonstrance against the row-on-the-hill. design to the committee of the city, which the His personal character seems to have been physicians condescended to confute; and at last social and liberal. He communicated himself the traders seem to have prevailed among the through a very wide extent of acquaintance; sons of trade; for the proposal of the College and though firm in a party, at a time when having been considered, a paper of approbation firmness included virulence, yet he imparted his was drawn up, but postponed and forgotten. kindness to those who were not supposed to
The physicians still persisted ; and in 1696 a favour bis principles. He was an early encoursubscription was raised by themselves, accordager of Pope, and was at once the friend of Ading to an agreement prefixed to the Dispensary. dison and of Granville. He is accused of volupThe poor were, for a time, supplied with medi tuousness and irreligion; and Pope, who says, cines; for how long a time I know not. The " that if ever there was a good Christian, with. medicinal charity, like others, began with ar out knowing himself to be so, it was Dr.