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since this is a reason that ought to be in the time of Queen Anne is remarkremoved, so when it is, there will re- able on another account. For at the main none against their incomes being time of her present most Gracious properly reduced.
Majesty, Queen Victoria, succeeding Indeed, if a proper inquiry is insti- to the throne of these realms, and at tuted into what their incomes origi- the revision of the civil list, reference nally were, and what they have was made to that of Queen Anne, and recently been fixed at by the Ecclesi- very great reductions were ordered in astical Commission, it will soon be various salaries paid out of it. Thus made apparent how inordinate they one which had been £2,000 in Queen are. Now we have the means of com- Anne's reign was reduced to £500; paring them with a past æra in a very several of £1,000 to £500; and others remarkable manner. By an Act of of £500 to £300. Similar reductions Parliament passed in the reign of had before been made when his late Queen Anne, (6 Anne, c. 27, s. 5,) it Majesty, King William IV. came to is declared that “the first-fruits of the throne. The salary of Lord ChamArchbishoprics and Bishoprics amount berlaine was reduced from £3,073 to near the full annual value thereof." to £2,000; that of the Lord Steward, Now the first-fruits, as at present from £2,436 to £2,000; and that of paid, are the same as in the time of the Master of the Horse, from £3,350 Queen Anne, consequently they afford to £2,500. About the same time, also, us nearly “ the full annual value” at the salaries of the Lord Chancellor, that period, according to the affirma- and the Chief Justice of the Queen's tion of the Act of Parliament, and Bench, were also reduced; and thus, stronger testimony than the words of strange to say, while the incomes of a statute need not be required to es- secular men have been diminished, tablish a fact. If, then, by the side those of the highest spiritual officers of these values, we place the present have been increased. Thus, the bishopincomes, as fixed by the Commission, ric of London, which, in the reign of we shall be enabled to judge whether Queen Anne, was about £900 a-year, any and what increase or reduction is returned, by the Commissioners, as has taken place since that period. worth (to its present holder) a net
average value of £13,550 per ann., Table shewing the increase in the incomes and is to be held by his successor at of Archbishops and Bishops since the the reduced income of £10,000 per time of Queen Anne.
Under this view of the subject
there is evidence enough to show that Income in Income as Archbishops or Bishops
the time of lately fixed the present incomes of the bishops, as
by Church arranged by the ecclesiastical comAnne. Commiss.
missioners are far too high, and need Canterbury
to be diminished. £2,682 €15,000 York 1,449 10,000
This, again, may be shewn in ano London
ther way. It is argued by some, that Durham
in order to draw men of talent into Winchester
2,873 7,000 the ministry, the higher offices therein Ely.
1,921 5,500 must be adequately paid, and that Chester
378 4,500 consequently, the chief functionaries St. Asaph
286 5,200 in the Church ought to receive salaries Bath and Wells
479 5,000 as large as those in the law and other Worcester
929 5,000 learned professions. Admitting, for Lichfield
503 4,500 the moment, and for the sake of arguChichester
ment, this weighing of the vessels of Oxford
343 5,000 Hereford
the sanctuary in the balance of worldly
policy, yet surely no one, even the Carlisle
most extreme defender of high pay478 4,500
ments, will pretend that spiritual funcBut this comparison of the present tionaries should be remunerated on a episcopal incomes with what they were higher scale than others. Equal sala
ries, not higher ones, is the very ut- let the difference as there shewn be most point to which such an argument well considered and judged of: can be strained. The following table, however, will
English. French. Belgian. shew that such a scale as that referred
Archbishop to is not acted upon, but a higher one
15,000' 1,600 840
Ditto has been adopted :
10,000, 600 Bishop.... 10,000 400 588 Ditto
8,000 Lord Chancellor.. £10,000 Abp.of Cant. £15,000 Ditto
7,000 Chief Just, of Queen's
5,500 Bench .......... 8,000 Abp. of York 10,000 Lowest
4,200 Chief Just. of Com
mon Pleas 8,000 Bp. of London, 10,000 It will be quite evident, then, from Chief Baron ..... 7,000 Bp. of Durham, 8,000
all that has been advanced, that the Puisne Judges .... 5,000 Winchester
present state of the hierarchy of the 7,000
Church of England is such, as to deBp. of Ely.... 5,500
mand very considerable reductions of
income, whether we compare them Even, then, upon this plea, the with what their incomes formerly salaries, as at present fixed, are inor- were, or what secular officers of the dinate. I cannot, however, quit this State have, or what other Churches topic without protesting, in the most enjoy. But when we bear in mind, solemn manner, against the argument at the present time especially, that, by altogether, as one degrading to the a Committee of the House of Comministry, as opposed in principle to mons, last session, there was a review all that our Master and His Apostles and reduction of the salaries of many taught us, and as derogatory to God, of the public functionaries, it cannot whose servants the ministry are. be denied that the time is a fitting Spiritual duties need not, and ought one again to revise the work of the not to be valued by the standard of Ecclesiastical Commission, and to retemporal, and to deal with them thus duce such enormous incomes as have is to encourage greediness of filthy so unwisely been appropriated to the lucre, and to barter the highest privi- spiritual overseers of the Church of leges of Christ's servants for mere England. Besides the reduction of silver and gold.
