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tones the cords are but a hair breadth apart, while in breathing tones distance increases with the predominance of breath); mouth proper, nasal cavities, hard palate, soft palate, tongue, teeth, lips, jaw.

VOCAL DRILLS

Relax throat; let the sounds seem to make themselves.

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To Secure Coöperation of Abdominal Muscles.

1. (a). Laugh out heartily—o, ah, oo, once, twice, three times, five times. Direct tone to front of mouth. Place hand just below waist and note how, when laugh is hearty, the abdominal muscles coöperate. If throat is scraped, it is a sign of incorrect use. Remedy: use for a time a match about one to one and one-half inches long, placed perpendicularly between the teeth.

(b). Laugh out heartily, yet freely and easily: All, ask, air, at, alms, ale, eel, earn, urn, ebb, isle, it, oak, odd, use, up, ooze, hook, owl, oil.

(c). Slide the voice upwards on sounds in 1b; also on sounds, syllable by syllable, in the following:

"I cannot, my lords, I will not, join in congratulation on misfortune and disgrace. This, my lords, is a perilous and tremendous moment, It is not a time for adulation. The smoothness of flattery cannot save us in this awful and rugged crisis. It is now necessary to instruct the throne in the language of truth. We must, if possible, dispel the delusion and darkness which envelop it, and display, in its full danger and genuine colors, the ruin which is brought to our doors. Can ministers still presume to expect support in their infatuation? Can Parliament be so dead to its dignity and duty as to give its support to measures thus obtruded and forced upon it? Measures, my lords, which have brought this late flour

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ishing empire to scorn and contempt. But yesterday and Britain might have stood against the world; now, none so poor as to do her reverence.” To Free the Vocal Muscles.

2. (a). Let head fall and revolve it lifelessly.

(b). Yawn-skah, skau, glahgle, glawgle, klahk, klawk, gang, gawg, lahl, lawl.

(c). Sob 2b.

(d). Practice Tone Drills Nos. 8, 63, 86, 110, 128, 132, 137, 145, 166, 181, 194, 200, 207. To Secure Flexibility.

3. (a). Slide the voice upwards, without pause, on the sounds blee, blo, blah; lahl, lawl, lile; e, o, ah, 00; also on sounds in lb and lc. Maintain throughout a feeling of brightness and geniality.

(b). Practice Tone Drills Nos. 1, 9, 5, 16, 20, 25, 42, 47, 94, 106, 111, 126, 132, 141, 1690, 180, 182, 190, 201. To secure Forward Placing of Tone.

4. (a). Utter decisively and brightly, with mind upon projecting sounds to some specific point: bābā, bēbē, bībī; dādā, dēdē, didi; fāfā, főfé, fifi; jājā, etc.; kākā, etc.; lālā, etc.; sāsā, etc.; tātā, etc.; nānā, etc.; vāvā, etc.; māmā, etc.; wāwā, etc.; kwākwā, etc; rārā, etc.

(b). Utter ip, it, ik, decisively.
(c). Utter explosively-puh, tuh, kuh.

(d). Utter decisively, skah, skaw, glahgle, glawgle, klahk, klawki, gang, gawg.

(e). Utter sounds in 1b with the aim of hitting top corner of room with each sound. Utter one syllable at a time.

(f). Practice Drills in Sections 8 and 9. (g). Practice 1a, 1b and 1c.

(h). Practice Tone Drills 24, 26, 46, 63, 64, 89, 157, 200, 208.

To Free the Jaw.

5. (a). With jaw relaxed utter blee-blee, blo-blo, blahblah (1) aloud; (2) silently.

(b). Utter e-yah, e-yaw, e-yoi (1) aloud, (2) silently.

(c). Utter 2b. To Free the Tongue.

6. (a). Utter lahl, lawl, lile. (b). Yawn-aw, ah.

(c). Utter tētē, toto, tahtah; thēthē, thotho, thahthah; nēnē, nõnõ, nahnah, kēkē, etc.; lēlē, etc.; rērē, etc.

(d). Utter: “Theophilus Thistle the successful thistle sifter thrust three thousand thistles through the thick of his thumb; see that thou thrust not three thousand thistles through the thick of thy thumb.”

(e). Practice the Articulation Drill for letter "T." To Free the Lips.

7. (a). Utter decisively e, 0, ah, 00.

(b). Utter decisively bēbē, bōbō, bahbah; fēfē, fofo, fahfah; mēmē, māmō, mahmah; kwēkwē, kwõkwo, kwahkwah; vēvē, etc.; wēwē, etc.; wheewhee, etc.

To Free the Nasal Passage.

(a). With the aim of causing vibration in the upper part of the nasal chamber utter the sounds nun, neen, nane,

noon.

(b). Slide the sound “un” up and down the scale.

(c). Hum a tune, throat free, lips gently meeting. To Secure Resonance and Volume.

9. (a). Practice breathing exercises. (b). Prolong sounds e, o, ah, oo.

00 (c). Prolong sounds, syllable by syllable, in lb and 1c.

(d). Go up and down scale note by note with each sound in 7a, 1b.

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(e). Utter moo-ane, moo-een, moo-ine, moo-un, moo-ohn, up and down scale.

(f). Hum a tune, throat open, lips gently meeting. (g). