(c). Arms above head, let hands drop lifelessly; similarly forearm, then whole arm. Let body sink lifelessly almost to ground.

(d). Make lifeless and revolve whole arm, hand. (e). Make figure 8 with whole arm, with hand.

(f). Make script alphabet-small letters—with whole arm; with hand.

(g). Bend head forward and revolve it, lifelessly, from right to left, from left to right.

(h). Extend arm to front, palm upwards; open and shut fingers nine times.

(i). Arms at side, hands shut, extend arms and open hands —at side, arms at angle of 30 degrees from body, then at 90 degrees (parallel with shoulder blades), then at 120 degrees. Also at same 'angles obliquely and in front.




1. Determine the United Aim: (a). The Dominant Thought. What does the selec

tion aim to show, prove, tell, etc.? (b). The Dominant Feeling. What is the emo

tional attitude of the author (or character)

towards the Dominant Thought? 2. Determine the Groups. What words are closely related ? 3. Determine the Ideas (and Their Words) That Demand

(a) Prominence, (b) Pause. 4. Determine the Tones in Which the Various Ideas Should

Be Delivered. What are the various feelings in the

selection and what tones will best show these ? 5. Make the Ideas Yours. Understand with absolute clear

ness every idea in the selection. 6. Make the Feelings Yours. Exercise the imagination upon

every idea. Go into your own experience and see if

the emotion has not been yours in some simple form. (Groups may be indicated by parentheses, prominent words by underlining, tones by marginal notes.)



1. Have a listener. If impracticable, imagine one. 2. Tell ideas, not words. 3. Intensely desire to have the idea grasped by listener.

Aim to convey to the listener the feelings in the selection. Manifest vividly the true feeling toward the ideas expressed.





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This section of selections is intended to furnish, on a more sustained scale, further drill upon the phases of feeling. To this end each selection is classified under its dominant tone.

This does not mean that there is but one tone in the selection but that the tone given predominates. Thus, in “The

, Field of Waterloo," the phrase "Wellington had the favorable side" partakes of Conviction, but the dominant tone of the entire selection is Explanation, under which head it is classified.

Strictly speaking there is no such thing as a distinctly marked evolution in the expression of phases of feeling. A child, by the time he can read, will be able to express joy, affection, anger, admiration, impatience, assertion, gayety equally well, if the phrasing in which the feeling is couched is identical with his own experience. A few forms of feeling such as horror and remorse may be considered as later stages because of their comparative rarity in experience, but on the whole the power to express varieties of feeling cannot be considered as being a steady growth, each month or year opening up new fields of emotion. The difficulty of expression lies not so much in the kind of feeling as in the lack of vividness with which it appeals to experience. Order of sequence, therefore, will depend upon the relative frequency with which a given

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kind of feeling has come vividly into our lives. But, the experience of no two lives being identical, the determining factor is individuality, and no order can be said to be applicable universally.

Broadly speaking the Dominant Tones may be arranged for a course of study in three different ways:

First-In the order set forth in the book, which aims to combine the law of proceeding from the familiar to the unfamiliar (so far as that law applies to kinds of emotion), with the law of variety.

Second-By a close adherence to the principle of Contrast, following Joy with Solemnity, Geniality with Indignation and So on.

Third-By grouping kindred emotions, and arranging them from the mild to the intense, as Calmness, Solemnity, Sublimity; Geniality, Gayety, Joy, Exultation; Gloom, Awe, Horror; Indifference, Belittling, Ridicule, Contempt; Admiration, Aspiration, Affection, Love, Adoration.

It will be noted that under the majority of tones there are two or three selections, one from the field of oratory, one from lyric or narrative poetry, and sometimes one from dramatic literature, usually Shakespeare. This permits a teacher or student to choose selections adapted either to a public speaker's course or to a course in reading. Power in either field, however, is best attained by the study of selections from both fields.

It will be seen that of the selections under a particular tone, frequently one selection is more difficult than another. This fact will suggest, at once, a rational sequence of study.

While the selections under this head are intended, primarily, as studies in dominant tones, they afford opportunity for the study and application of all the principles and rules of oral expression.


(See Tone Drill No. 94.) [The tone of Explanation in its purest form indicates simply a desire to make plain, to tell what the thing is or how it happened. It is akin to Frankness. Usually there is a tinge of Geniality.]

The Battlefield of Waterloo.


Those who would get a clear idea of the battle of Waterloo have only to lay down upon the ground in their mind a capital A. The left stroke of the A is the road from Nivelles, the right stroke is the road from Genappe, the cross of the A is the sunken road from Ohan to Braine-l'Alleud. The top of the A is Mount Saint Jean, Wellington is there; the lefthand lower point is Hougomont, Reille is there with Jerome Bonaparte; the right-hand lower point is La Belle Alliance, Napoleon is there. A little below the point where the cross of the A meets and cuts the right stroke, is La Haie Sainte. At the middle of this cross is the precise point where the final battle-word was spoken. There the lion is placed, the involuntary symbol of the supreme heroism of the Imperial Guard. The triangle contained at the top of the A, between the two strokes and the cross, is the plateau of Mount Saint Jean. The struggle for this plateau was the whole of the battle. The wings of the two armies extended to the right and left of the two roads from Genappe and from Nivelles; D’Erlon being opposite Picton, Reille opposite Hill. Behind the point of the A, behind the plateau of Mount Saint Jean, is the forest of Soignes. As to the plain itself, we must imagine a vast undulating country; each wave commanding the next, and these undulations rising toward Mount Saint Jean are there bounded by the forest.

Both generals had carefully studied the plain of Mount Saint Jean, now called the plain of Waterloo. Already in the

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