their incomes, that of their palaces There is yet another mode of test- should also be effected; and thus, reing the payments of the hierarchy, lieved of their peerages and lordly and judging whether their incomes appendages, with moderate and moare excessive or not, and that is by dest incomes, and with suitable houses comparing them with those of foreign of residence, the hierarchy would be ecclesiastics of similar rank and sta- relieved of its excesses, and rendered tion. Thus, for instance, to refer to in all respects more useful and beneour immediate neighbours, the French, ficial to the Church; because the more we shall find a very great dispropor- its enormities of all kinds were abated, tion between the incomes of our hier- the more would the episcopacy shine archy and theirs. The highest ec- forth, and maintain its own
and clesiastical functionary in France, the spiritual influence, unsullied by any Archbishop of Paris, has £1,600 per of the factitious tinsel and display of annum; the other fourteen arch- worldly pomp and splendour. bishops have £600 per annum, In immediate connection with the each and the bishops, sixty-five hierarchy, and gradually descending in number, have £400 per annum, from it, there are a variety of dignieach.
taries, the benefit of whose offices is, Again, in Belgium the net income to say the least of them, exceedingly of the Archbishop of Malines, is £840 questionable. The special work of per annum, and of each of the bishops, our Master, when on earth, was “to £588 per annum. Compare these in- seek and to save them that were lost;" comes, as in the following table, and and since the disciple should not be
above the Master, the ministry, his offices, at most, in the ministry, as commissioned disciples, should not be placed permanently in the primitive placed in any position in which they Church, - bishops, priests, and deashould be exempted from the cure of Priests or deacons we have in souls. Deans and Canons, however, all our parishes; and bishops, to overas well as other cathedral functiona- see them, we have a comparatively ries, are in this position; and, although small number of; while of dignitathey have some occasional duties of ries, besides their Lordships, there preaching the Word and ministering are, as we have seen, archdeacons, in the public service of God, they deans, canons, and other cathedral have not that care of souls, nor that officials. It would, however, be far opportunity for the exercise of their simpler to go back to the primitive most important labours, which, as pattern, and to limit the ranks and parochial ministers, they would. All degrees of all our spiritual officers to chapters, then, ought to be so remo- the orders of the first Church,-bidelled, as to be made profitable to the shops, priests, and deacons. Since, people amongst whom they are placed, however, archdeacons do, according and to be reduced in numbers where to their functions, lighten the labours the population is not large enough to of bishops, it would not be well to require the services of all. Another throw upon the latter, in many inclass of functionaries, who also need stances already overburthened, such to have their position and office re- additional labours. The number of cast, is that of Archdeacons, who are bishoprics, then, should be very cona kind of subaltern to the bishops, siderably increased, certainly douhaving jurisdictions and courts even bled, not improbably even multiplied of their own, independent altogether to a greater extent. of the bishop, and yet acting in some There seems to be in the minds of sort as suffragans, without the episco- many a very great unwillingness to pal function and office. It sometimes increase the number of our bishops, happens that these independent au- on the ground that the Church is thorities, in the same diocese, clash already overburthened with its prethe one with the other; and even sent hierarchy; and certainly if the when they work most harmoniously, proposition were to multiply the rich their ordinary duties and powers are and lordly prelates that we now have, so similar, that they might well and I should be one of the first to exclaim safely be amalgamated with consider- against it. But my proposition is to able advantage to the Church at large. reduce prelacy, in order to extend opisBut in order to understand properly copacy. My plan is to relieve the the manner in which these several prelates of their peerages, palaces, offices should be dealt with, we must and excessive incomes, and so to leave pass on to the consideration of an- them free to exercise none but their other principle that needs to be well episcopal functions. My design is to developed and understood.
