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memorable Sermon on the Mount, deli- in the chapter is in favour of the convered in the open air, before a vast mul- trary opinion. We have therefore no titude of anxious listeners? Who can conclusion to draw, but the one, viz., forget that occasion recorded by St. that St. Peter preached his first serLuke,when the people so pressed upon mon in the open air. Another reHim to hear the Word of God, near the markable instance is contained in the lake of Gennesaret, that “ He entered 16th chapter of the Acts, where we into a ship, and taught the people out find St. Paul preaching by the river of the ship”? Nor are these the only side to a much smaller congregation. records of His open-air preaching. And it appears that he was in the We find from Matt. xiii. 1, 2, that He habit of doing this. The language of delivered His celebrated parables of the 13th verse distinctly shews that it the “Sower,” and the “Tares and was a spot peculiarly reserved for Wheat," with several others, before such purposes. Almost immediately equally large multitudes, assembled following which we have the account on the sea-beach. If we turn also to of St. Paul's preaching on Mars' Hill, Luke xii. 1, we shall find that the -an event so singularly renowned in whole contents of that chapter forined the history of the Acts of the Aposan open-air address. So with the tles, that I need only mention it to subject matter of the following chap- excite attention. Let these instances ter, from the 25th verse. And there suffice. No one, I think, who attenseems little doubt that the two suc- tively studies them, can fail to be ceeding chapters were added at the convinced that the Apostles both same time and place,-embracing, you preached and prayed constantly in will observe, several of the most im- the open air, as opportunity was afportant parables, such as the “Lost forded them; and that they did not Sheep," the “ Prodigal Son," and the confine themselves to the Jewish syna“ Rich Man and Lazarus."
Indeed gogues. time would fail me to recount all the Îl. Ecclesiastical usage sanctions it. memorable instances of this kind I shall begin with the evidence of during the course of our Lord's mis early antiquity. We learn from the nistry.
historian Fuller, that in the fifth cen*Proofs of the same kind are equally tury, when Germanus and Lussus, two abundant with reference to the minis- christian bishops, came over to Engtry of the Apostles. I have no hesi- land, “with their constant labours tation in maintaining that the cele- they confirmed the orthodox, and rebrated sermon of St. Peter on the day claimed the erroneous, preaching of Pentecost, which converted three openly in the fields and highways. As thousand souls, was preached in the the king's presence makes a court, so open air. It was evidently some little theirs did a church of any place ; time after the disciples had received their congregations being bounded the gift of the Holy Ghost, because it with no other walls than the preacher's was not till the fact had been “noised voice, and extending as far as he abroad” (Acts ii. 6,) that “the mul- could intelligibly be heard."* The titude came together.” It seems clear same is stated in Gilbert's History of then, that during this interval they Cornwall, “After this dispute and had left the house where they had council had ended, St. German, as a been sitting, and entered either the good bishop, resolved, though out of streets or some open part of the city. his country and diocese, whilst he For where could this vast multitude stayed here, to preach the Gospel be collected but in some such place ? publicly ; and to that end he caused a Is it likely that all the strangers men- pulpit to be set up in an open place tioned in verses 9, 10, and il, heard at St. Albans, where, on set days, he the “ wonderful works of God” pro- preached to the multitude there asclaimed in their own tongue, within sembled, and first began to handle the four walls of a room ? Common the doctrine of Pelagius against origisense forbids us to imagine such a nal sin.”+ scene of noisy confusion. Every thing
# Vol. ii. p. 63.
# Cent, v. 6.
Let us pass now to a later period be bound to suffer none others to in our ecclesiastical history. I refer preach at St. Paul's Cross, as he will to the preaching at St. Paul's Cross. answer, but such as will preach and This “ was a pulpit formed of wood, set forth the same. mounted upon steps of stone, and Nor was this a mere occasional covered with lead, in which the most practice. In 1547, Latimer preached eminent divines were appointed to at St. Paul's Cross three Sundays preach every Sunday in the forenoon. successively.t Nor was it a practice To this place, the court, the mayor confined to the early period of the and aldermen, and principal citizens, Reformation. Pennant speaks of a used to resort. The greatest part of sermon preached there before King the congregation sat in the open air ; James 1st, on Midlent Sunday, 1620, the king and his train had covered by John King, Bishop of Longalleries; and the better sort of people, don. And according to the conif we may judge from the old prints, tinuation of Stow's Annals, on the were also protected from the injury 30th of May, 1630, King Charles 1st, of the weather; but the far greater having attended divine service in St. part stood exposed in the open-air ; Paul's Cathedral, “went into a narfor which reason the preacher went, row room, and heard the sermon at in very bad weather, to a place called Paule's Crosse.” the Shrouds,-a covered space on the I mention all these facts, dear side of the church to protect the congre- brethren, to show you that open-air gation in inclement seasons. Conside- preaching has been sanctioned in the rable contributions were raised among Church of England by the highest ecthe nobility and citizens, to support clesiastical authorities.
There can such preachers as were (as was often consequently be nothing which is the case) called to town from either essentially uncanonical in it. If any of the universites. In particular, the of us venture on the work, we nay Lord Mayor and Aldermen, ordered assuredly feel that we are supported that every preacher who came from a in it both by Scripture and Church distance should be freely accommo- authority. Why, then, should we dated, during five days, with sweet delay ? Every month we hesitate, and convenient lodgings, fire, candles, souls are dropping off into eternity, and all necessaries; and notice was which, humanly speaking, are lost, given by the Bishop of London to the for want of this very movement? preacher appointed by him, of the Recollect we must meet them at the place he was to repair to."*
day of judgment, and give an account count which Strype gives us of this before them of our stewardship. Shall preaching is very interesting at this we be able, think you then, to hide, particular crisis." In 1553,” he says, under the plea of iis being unauthoamong the propositions for the king's rized ? No. A voice will come up council, we find, “Item. Therefore, from the streets of Jerusalem, and that order be taken that such as shall from the Areopagus at Athens, and preach at Paul's Cross, from hence- from St. Paul's Cross in London, tellforth, shall continually from Sunday ing us to the contrary. The Saviour to Sunday preach there ; and also will point to His own example, and teach and declare to the people, that ask us, was not this your sanction ? he that now calleth himself Pope, Apostles and saints will point to the hath no more authority and jurisdic records of their own past lives, and tion, by God's law, within this realm, ask, Were not these your sanction ? than any other foreign bishop hath, Oh, for that tender conscience which which is nothing at all; and that such will make us think of these things in authority as he hath claimed hereto- time! Let me at least commend them fore, hath been only by usurpation, to your earnest and prayerful attention. and sufferance of prices of this realm.
[To be continued.] And that the Bishop of London may
Strype, Eccles. Mem. vol. i. p. 15). * Pennant's Londun, p. 512, Svo, 1813.
Idem, vol. ii. p. 71.
DR. HOOK'S REASONS FOR NOT JOINING THE CHURCH OF
[There is so much of truth and sound common-sense argument brought to bear against the prevailing tendencies to fall away to Rome, in this following enumeration of Romish follies and errors, that although we do not place much confidence in the stability of Dr. Hook's views, yet we readily acquiesce in a valued correspondents desire to insert them in our columns.- ED.]
There is no refuge in the Church of And then, again, when people talk Rome for those who have the fear of lightly of joining the Church of God before their eyes, or the love of Rome, I wish they would consider truth in their hearts.
