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knowledse thereof over night, or in the Then shall the [Minister] say, morning before the beginning of Morning

Let us pray. [or Evening ] Prayer, to the [Minister].* [(T And here all the congregation shall And then the [Sponsors], † and the people kneel.)?+ with the Children, must be ready at the Almighty and everlasting God, who of Font, either immediately after the last thy great mercy didst save Noah and his Lesson at Morning Prayer, or else im- family in the Ark from perishing by mediately after the last Lesson at

water; and also didst safely lead the Evening Prayer, (or such other time]i children of Israel thy people through the as the [Minister] by his discretion shall

Red Sea, figuring thereby thy holy Bapappoint. And the Minister] coming to tism; and by the Baptism of thy wellthe Font, (which is then to be filled with beloved Son Jesus Christ, in the river pure water,) and standing there, shall Jordan, didst sanctify Water to the say,

mystical washing away of sin; We Hath this Child been already baptized, beseech thee, for thine infinite mercies, or no ?

that thou wilt mercifully look upon this 1 If they answer, No: then shall the

Child; wash him and sanctify him with [Minister] proceed as followeth. the Holy Ghost; that he, being delivered Dearly beloved, forasmuch as all men

from thy wrath, may be received into the are conceived and born in sin ; and that

ark of Christ's Church ; and being stedour Saviour Christ saith, [ " Except a fast in faith, joyful through hope, and man be born of water and of the Spirit, rooted in charity, may so pass the waves he cannot enter into the kingdom of of this troublesome world, that finally he God"]; I beseech you to call upon God may come to the land of everlasting life, the Father, through our Lord Jesus there to reign with thee world without Christ, that of his bounteous mercy he end; through Jesus Christ our Lord. will grant to this Child that thing which

Amen. by nature he cannot have ; that he may Almighty and immortal God, the aid be baptized with Water and the Holy of all that need, the helper of all that flee Ghost, and received into Christ's Holy to thee for succour, the life of them that Church, and be made a lively member of believe, and the resurrection of the dead; the same.

We call upon thee for this Infant, that he * The American Prayer-book is followed in coming to thy holy Baptism, may receive the substitution of “Minister” for “Curate' remission of his sins by Spiritual regeneand “Priest" throughout this office, since our ration.I Receive him, O Lord, as thou Ordinal permits deacons “in the absence of the priest to baptize infants.”

• It has always appeared to the writer, that + The word " Sponsors” is here and else. the Lord's Prayer (complete with the doxology) where substituted for “Godfathers and God. might more suitably be used here as the first mothers," both as being more concise and also Prayer (just as it is in the Office of Private more suitable to their duty of promising, as well Baptism) than in its present place just before as more correct, when, from there being only the post-baptismal thanksgiving. one child to be baptized, there are only three + This Rubric is added from the Office of present in all, to whom therefore the phrase Adult Baptism. “Godfathers and Godmothers" cannot correctly I The petition “may receive remission of his be applied.

sins by Spiritual regeneration," has been ex| There would perhaps be less interruption cepted against. But surely as a petition that the to the service, if baptisms were solemnized child may receive that work of the Holy Spirit “ immediately after Morning or Evening upon the inner man, which produces “repentance Prayer," i. e. between the Prayers and the toward God and faith toward our Lord Jesus Ante-Communion Service in the Morning, and

Christ”-may be so changed in heart as herebetween the Prayers and Sermon in the Even- after to repent and believe the Gospel, -it is ing. At at all events, experience proves that

most suitable ? Hence the American change it would be well to leave it discretionary with

of “ sins'into "sin" is needless and less comthe minister to a certain extent. The Westmin- prehensive-as is also another change in the ster Assembly's “ Directory” insists on pub- exhortation, "release him from sin," instead of licity in Christian Baptism, forbidding its pri- “of his sins.” The Westminster “ Directory” vate ministration, and requiring it to be "in enjoins petitions very similar to those contained the place of public worship, and in the face of in our ante-baptismal Collects. Among other the congregation, where the people may most things the minister is directed to pray that God conveniently see and hear,” and administered “would join the inward Baptism of his Spirit only “ by a minister of Christ."

with the outward Baptism of Water," &c.