disencumber the bishops of all those 3. A third principle for which we temporal and worldly things that hinwould contend is, the simplification der them in their work, and impede and extension of the Episcopacy. It has their best efforts; and thereby to enbeen already shewn how the existing able them to give their whole and hierarchy might be relieved of its undivided attention to their dioceses parliamentary duties, its lordly sta- and the Church. Bishops, without tion, its excessive incomes, and its palaces to maintain, peerages to suspalatial dwellings; and it has also tain the dignity of, and parliamentary been shewn that Archdeacons, Deans, duties to involve them in town exand Canons, might all usefully be pences, would be handsomely proeither done away with, or merged in vided for at £1,000 per annum; or, the parochial clergy. Let it now be for those resident in the metropolis, seen how the English Episcopate where there ought to be four at least, should be both simplified and extended. £1,500 per annum.
Such spiritual The Scripture only gives us three functionaries as these, relieved from worldly pomp and display, resting for put in force is one that may be made power and authority on the virtues of effective in all other cases. their office and station alone, would 4. Our previous enquiries will have be bishops having a very different ap- prepared us for the consideration of a pearance and aspect from the prelates principle which, without them, we that now form the hierarchy; and, might not have been ready either to though doubled in number, would not appreciate or to admit. There are in be regarded with jealousy, and, in our Church two equally extraordinary truth, by being made more numerous,
anomalies. If, on the one hand, we and therefore more common, would have had, as above, to protest against excite less of that mere worldly ad- the enormously excessive incomes of miration with which many are apt to
the hierarchy, and the lavish expenregard them. Thus, the more that diture of ecclesiastical funds on digthe parade of prelacy was reduced, so nitaries that do not properly subserve much the more would the true glory the office of the christian ministry, of the episcopacy shine forth; and because they have no cure of souls; the more that the episcopacy, " then so, on the other hand, there is
great most adorned when unadorned the reason to complain of the ill paid and most,” should exhibit itself in its own neglected condition in which a large scriptural simplicity and primitive number of the parochial clergy are grace, so much the more would its left. To remedy this latter evil, the Founder, our gracious and blessed principle we have to propound and Master himself, shine forth, and be maintain is, the restitution to the paroHimself displayed to the world, chial clergy of their own legitimate through the ministry of the Church, parochial funds. If we have had to as the great“ Shepherd and Bishop of deplore the evils of an over-paid hiersouls.
archy, how much more shall we have Moreover, let it be borne in mind, to grieve, when we come to underthat our plan reduces deans and chap- stand, as we now shall, that, for the ters to the position of parochial clergy, most part, these excessive and ill prothat is, to the proper office of priests portioned incomes are derived from having cure of souls; and entirely parochial funds, which ought to have gets rid of the office, jurisdiction, and been conserved for the maintenance expence of archdeacons ;-and it will of those who justly earn them by at once be apparent how beneficial their labours in the parishes whence and effective would these changes be, they arise, and which ought, to the and how much would be done in the very utmost extent possible, to be reway of restoring the Church to the stored to those to whom, by all right, primitive and scriptural pattern. The human and divine, and notwithstandreduction of deans and chapters as ing all law to the contrary, they do proposed, has been admirably exem- most righteously belong; because plified by an Act passed in the last “the labourer is worthy of his hire,” session of Parliament, entitled the and because this is his natural and Manchester Rectory Act, and which just wage, has made the very same changes in Many have been the attempts to the cathedral establishment there that explain away and get rid of the force is suggested above for all other places of this anomaly, and to turn our symin England. What has been done at pathies for the ill paid clergy into Manchester may easily be done every- some other channel than they ought where else; and the principle there properly to take.
(To be continued.)
Correspondence. [The Editors are not responsible for every statement or opinion of their correspondents, at the same time, their object is to open the pages of their Magazine to those only, who seek the real good of that Protestant Church with which it is in connexion.] To the Editor of the Christian Guardian work which I have recently pub
lished, and having done what I could Sir, — In continuation of
last letter, I think I need not add much lent catechism, well suited to the
to supply my brethren with an excelon the second point to which I adverted, that is to say, —
purpose.* But something I must add 2. The importance of a diligent,
in regard to the pulpit: I do not think
we have much of enlarged apprehenprayerful, and faithful improvement sion as to the vast responsibility which of our position and advantages, rests upon us in regard to it. Some when we know them. The best things are useless and vain, if they ful to preach well digested and weighty
goodly number of us, I hope, are carebe not duly used. Our scriptural
sermons. But how many of us are Articles, Homilies, and Liturgy, will there who even think of preaching be our heaviest condemnation, if well digested and well "arranged we do not humbly and faithfully endeavour to preach and pray, and
courses of sermons ? - so as to bring act and live, according to them. frequently the main doctrines, in their
connexion, dependence, and scriptuThat we should be compelled to an indiscriminate use of some of our Ser
ral evidence, before the minds of our
people?-and sometimes the whole vices, is indeed a burden.
We may range of Christian and Protestant fitly protest against that. But, even under present circum- ticles and Homilies?
Doctrine, as it is set forth in our Arstances, much may be done by a truly
In doing this, as the sacraments are wise and faithful clergyman, to relieve
tangible matters, of the highest prachis own conscience, and to mitigate, if not remove,-existing evils, by lay- necessary that we should take espe
tical importance, is it not absolutely ing the whole responsibility upon those to whom it belongs, instead of
cial care to give our people full and
accurate instruction respecting their taking it upon himself-as many, I
true nature ? their own responsibility think, are far too ready to do: and in regard to them? and the necessity the consequence is, that they griev- of receiving them “rightly, worthily, ously burthen their own consciences
and with faith,” if they would have with needless troubles : for, in all ordinary cases, the whole responsibility ing, and not with a curse? And one
them to be accompanied with a blessrests upon those who come to the sacraments, and not upon those who
very important part of such instruc
tion would be, to insist much and administer them. But to make those who come to
often upon the necessity of applying them understand their own responsi
the same principle of solemn warning
to Baptism, which we find expressly bility, is the matter about which we should be really anxious. And this Supper in Article XXIX., and forcibly
laid down in regard to the Lord's can only be expected as the result of illustrated in the first Exhortation much plain and faithful preaching, with which we should accompany the and much earnestness and constancy
notice of the administration of the in pressing christian and scriptural Communion, “Dearly beloved, on instruction upon the mind and conscience. We want much more of this.
day next I purpose,” &c.,—the We want much more of regular, wise, might well be studied by every one
plainness and faithfulness of which and systematic preaching from the
who desires so to preach as to deliver pulpit. We want much more of catechetical instruction from house to • See “ The Heidelburg Catechism of the house. The latter I will not here en
Reformed Christian Religion," which was re
viewed in your Number for September, 1850,large upon ; having said much in a