seriously what it is they will have to The question, with respect to the do. They look with a magnifying Church of Rome, is not whether it is glass on every gnat which annoys catholic or not; but whether it be or them in the Church of England, and be not Antichrist. Let it be remem- shut their eyes to the multitude of bered that some of the most learned camels they will have to swallow if and devoted servants of Christ have they join the Church of Rome. regarded the Church of Rome as If they join the Church of Rome, Antichrist. I say not whether they they will have to anathematize all are right or wrong ; I only state the who do not believe that Christ has fact. To this opinion the Church of appointed seven true and proper saEngland seems in our Homilies to in- craments, neither more nor less, all cline.* For my own part, I look to conferring grace, and all necessary to the coming of a personal Antichrist; salvation; that is, they will bave to and I also expect that the number of anathematize not only all members of believers—the true Church-will be the Church of England, but all the reduced to a very small number be- Fathers of the Church. fore the final triumph. But, still, They will have to regard, as newith the Church of England, I see cessary to salvation, all the ceremomuch of Antichrist in the Church of nies held in the Romish Church, in Rome, and I think that she will be the administration of the sacraments, closely connected with Antichrist such as spittle and salt in baptism, when he shall appear. But be this the holding the sacrament above the as it may, those who talk lightly of priest's head to be adored, the exposing seceding to the Church of Rome, it in the Church to be worshipped by should bear this constantly in mind, the people; the oil and chrism in that the question to be asked respect- confirmation; the anointing of the ing that Church is, whether it has not eyes, ears, noses, and hands of the upon it “the marks of the Beast;” dying. and as many men more holy than They will have to believe that all they, some even members of the
are damned who are opposed to the Church of Rome, have expressed observances and constitutions of the their belief that this is the case, it is Romish Church, such as the celibacy a very fearful thing to contemplate of the clergy; the orders of monks, the possibility of entering into a friars, and nuns; the service of God comniunity which may be Antichrist. in an unknown tongue; the saying of
a certain number of Ave Marias, by • "He," the Pupe, representing the system, “ought rather to be called Antichrist, and the
tale upon their beads; the sprinkling successor of the Scribes and Pharisees, than
of themselves and of the bodies of Christ's Vicar, or St. Peter's successor, seeing the dead with holy water; the conthat not only in this point, but also in other weighty matters of christian religion, in mat.
secration and incensing of images; ters of remission and forgiveness of sins, and and various other observances too of salvation, he teacheth so directly against St. Peter and against our Saviour Christ.”-Homily
numerous to mention. on Obedience.
They will have to accept, on pain of damnation, the figment of transub- Nay, further, they will have to bestantiation, and to believe that the lieve that not only the guilt, but the priest offers up his Saviour in the very essence and being of original sin mass, a true, real, proper, and pro- is removed by baptism. The Church pitiatory sacrifice for the quick and of England declares that this corrupthe dead.
tion of nature remains even in the They will have to affirm that those
regenerate. The Church of Rome are damned who do not hold, that has decreed that concupiscence (or communion in one kind is sufficient
full fornes, as it is called) which reand lawful, notwithstanding the in- mains after baptism, has not, properly stitution of our Lord in both kinds. speaking, the nature of sin; whereas,
They will have to believe in a pur- we affirm that concupiscence has the gatory after this life, in which the nature of sin, and allege the authority souls of the dead are punished, and of an Apostle in support of our from whence they are liberated by opinion.- Bp. Bethel, Preface xvii. the prayers and offerings of the living. Article ix.
They will have to believe that dead We, in common with all Protestants, men and women whom the Pope has regard this as a great and fundamencanonized, or shall hereafter canonize, tal heresy in the Church of Rome, are, or ought to be invocated by re- laying the foundation of their grand ligious prayers; and that the images error, viz., Justification by inherent of Christ and the Virgin Mary ought righteousness. not only to be had and retained, but But we may make the case even likewise to be honoured and wor- stronger. The creeds of the Church shipped.
of Rome are not merely and simply They will have to receive and hold, the old catholic creeds of the old Caunder pain of eternal perdition, the tholic Church;—the Church of kome, power and use of indulgences, as in 1564, adopted a new creed, many they are now received and practised articles of which are directly opposed in the Church of Rome.
to the articles of the ancient catholic They will have to renounce the first creeds. See the creed of Pope Pius and second commandments,- to wor- the Fourth. ship the creature as well as, if not Surely, this is sufficient to make us more than, the Creator ; and to bow suspect that the Church of Rome has down to wood and stone, the work of ceased to be catholic since the year men's hands.
TRUTH AND Peace.