hast promised by thy well-beloved Son, clared by his Son Jesus Christ; and saying, Ask, and ye shall have ; seek, nothing doubting but that he favourably and ye shall find ; knock, and it shall be alloweth this charitable work of ours in opened unto you: So give now unto us bringing this Infant to his holy Baptism; that ask ; let us that seek find; open let us faithfully and devoutly give thanks the gate unto us that knock; that this unto him, and say, Infant may enjoy the everlasting bene- Almighty and everlasting God, headiction of thy heavenly washing, and may venly Father, we give thee humble thanks, come to the eternal Kingdom which thou for that thou hast vouchsafed to call us hast promised by Christ our Lord. Amen. to the knowledge of thy grace, and faith

Then shall the People stand up, and in thee: Increase this knowledge. and the [Minister] shall say,*

confirm this faith in us evermore. Give Hear the words of the Gospel, written thy Holy Spirit to this Infant, that he by Saint Mark, in the Tenth Chapter, at may be born again, and be inade an heir the Thirteenth Verse.

of everlasting salvation; through our They brought young children to Christ, Lord Jesus Christ, who liveth and reignthat he should touch them; and his dis- eth with thee and the Holy Spirit, now ciples rebuked those that brought them.

and for ever.

Amen. But when Jesus saw it, he was much dis- | Then shall the [Minister] speak unto the pleased, and said unto them, Suffer the [Sponsors] on this wise. little children to come unto me, and Dearly beloved, ye have brought this forbid them not; for of such is the king- Child here to be baptized, ye have prayed dom of God. Verily I say unto you, that our Lord Jesus Christ would vouchWhosoever shall not receive the kingdom safe to receive him, to release him of his of God as a little child, he shall not sins, to sanctify him with the Holy Ghost, enter therein. And he took them up in to give him the kingdom of Heaven, and his arms, put his hands upon them, and everlasting life. Ye have heard also blessed them.

that our Lord Jesus Christ hath promised After the Gospel is read, the Minister in his Gospel to grant all these things shall make this brief Exhortation upon that ye have prayed for : which promise the Words of the Gospel.

he, for his part, will most surely keep Beloved, ye hear in this Gospel the and perform. Wherefore, after this prowords of our Saviour Christ, that he mise made by Christ,* this Infant must commanded the children to be brought unto him ; how he blamed those that • It might be a relief to some tender conwould have kept them from him ; how

sciences (though the writer himself does not he exhorteth all men to follow their in- desire it) to omit the words “in the name of nocency. Ye perceive how by his out- this child" in the first question, and thus make ward gesture and deed he declared his the answers to the two first questions to become good will toward them; for he personal professions of “ Renunciation " and braced them in his arms, he laid his "Faith" on the part of the sponsors, as security hands upon them, and blessed them. to the Church, that they are fit to undertake Doubt ye not therefore, but earnestly the training of the child as promised in the believe, that he [is willing to]t likewise fourth answer. The service might then stand favourably receive this present Infant ; thus : “ Wherefore, after this promise made by that he [is willing to] embrace him with Christ, [ye] must also faithfully, for (your) the arms of his mercy; that he [is willing part, promise (that this child shall be taught to] to] give unto him the blessing of eternal renounce the devil and all his works, and conlife, and make him partaker of his ever- santly believe God's holy Word, and obediently lasting Kingdom. Wherefore we being keep his commandments. I demand therefore, thus persuaded of the good will of our Do ye renounce, &c. ? Do ye believe, &c. ? heavenly Father towards this Infant, de- Will ye that this child be baptized, &c. ? Will

ye then, see that he be taught, so soon as he 6. The American Rubric in this place. which

shall be able to learn, to renounce the devil permits considerable omissions, seems to be

and all his works, to believe all the Articles of very objectionable.

the Christian faith, and to obediently keep + This is apparently the meaning of the word God's holy will and commandments, and walk " willin this place (just as in Athanasius' in the same all the days of his life?" (see Creed "will be-vult, is willing or wishes to be- Matt. xxviii. 20). The concluding address to saved.") as the concluding words seems to prove, the sponsors might then stand thus : “Foras" will give unto him the blessing of eternal much as sye have] promised (that this child life," &c.

