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his children's children dwell in peace and honour. His memory is holy amongst his people, and his descendants pray on the spot where he died for his country.

• But he who fighteth for tyrants, and draweth the murderous sword against the right, his name is accursed amongst his people, and his remembrance fadeth

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from among men. • He is accursed in the place where the ravens assemble themselves, and his honour is blasted on the gallows tree.

' And he who goeth forth to oppress freedom, and to enslave the innocent folk, that man raiseth the sword against the Lord God, and He that sendeth His lightnings from heaven shall smite him down.'

After pointing out the sin of mere mercenary soldiering, and the error made in supposing military honour to be higher than any other, he says:

• There is only one kind of honour and virtue, and that is the same for every man on earth.

I will teach you what true soldiers' honour is. "A brave soldier and warrior will fight to the death for his rightful king and master, and for the safety and honour of his country. A brave soldier will love his fatherland and fellow-countrymen above all things, and gladly shed the last drop of his blood for the sake of his endangered country.

'A brave soldier will always have God before his eyes, and God's law written in his heart, so that no power shall compel him to act against the law of God.

A brave soldier will not boast himself for the sake of worldly fame, nor be puffed up with vanity, but faithfulness to his fatherland will be his highest glory, and a quiet courage his brightest ornament.'

One other point in his patriotic writings may be noted, the absolute unselfishness with which he gives honour where honour is due, even though to do so he has to yield up old prejudices and modify old judgments. If he was outspoken always in his opinions, fearless of giving offence where he felt frankness to be needed, he seems, on the other hand, to have had a perfect exultation in giving praise where it was deserved. We have but to read his songs of Schill, of Blücher, of Gneisenau, of Scharnhorst, of Stein, of the valiant King of • Prussia,' to see how fully he could abandon himself to the fine impulse of generous appreciation.

But we must bring our paper to a close. We have lingered perhaps too long over the earlier half of his life, but after all it was the part of his existence and the time of his activity most influential upon the opinions and character of men in the great crisis of German history in which we stand to-day. Our notice must be brief of the remaining portion of his long career.

After the fall of Bonaparte, his banishment to Elba, and the

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brief history of the Hundred Days, Arndt removed to Bonn, where he undertook the Professorship of History in the newlyfounded and now famous university. He there married his second wife, a sister of Schleiermacher, and built the pleasant house known to so many of our countrymen, as it stands on the Koblenzer Allée, surrounded by the garden his own hands used to cultivate, and looking over the broad Rhine as it flows down from Königswinter, reflecting on its bosom the beautiful Siebengebirge. Would we had, as far as the external history of this true patriot goes, no further word of sorrow or of suffering to tell; that we could feel that in such a post and such a place he had found, with the approval and the thankfulness of his country, the peace and contentment he deserved. But he had yet to learn the spirit and temper of the Prussian Government. He obtained his post, as we have said, in the autumn of 1817; in 1818, startled and depressed by the unworthy tendencies he already saw to be gaining ground in political circles, he published the fourth part of his . Geist der Zeit,' and threw down the gauntlet before the reaction of the time. He published his book, appealing to the incontrovertible examples of the past, to warn men from the dangers of the future ; fierce and firm and fiery as ever, the honest man delivered his conscience; but the spirit of the time which he exposed was against him. In January, 1819, an order of the Cabinet, censuring him for his writing, as unsuitable to his calling as an instructor of youth, threatened him with deprivation of his post, unless, in fact, he would consent to wear a muzzle. Worse was to come. His papers were seized in the summer, and in the autumn he was suspended from the exercise of his office. A so-called state-trial followed, conducted in the most unfair and irregular manner, which dragged its slow length along till the summer of 1822. It proved nothing against him, but it acquitted him of nothing ; his papers remained in the hands of the police, and he himself was still condemned to inactivity. For one and twenty years! He was fifty when his post was given; he exercised his office for a year and a half, and only when over threescore years and ten was it permitted to one of the truest patriots that ever lived, to prove to absolute demonstration his innocence of the charge of disloyalty which had been laid upon him. “All's well that ends well’-possibly; but if in all those many years of undeserved suspicion and unmurmuring patience his heart had broken in unutterable sorrow, and his wasted vigour been paralysed in death, the world would have lost the model of a brave and honest man, and the country he loved and lived for would have earned irre

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parable shame. Happily he was spared to clear the name he had made, and, in the self-justification which the restoration of his papers enabled him to publish, to show how deeply rooted in his own heart and life were the principles of freedom, honour, and self-sacrifice, of trust in God, and patient endurance of suffering which he had preached to all his fellowmen.

King Friedrich Wilhelm IV. ascended the Prussian throne in the year 1840; to his honour be it said that one of his first spontaneous acts was to restore the wronged and suffering Arndt to the full exercise of his office; and any readers who knew Bonn at that time will remember the jubilation to which this tardy reinstatement gave occasion. He was immediately elected Rector or Head of the University for the following year, amidst the unexampled enthusiasm of the students, and was spared to live another twenty years in surprising vigour and activity of body and mind, and to die as much lamented as he had lived useful and famous.

