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more strikingly a task is put before a student the more likely will that task be effectively performed.

6.. The Best Way to Lead the Student into the Correct Interpretation of the Higher Literature is to Show Him Its Relationship to the Experiences of Daily Life.-When it is perceived that underlying the language of the classic authors are found emotions and thoughts similar to those of every day experience, at once, the difficulty of interpretation is largely overcome. This perception of relationship is attained by placing together the colloquial and the classical.

THE MANNER OF USE OF THE TONE DRILLS

In the use of the Tone Drills seek for Naturalness, Vividness, Completeness, Ease and Grace, and the Perception of the Relationship of the Colloquial to the Classical.

NATURALNESS. Aim to secure a rendering of each example that would be identified instantly as manifesting the feeling demanded. This is attained best by having the student tell the example to a listener, either a fellow student, the teacher or the class as a whole. Naturalness is also secured by drill in chorus. In this simultaneous work the self-conscious student loses his self-consciousness. Here as in individual drill each student should be objective and speak the example to some particular person or persons. A further aid to naturalness is to have the student compose for himself a colloquial drill of not more than a dozen words for each tone, and have him orally express it.

VIVIDNESS. Aim to secure degrees of intensity, as, angry, angrier, angriest. This is attained by spurring the student to stronger endeavor. Vividness is also attained by having the student search for examples of the more intense degrees of the various tones.

COMPLETENESS. Aim to secure a rendering that is complete, that brings into play all the organs of expression that legitimately can aid in the interpretation. This is attained by having the student express the example silently, using only facial expression, gesture and attitude; this to be followed by expression aloud, all the organs of

utterance coöperating; finally secure expression with regard not only to the feeling but to the pause, emphasis and articulation.

EASE AND GRACE. Aim to secure a rendering of each example that attains the maximum of effectiveness with the minimum of effort, and which, at same time, so coördinates as to make a harmonic whole; in other words, aim to secure a rendering that is artistic. This is attained by frequency of rendering, by seeking for variety of rendering, and by criticism in respect to things overdone, or not adequately done, or left undone.

PERCEPTION OF RELATIONSHIP OF THE COLLOQUIAL TO THE CLASSICAL. Aim to develop in the student a vivid appreciation of the underlying kinship between the colloquial and the classical. Let him see that the strange, complex or exalted, is after all, the familiar, the simple and the normal, differently clothed, refined or combined. This end is attained by drill on the Colloquial, followed by alternate renderings of the Classical and Colloquial, Colloquial and Classical. Also by having the student make a tonal analysis of selections as explained and illustrated under Interpretation (pages 75 to 83).

Always the teacher must cause the student to realize that his aim in speaking and reading is objective—to convey the thought and feeling to some particular person or persons.

NOTE.-Practice the most those exercises which are executed least effectively. Thus, a student may be excellent in the expression of indignation and kindred emotions, but poor in the expression of admiration, love and the like. Let him give special attention to the latter group and so on with all the feeling in which he is expressionally weak.

THE TONE DRILLS

EXAMPLES ILLUSTRATING THE TONE SYMBOLS THOSE SYMBOLS WHICH PICTURE OR EXPRESS THE

VARIOUS STATES OF FEELING

1. ADMIRATION:

Colloquial.

a-0, look at those lovely roses! Look at them!
b-I never listened to such beautiful music in all my
The purity of it! the sweetness of it!
c-What a magnificent sunset! Isn't it glorious!

Classical.

life!

d—What a piece of work is man! How noble in reason! how infinite in faculty; in form, and moving, how express and admirable! in action, how like an angel! in apprehension, how like a god! the beauty of the world! the paragon of animals!

2. ADMISSION:

SHAKESPEARE, Hamlet, ii, 2.

Colloquial.

a-Well, yes, if you want to know, I was there.
b-I admit that I didn't state the case plainly.
c-I grant it, you are right.

Classical.

d-When I spoke that I was ill-temper'd, too.

SHAKESPEARE, Julius Caesar, iv, 3.

3. ADORATION: (See Admiration, Reverence, Affection.)

Colloquial.

a--Mother, dear mother, I adore the very ground you

tread on.

Classical.

b-O speak again, bright angel, for thou art
As glorious to this night, being o'er my head,
As is a winged messenger of heaven.

4. ADVICE:

SHAKESPEARE, Romeo and Juliet, ii, 2.

Colloquial.

a-Of course, it's your money, and you can do what you like with it, but if I were you I would save it.

b-If I were you I would wear your pink, it is so much prettier than the red.

c—My advice is, gentlemen, to throw this whole thing up; if we succeed it will do us no good, and if we fail it will do us harm.

Classical.

d-I'll tell you what you shall do. Our general's wife is now the general; confess yourself freely to her; importune her help to put you in your place again. SHAKESPEARE, Othello, ii, 3.

5. AFFECTION:

Colloquial.

a-Hello, old chum, I'm so glad to see you; how well you are looking! Shake again!

b-Good-by, mother. Hope you'll have a lovely trip. Don't mind me, I'll be all right.

C

-Come here, little sister, and let me take you on my knees. You are the sweetest little, dearest little— um-um (kissing her).

Classical.

d-The dearest friend to me, the kindest man,
The best condition'd and unwearied spirit
In doing courtesies.

SHAKESPEARE, Merchant of Venice, iii, 2.

e-This royal throne of kings, this sceptered isle,
This earth of majesty, this seat of Mars,

This other Eden, demi-paradise;

...

This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England!

SHAKESPEARE, Richard II, ii, 1.

6. AGITATION: (See Excitement, Fear.)

7. AGGRIEVANCE: (See Reproach.)

Colloquial.

a-I feel hurt. It's unkind.

b-I stood by you through thick and thin, and now you turn around and abuse me. It's mean, to say the least.

c-Yes, sir, I introduced that gentleman to this house; I procured him a good position, and now, sir, when he has risen to power he turns upon me. That's gratitude for you.

d

Classical.

Brutus hath riv'd my heart:
A friend should bear his friend's infirmities,
But Brutus makes mine greater than they are.

8. AGONY:

SHAKESPEARE, Julius Caesar, iv, 3.

Colloquial.

a-0, open the door. You are crushing my finger! 0-0-0 !

b-O, mother, the pain is awful! O, my head, my head!

Classical.

c-O Desdemona! dead? Desdemona! dead? oh, oh!

SHAKESPEARE, Othello, v, 2.

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