shall be 'instructed'] to renounce the devil and And in Jesus Christ his only . . . Son our Lord ? And that he was conceived by the Holy Ghost; born of the Virgin Mary ; that he suffered under Pontius Pilate, was crucified, dead, and buried; that he [descended) into hell ;and also

em

also faithfully, for his part, promise by you that are his sureties, (until he come of age to take it upon himself,) that he will renounce the devil and all his works, and constantly believe God's holy word, and obediently keep his commandments. (The Minister shall then demand of the

Sponsors as follows ; the questions being considered as addressed to them severally, and the answers to be made accord. ingly.*]

I demand therefore, (Do ye],t in the name of this Child, renounce the devil and all his works, the vain pomp and glory of the world, with all covetous desires of the same, and the carnal desires of the flesh, so that [ye will] not follow, nor be led by them ?

Answer. I renounce them all.

Minister. [Do ye] believe in God the Father Almighty, Maker of Heaven and Earth ?

[the third day] did rise again (from the dead); that he ascended into Heaven, and sitteth at the right hand of God the Father Almighty ; and [that] from thence [he] shall coine ..., to judge the quick and the dead?

And [do ye] believe in the Holy Ghost; the holy Catholick Church ; the Communion of Saints; the [Forgiveness] of Sins; the Resurrection of the [body]; and (the life everlasting] ?

Answer. All this I stedfastly believe.

Minister. [Will ye that this child] be baptized in this faith ?

Answer. That is my desire.

Minister. [Will ye] then ['see that he be taught, so soon as he shall be able to learn,'t to]t obediently keep God's holy will and commandments, and walk in the same all the days of (his] life?

Answer. I will ['endeavour so to do, God being my helper'].S

Then shali the [ Minister ] say, ['all kneeling'].

merciful God, grant that the old Adam in this Child may be so buried, that the new man may be raised up in him. Amen.

Grant that all carnal affections may die in him, and that all things belonging to the Spirit may live and grow in him. Amen.

Grant that he may have power and strength to have victory, and to triumph, against the devil, the world, and the flesh. Amen.

Grant that whosoever is here dedicated to thee by our office and ministry may also be endued with heavenly virtues, and everlastingly rewarded, through thy mercy, O blessed Lord God, who dost live, and govern all things, world without end. Amen.

Almighty, everliving God, whose most dearly beloved Son Jesus Christ, for the forgiveness of our sins, did shed out of his most precious side both water and blood ; and gave commandment to his disciples, that they should go teach all nations, and baptize them In the Name of the Father, [and of] the Son, and (of} the Holy Ghost; Regard, we beseech thee, the supplications of thy Congregation ; sanctify this Water to the mystical washing away of sin ; and grant that this Child, now to be baptized there[with], • Or, “into (ELS) this faith."

+ That is, "attend to-observe” (inpelv.) Matt. xxviii. 20.

all his works, to believe in God and to serve him ; ye must remember, that it is your parts and duties to see that [he] be taught, so soon as he shall be able to learn, what a solemn vow, promise, and profession, [ye have] here made (for him]. And that he may know these things," &c.

* This Rubric is adopted from the American Prayer-book.

+ As the questions are addressed to the sponsors, the plural number is preferable to the singular. The first question might be well abridged by adopting the terms of the Catechism, Do ye, in the name of this child 'renounce the devil and all his works, the pomps and vanities of this wicked world, and all the sinful lusts of the flesh'?" And the second thus at least in the Infant Office—“Do ye believe all the Articles of the Christian Faith' 'as briefly comprised in' the Apostles' Creed'?" The American Prayer-book has it thus, “Dost thou believe all the Articles of the Christian faith, as contained in the Apostles' Creed ?” In the Catechism only two things-repentance and faith-are declared requisite to be personally professed or promised by sureties prior to the reception of Christian Baptism. The third -the promise of obedience to God's commandments--did not exist in the Baptismal Service till the last revision in 1661-2.

I Or, “into Hades."

| From the concluding address to the sponsors.

From the Adult Office.

may receive the fulness of thy grace, and into the body of Christ's Church,* let us ever remain in the number of thy faithful give thanks unto Almighty God for these and elect children ; through Jesus Christ benefits ; and with one accord make our our Lord. Amen.

prayers unto him, that this Child may Then the [ Minister) shall take the Child lead the rest of his life according to this into his hands, and shall say to the beginning. + [Sponsors],

Then shall be said, all kneeling:
Name this Child.

Our Father, which art in Heaven. | And then naming it after them .. he Hallowed by thy Name. Thy Kingdom ['saints']* he may['inherit’]* thine ever- May The grace of our Lord Jesus lasting kingdom ; through ['the same Christ, and the love of God, and the thy Son Jesus']* Christ our Lord. Amen. fellowship of the Holy Ghost, be with us | Then, all standing up, this [Minister] all evermore. Amen.] shall say to the Sponsors) this Exhorta

shall dip it in the Water discreetly and come. Thy will be done in earth, as it warily, ['or pour Water* upon it,'] is in heaven. Give us this day our daily saying,

bread. And forgive us our trespasses, as. N. I baptize thee + In the Name of we forgive them that trespass against us. the Father, and of the Son, and of the And lead us not into temptation; but Holy Ghost.

deliver us from evil. (For thine is the

kingdom, The power, and the glory, For I Then the [Minister] shall say,

ever and ever.] Amen. We receive this Child into the Con- ( Then shall the [Minister] say, gregation of Christ's flock,* (*Here the We yield thee hearty thanks, most Minister] shall make a Cross upon the merciful Father, that it hath pleased thee Child's forehead, )and do sign him with the to [grant unto this Infant to be here sign of the Cross, I in token that here- dedicated to thee by our office and minisafter he shall not be ashamed to con- try, 'I and incorporated] into thy holy fess the faith of Christ crucified, and Church.s And humbly we beseech thee manfully to fight under his banner, to grant, that he, being dead unto sin, || against sin, the world, and the devil; and living unto righteousness, and being and to continue Christ's faithful soldier buried with Christ in his death, may and servant unto his life's end. Amen. crucify the old man, and utterly abolish | Then shall the (Minister] say,

the whole body of sin ; and that, [being] Seeing now, dearly beloved brethren, made partaker of the death of thy Son, he that this Child is [' dedicated to'g the may also be partaker of his resurrection; * living and true God'],ll and grafted so that finally, with the residue of thy

• The precedents for this unlimited discretion respecting Immersion and Affusion are the American Prayer.book, and our own Adult Office,

+ The simple meaning of the act of Baptism seems to be, “I dedicate thee by the sign of water to the service of the Triune God." The phrase which we sometimes find in Scripture, of Baptism“in the name of the Lord Jesus" would, perhaps, seem to refer to the peculiar case of Jewish converts, while the institution of Baptism in the name of the Holy Trinity, as recorded in Matt. xxviii. 18, 19, 20, has a direct reference to the Gentile world_" all nations."

| It might possibly be expedient to omit the sign of the cross, as it, perhaps, has a practical tendency to divert the attention of the illinformed from the dignity of the sacrament of Baptism; so the foolish phrase "half-baptized' seems to suggest. The form might then run thus, "[who hath received the sacrament of Baptism], in token that hereafter he shall not be ashamed," &c.

s From the seventh collect in the Baptismal Offices.

|| From 1 Thess. i. 9. as applied to the Blessed Trinity in the First of the Thirty-nine Articles.

Or “into the body of ['the Christian'] Church.” This is the only benefit which is dogmatically affirmed by our Church in the Twenty-seventh Article, to be consequent upon the outward sign of Baptism.

+ That is, in obedience to the Lord to whom he has been dedicated-agreeably to his profession—"answerably to his Christian calling."

1 This emendation is taken from the seventh collect in the Baptismal Office.

$ Or“ into the ['Christian '] Church."

I That is "that he may be 'dead indeed unto sin,' and 'alive unto God through Jesus Christ our Lord,' (Rom. vi. 11), and being buried with Christ,” &c. The word “being" is often used conditionally, or as a prospective petition, in our Liturgy, e. g. “that we, being defended from the fear of our enemies, may pass our time in rest and quietness.” The words “ being regenerate" in the collect for Christmas-day, therefore, fairly admit of this use, in the case of those whose consciences will not allow them to use them as a positive assertion; "that we being (i. e. supposing us to be--if we be) regenerate, may daily be renewed," &c. So, " to declare and pronounce to his people, being penitent," i. e. supposing them to be-if they be-penitent.