CHURCH MATTERS IN 1641. Tue following very scarce old Tract that means to dispel the cloud that having fallen somewhat curiously into was gathering over the Church. Chalour hands at this peculiar juncture, mers in loc. Hacket. when the Church of England is again March 12, 1640. A committee for striving against Laudean pretensions innovations in matters of religion, and innovations, it has been deter- composed of ten earls, ten bishops, mined to reprint it verbatim.
and ten barons. And under their need only direct attention to the fol- direction, Williams, Bishop of Linlowing brief history of the origin of coln, summoned several divines, to thetract,—the remarkable coincidence give their attention to the subject, of innovations and Romanizing cir- the object of the Lords' committee cumstances will speak for themselves. being, “To examine all innovations
In 1641, a sub-committee was ap- in doctrine or discipline introduced pointed by the House of Lords to con- into the Church without leave, since sider what was amiss or wanted cor- the Reformation, and probably to exrection in the Liturgy, in the hope by amine after that, the degrees and perfection of the Reformation itself.” See the postfact, as there was a sacrifice Bp. of Lincoln's Letter in Wharton's to prefigure in the old law, in the Life and Times of Laud. p. 174. antefact, and therefore that wee have
This occurred between the period a true altar, and therefore not only of Williams' liberation from the lower metaphorically so called, so Doctor and his appointment to the arch- Heylin and others in the last sumbishopric of York. We find, however, mer's convocation, where also some no notice of the committee in either defended, that the oblation of the Clarendon, Whitelock, or Wentworth; elements might hold the nature of the and Carwithen only notices it very true sacrifice, others the consumption slightly.
of the elements. This tract appears to be the report
7. Some have introduced prayer of the proceedings of that sub-com- for the dead, as Master Browne in his mittee of divines. Printed for the printed sermon, and some have coinformation of the Lords' committee, loured the use of it with questions in and not published. It must be a very Cambridge, and disputed, that preces scarce tract. Events came on too pro defunctis non supponunt purgarapidly for any good to arise out of torium. propositions so moderate as these. 8. Divers have oppugned certitude This modified correction of the Laud- of salvation. ean convocation was far behind the 9. Some have maintained the lawtemper of either house at that junc- fullnesse of monasticall vowes. ture.
10. Some have maintained that the A Copie of the Proceedings of some Lord's-day is kept meerely by eccle
worthy and learned Divines, ap- siasticall constitution, and that the pointed by the Lords to meet at the day is changeable. Bishop of Lincolnes in Westminster: 11. Some have taught as new and touching Innovations in the Doctrine dangerous doctrine, that the subjects and Discipline of the Church of are to pay any sums of money imEngland, together with considerá- posed upon them though without law, tions upon the Common Prayer- nay, contrary to the lawes of the Book. London : printed 1641. Realme, as Doctor Sybthorp, and
Doctor Manwaring Bishop of Saint 1. Qvære, Whether in the Twentieth David's, in their printed sermous, Article these words are not inserted, whom many have followed of late Tiabet Ecclesia autho, itatem in con- yeeres. troversis fidei.
12. Some have put scorns upon the 2. It appeares by Stetfords and the two books of Homilies, calling them approbation of the Licencers, that either popular discourses, or a Docsoine do teach and preach, that good trine usefull for those times wherein works are concauses with faith in the they were set forth. act of justification. Doctor Dove 13. Some havt defended the whole also hath given scandall in that point. grosse substance of Arminianisme, that
3. Some have preached that works electio est ex fide prævisa, that the act of penance are satisfactory before of conversion depends upon the conGod.
currence of man's free will, that the 4. Some have preached, that pri- justified man may fall finally and tovaie confession by particular e ume- tally from grace. ration of sins is necessary to salvation, 14. Some have defended universall necesitate medii, both those errours grace as imparted as much to reprohave been questioned at the consis- bates as to the elect, and have protory at Cambridge.
ceeded usque ad salutem ethnicorum, 5. Some have maintained, that the which the Church of England hath Absolution, which the priest pronoun- anathematized. ceth, is more then declaratory.
15. Some have absolutely denyed 6. Some have published, that there originall sinne, and so evacuated the is a proper sacrifice in the Lord's crosse of Christ, as in a disputation at Supper, to exhibit Christ's death in Oxen.
INNOVATIONS IN DOCTRINE.