Mark how his haughty brow grows pale!"
But a deep voice rung on the gale—

“Shoot in God's name !"
Again the drooping shaft he took,
And turned to Heaven one burning look,

Of all doubts reft.
"Be firm, my boy!" was all he said.
The apple's left the stripling's head;

Ha! Ha! 'tis cleft!
And so it was, and Tell was free.
Quick the brave boy was at his knee

With rosy cheek.
His loving arms his boy embrace;
But again that tyrant cried in haste,
"An arrow in thy belt is placed ;

What means it? Speak!"
The Switzer raised his clenched hand high,
Whilst lightning flashed across his eye

Incessantly. “To smite thee, tyrant, to the heart, Had Heaven willed it that my dart

Had touched my boy."
“Rebellion! Treason! Chain the slave !"
A hundred swords around him wave,
Whilst hate to Gesler's features gave

Infuriate joy.
But that one arrow found its goal,
Hid with revenge in Gesler's soul;

And Lucerne's lake
Heard his dastard soul outmoan
When Freedom's call abroad was blown,
And Switzerland, a giant grown,

Her fetters brake.
From hill to hill the mandate flew,

From lake to lake the tempest grew,

With wakening swell,
Till proud oppression crouched for shame,
And Austria's haughtiness grew tame,
And Freedom's watchword was the name

Of William Tell.

Before proceeding with the analysis of part of this poem

it must be clearly understood :

(a) We are considering the feelings, not the thoughts.

(b) The phraseology set down as describing the states of feeling is not the only phraseology that could be used.

(c) The analysis is not the only analysis. It is given as a practical illustration of the scope and power of the tone principle in the study of literature for the purpose of interpretation.

(d) Conception does not necessarily demand that the particular feeling or its tone shall be written down. A student will often know the feeling aright, but be unequal to describing it in words.

(e) Writing down the feeling, however, insures greater accuracy and will give splendid mental training. The student will then know that he knows.

Coming now to the analysis, it is first necessary to determine the United Aim. After carefully reading the poem we conclude the author intends that every word shall in some way contribute to telling the story of William Tell and the apple—Dominant Thought, and from the viewpoint of sympathy with Tell-Dominant Feeling. This, then, is our United Aim which we shall use as our guide and arbiter.

“Place there the boy.” This is spoken by the tyrant, and evidently to one of his soldiers. The feeling here, the state dominating Gesler, is one of command; and we so note.


“the tyrant said,” This is the author himself speaking. What is the feeling here? First we must refer to our United Aim. This decrees that the poet intends to exhibit sympathy for Tell. Then the feeling will be one of indignation. By this is shown our opinion of the tyrant in placing the boy's life in peril. We manifest sympathy for Tell and hatred of Gesler.

"Fix me the apple on his head.” The feeling here, the state dominating Gesler, is one of command :

"Ha! rebel, now !" This is Gesler to Tell. The words “ha” and “now” tell us of what? Exultation. Gesler says here in reality, "At last, you expert shooter, I've a chance to take the pride out of you.”

"rebel” Plainly this is spoken with contempt.

“There's a fair mark for your shaft;" Here Gesler does not mean what he says. He knows the mark is not fair but most unfair. Irony is the state, colored with taunting.

“To yonder shining apple waft an arrow.” This is evidently delivered in a tone of command.

And the tyrant laughed. Here we must think a moment. Does the author intend that we shall utter these words with the feeling accompanying ordinary explanation, or does he desire something more? Does he ask us to suggest on “laughed” the sarcastic, tantalizing way in which Gesler laughed, or, again, does he wish us to show indignation at the fact of the laughing, or, yet again, does he desire to convey to the listener amazement


that Gesler could actually exhibit glee at his devilish scheme, or, still again, does he intend indignation to accompany delivery of "the tyrant” and amazement on "laughed”?

Here is a variety of possibilities; how shall we decide? We have agreed that the poet intends as part of his United Aim, sympathy for Tell, hatred of Gesler. Would not the feeling here be indignation, and also amazement bordering on horror, that a man commands a father to shoot a son and laughs at it? The words might be paraphrased colloquially thus, "And would you believe it, the wretch actually had the fiendishness to laugh." Applying this to the author's words, we have "And the tyrant” given with indignation, "laughed” with amazement. It may be argued that this analysis is too subtle, that one state only would underlie these words; but if a story-teller is intense, deeply in earnest, this variety of emotion will be warranted and natural. It is asked would not “laughed” take a tone suggestive of Gesler's particular taunting way, and the answer is that Gesler's fiendish proceeding would surely focus the attention more upon the awfulness than upon the manner.

With quivering brow
Bold Tell looked there; his cheek turned pale;
His proud lips throbbed as if would fail

Their quivering breath.

Is this the ordinary calm description ? No, for the situation is too unusual, too intense for that. The feeling here is deep


"Ha, doth he blanch ?”

Here we have fierce exultation.

fierce Gesler cried.

Here, explanation tinged with indignation at Gesler.

"I've conquered," Fiendish exultation.

“slave,” Contempt here.

“Thy soul of pride.” Here, exultation and contempt. No voice to that stern taunt replied

All mute as death.

Is this calm narration? or sympathy? or awe? The occasion, surely, is too vital to tell it colloquially. Pity might creep in, but the stronger drives out the weaker, the mind is above all swayed with the atmosphere of hush, stillness and concern that envelops the occasion. Plainly the feeling is one of awe.

“And what the meed ?" Tell is struggling to control himself. Agony has given place to indignation, but he is trying hard to master himself. His interrogation would show suppressed indignation.

At length Tell asked.
This is simple explanation, colored with pity.

“Bold fool, when slaves like thee are tasked, Contempt.

It is my will. Authority.

Here the analysis must stop. Let the student complete it for himself. Sufficient has been given to show not only the method of tone analysis but to demonstrate its value in securing accuracy and completeness in the conception of the feeling in literature:

Note.—Before toning the remainder of the poem, the student is expected to have thoroughly familiarized himself with

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