+ tion following,

#[The Church of England, since the Forasmuch as this Child hath promised abolishing of Popery, hath ever held and by you his Sureties, to renounce the taught, and so doth hold and teach still, devil and all his works, to believe in God. that the Sign of the Cross used in Baptism and to serve him ; ye must remember, is no part of the substance of that Sacrathat it is your parts and duties to see ment: For when the Minister, dipping that this Infant be taught, so soon as he

the Infant in water, or laying water upon shall be able to learn, what a solemn vow, the face of it (as the manner also is,) hath promise, and profession, he hath here pronounced these words, I Baptize thee made by you.

And that he may know in the Name of the Father, and of the Son, these things the better, ye shall call upon and of the Holy Ghost, the Infant is fully him to hear Sermons; and chiefly ye and perfectly baptized. So as the Sign shall provide, that he may learn the of the Cross being afterward used, doch Creed, the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten neither add any thing to the virtue and Commandments ..., fand all other things perfection of Baptism, nor being omitted, which a Christian ought to know and doth detract any thing from the effect believe to his soul's health ; and that and substance of it. this Child may be virtuously brought up

+ The American Prayer-book has been folto lead a godly and a Christian life ; re..

lowed in the omission of the declaration remembering always, that Baptism doth

specting the salvation of deceased infants. For represent unto us our profession ; which

the learned Bishop of St Asaph, reminds us is, to follow the example of our Saviour Christ, and to be made like unto him ;

that the original “ object” of this declaration that as he died, and rose again for us, so

(viz. "to prevent people from esteeming bapshould we, who are baptized, die from

tism incomplete without " confirmation) "is sin, and rise again unto righteousness ;

not now answered, while the expression, 'cercontinually mortifying all our evil and

tain by God's Word,' might as well not be corrupt affections, and daily proceeding

applied to a proposition, which, however true, in all virtue and godliness of living.

must be proved by reasoning on the analogy of ( Then shall he add and say,

God's dispensations, and not from any one or Ye are to take care that this Child be more texts of Scripture, adduced directly in its brought to the Bishop to be confirmed confirmation," &c. (Bp. Short's History of the by him, so soon as he can say the Creed, Church of England, s. 671, p. 494, note). It is a the Lord's Prayer, and the Ten Com

remarkable fact that the words in this declaramandments, and be further instructed tion “which are baptized” were not inserted in in the Church-Catechism set forth for that copy of the Prayer-book which received

the sanc:ion of Convocation, and that Sir Cyril [ Then the Minister may add,

Wyche having observed the omission, pointed

itout to the Lord Chancellor Hyde, who privately + These three emendations are taken from “supplied it with his own hand;" and that, the thanksgiving in the Private Office, which

even after it had passed the two houses " of having been composed since that in the Public Convocation (Lathbury's History of Convocation, Office (viz. in 1661-2) may be taken as a model c. X, p. 249)! The supposed difficulties of this for improving the laiter in these particulars, as declaration have been much exaggerated. If we it is desirable that there should be no verbal

may infer from Scripture that the benefits of discrepancies between them, except in the Christ's universal redemption are effectual to omission of a few sentences in the Private the salvation of all infants “dying before they Office, which, in the prospect of the child's commit actual sin,” much more may we infer it probable death, are hardly suitable for use. of those who have been in Baptism dedicated to This seems to be the reason for the abridgment the true God, consecrated to Christ's service, and of the thanksgiving in our Private Office, which formally consigned to the Good Shepherd's care. our American brethren, in restoring it to the On this see Hooker (B. v. c. 60, s. 6,) same length as the Public form, do not seem to I This is the latter part of the 30th Canon, to have perceived.

which a mere reference is now made in our I The American Liturgy has been followed Prayer books. If the sign of the Cross should in the omission of " in the vulgar tongue” both be omitted, of course this declaration would be here and in the next paragraph.

no longer needed.

that purpose.

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