We saw him last in his ninetieth year, broken, indeed, from what he had been, as men must be who pass so far the allotted span of life, but still a marvel of vitality and faith and heartiness. And even then there was a day of triumph for him upon earth. His ninetieth birthday was the occasion of rejoicings and congratulations to him from every part of the great Fatherland. Deputations of every sort, bands of military music heading a great procession of soldiers, civilians, faculties, students, professors; rapturous acclamations, answered by a last burning speech from the soul-stirred veteran himself; multitudinous gifts from anonymous donors, and numberless telegrams in honour of the day; such were the sights and sounds that moved the aged Arndt to the deepest depth of his comprehensive heart. This was on the 26th of December, 1859. Before the end of the following month another vast procession, less jubilant but as impressive, followed the dead hero to his quiet grave, and over his rest crowds of sorrowing compatriots sang one of his own touching hymns.

Thus simple, brave, and honest, without pride or pomp or wealth, yet rich in peace, in honour, and his country's love, this remarkable man lived and died. He rests from his

labours; ' and we have but to look around to-day, and see how, reflected in the conduct of countless myriads of his people, the spirit that moved him is moving, to add the additional words the Scripture suggests -- and his works do follow him.'

ART. VI.--1. Prehistoric Times, as illustrated by Ancient

Remains und Manners and Customs of Modern Savages. By Sir John LUBBOCK, Bart., F.R.S. 8vo. 2nd edition.

1869. 2. Précis de Paléontologie humaine. Par le Docteur E. T.

HAMY. 8vo. Paris : 1870. 3. Reliquiæ Aquitanice. By MM. LARTET and CHRISTY.

4to. 1863 70. 4. The Primitive Inhabitants of Scandinavia. By SVEN

Nilsson. Edited by Sir Joux LUBBOCK, Bart., F.R.S.

8vo. London: 1868. 5. Stone Monuments, Tumuli, and Ornaments of Remote Ages,

with remarks on the Architecture of Ireland and Scotland.

By J. B. WARING. Folio. London: 1870. THE THE intellectual activity of the nineteenth century is shown

in no respect more strongly than by the extraordinary manner in which new sciences are springing up in every direction. During the first half of it the knowledge of the earth gradually advanced from a mere speculation into a science, governed by as strict laws as any of its sisters, and in the later period which has intervened the promoters of this science have been concentrating their attention on the geological frontier that looks towards history. The historians, on the other hand, have been carefully analysing their title deeds, and sifting the certain from the fabulous, with a self-denying criticism that refuses to allow that the connected thread of our history can be traced further back than the English invasion, and rejects the mythical stories which profess to connect our country with the continent before that time. It is undoubtedly true, that from Cæsar's first landing down to the retreat of the Roman legions, there are incidental notices of Britain, but they are merely isolated rays of light which make the darkness of our ignorance the more visible. We do not even know whether the Roman provincials in Britain spoke Celtic or Latin, or a patois between the two, nor even the gods that they worshipped. Strictly speaking, , therefore, we can only be certain of the sequence of events from the time of the English invasion, which is the only fixed point that divides our history from a confused jumble of isolated statements, hopelessly imbedded in fiction. If the historical boundary be stretched as far as possible, it does not extend further back in Britain than the landing of Cæsar, nor in Gaul than the conquest by the Legions, nor in Germany than the first contact with the Roman arms, nor in Scandinavia than the date of the Sagas. All out of its reach, the speech• less past' of Mr. Palgrave, was, till lately, given up as hopeless by one class of minds, while by another and more sanguine class it was looked upon as a legitimate field for the wildest speculations and day-dreams. Now prehistoric archæology, the youngest of the sciences, comes forward to claim this no-man’s-land as her own province, with all the vigour, as well as some of the faults, of youth. New works on the prehistoric period are rapidly being published in nearly every country in Europe. An international congress for the interchange of ideas, and the comparison of work done in different regions, has been held for four years in Turin, Paris, Norwich, and Copenhagen, and would have met at Bologna this autumn, had not the unfortunate war compelled the French and German savants to exchange the pen for the sword. The facts already accumulated are many in number and of high importance, and have been classified by the Danish antiquaries, and especially by MM. Nilsson, Worsaae and Thomsen, according to the three ages of Lucretius, characterised respectively by the presence of stone, bronze, and iron. In our own country two eminent observers have approached the subject from two different directions. Sir Charles Lyell* has taken up the geological end of the narrative, and shown with a master's hand the relation of his science to prehistoric archæology, while Sir John Lubbock, in his present work, adopting the method of Cuvier in his restoration of fossil mammals, has instituted a comparison of the prehistoric traces of man found in Europe with the implements and weapons still in use by various races of men. Among the works published on the Continent, that of Dr. Hamy, intended to follow up Sir Charles Lyell's line of inquiry, stands preeminent for ability and caution. We propose to give an outline of the results of prehistoric archæology, and to show how far they occupy the ground between geology and history. The subject bristles with problems of the deepest interest. What kind of man first set foot in Europe? and by what conditions of life was he environed? Can we trace any steady progress in the arts and sciences from his first advent to the present day? What was the civilisation of the dwellers in the region north of the Alps and the Pyrenees during the time that the banks of the Euphrates and the Nile and the shores of the Mediterranean were the seats of mighty empires ? These are a few of the questions which thrust themselves prominently forward.

Antiquity of Man, 8vo., 1863.

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