Errors in Pronunciation:

t sometimes incorrectly sounded like d in dun and fad. d sometimes incorrectly sounded like t in tin and fit.

th in thick and myth sometimes incorrectly sounded like th in smooth and though.

th in though and smooth sometimes incorrectly sounded like th in thick and myth. Distinction Drill: (a) sooth, soothe; bath, bathe; both , booth; breath, breathe.

thank, than; think, then; thatch, that.

tin, din; ten, den; tot, dot; tart, dart. Utter the following vigorously:

(b) thin, tin, din than, tan, Dan thank, tank, dank those, toes, doze thread, tread, dread thigh, tie, die the, tee, dee their, tare, dare thicket, ticket theme, team, deem then, ten, den thick, tick, Dick

dead, debt, death
heed, heat, heath
shed, sheet, sheath
need, neat, beneath
had, hat, hath
ladder, latter, lather
bode, boat, both
ore, oat, oath
pad, pat, path
broad, brought, broth
rod, rot, wroth
hard, heart, hearth

(d) not thatch but thatcheth not tether but tethereth not theorize but theorizeth not thicken but thickeneth not thieve but thieveth not thin but thinneth

(e) to the two that thatcheth to the two that tethereth to the two that theorizeth to the two that thickeneth to the two that thieveth to the two that thinneth

not thirst but thirsteth to the two that thirsteth not thrash but thrasheth to the two that thrasheth not thread but threadeth to the two that threadeth not threaten but threateneth to the two that threateneth not throw but throweth to the two that throweth not thrill but thrilleth

to the two that thrilleth not thrive but thriveth to the two that thriveth not throb but throbeth to the two that throbeth not throttle but throttleth to the two that throttleth not thrum but thrumeth to the two that thrumeth not thrust but thrusteth to the two that thrusteth not thwart but thwarteth to the two that thwarteth not thunder but thundereth to the two that thundereth not thwack but thwacketh to the two that thwacketh

Accent Drill:

(a). Tutored, tortured, tattered, tittered, tettered, tottered, torrid, torrent, abated, abetted, attainted, attuned, attired, tautology, tabouret, taciturn, tact, tactics, tantamount, tertiary, tether, strait, tincture.

(b). Didactic, death, defeating, dedicate, dedication, deodorize, data.


(a). To do the truth daily try to think the truth.
(b). To dare, to do, to die.
(c). Two duties do.
(d). He ate edible tamarinds.
(e). They threaten to not abate one jot or tittle.

(f). To think the thought is theoretically to tell the thought, though this thinking the thought telleth not the tale thoroughly.

(g). Theophilus Thistle, the successful thistle sifter, thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb; see that thou thrust not three thousand thistles through the thick of thy 'thumb.


r in rear, roar, row, oar, urn.

Errors in Pronunciation:

Sometimes incorrectly sounded like a in father and like aw in awl.

Distinction Drill:

Utter in pairs decisively, the mind intently upon the distinction :

car, caw; mar, maw; farther, father;
leer, Leah; carve, calve; bore, boa.

Accent Drill:

Pronounce the following, attacking vigorously the accented syllable:

armour, farther, further, shriller, robber, rarely, ewer, berry, rural, arrowroot, arable, burner, approach, bursar, mercer, merger, roiler, rather, murderer, regulator, interpreter, quarter-master, rearing, riderless, rhubarb, phrenzy, rampart, uproarious, oratorical, mirror, uprising, Christian, discerner, rhinoceros, burgomaster, forefinger, harbinger, wharfinger, encroacher, furnisher, hydrographer, chirog

, rapher, chevalier, chandelier, fusilier, gondolier, carabinier, rapier, harrier, harquebusier, hearkener, foreigner, extortioner, sojourner, usurper, forswearer, demurrer, harbourer, purchaser, animadverter.


The cart caught the father farther from his hearth than Hawth expected.

Hark! a hawk!
0, horrible ! horrible! most horrible!


s in sit, hiss. Error in Pronunciation:

Sometimes incorrectly sounded like z in zone and ooze.

Distinction Drill:

Utter in pairs decisively, the mind intently upon the distinction:

hiss, his; brace, braze; sounds, zounds; haste, hazed; face, phase; fleece, flees; mace, maize; race, raise; cease, seize; ceaseth, seizeth ; muscle, muzzle; use (noun), use (verb).

Accent Drill:

Pronunce the following, attacking vigorously the accented syllable:

passing, massing, asbestos, asceticism, assassins, assets, assessor, associate, assuage, assuasive, basilisk, basis, brassiness, bristles, siesta, disuse (noun), essential, justice, isosceles, slices, losses, mischievousness, pessimism, presence, sassafras, seasons, sensations, sensuous, sparseness.


He says his sowing zone has several associated sections sizing similarly.

Sometimes his hisses seem seriously sent.

sh in ash, she.

Error in Pronunciation:

Sometimes sounded like zh in seizure.

Distinction Drill:

Utter in pairs. decisively, the mind intently upon the distinction : tressure, treasure; glacier, glazier; barouche, by rouge; ashery, azure; meshy, measure; leash, leisure; innovation, invasion; addition, adhesion; concession, concision; my rash, mirage.

Accent Drill:

Pronounce the following, attacking vigorously, the accented syllable :

enmeshed, sheltering, shiftlessness, shriveling, shrunken, splashing, crashing, conscientious, constitutional, splashing, crashing, swishing, bashfulness, refreshments, ocean, nauseous, personification, considerations, commemoration, admonition, misapprehension, additional, expansion, inattention, shiverer, provisional, shrievalty, explanation, harshness, relaxation, hashish, rashness, confessional.


She visually vitiated the abashed glazier's glacier.
The nation's vision of vanishing pleasure.

z in gaze, zero.

Errors in Pronunciation:

Sometimes incorrectly sounded like s in sit.

Distinction Drill:

See Distinction Drill under sound “.”

Accent Drill:

Pronounce the following, attacking vigorously, the accented syllable:

mesmerism, easiness, visage, prosaic, disposing, Moses, cruising, malfeasance, enthusiasm, protoplasmic, laziness, cousin, business-like, drizzling, miserable, amazement, measles, fizzle, miserly, emblazoned, displeasing, nosegay,

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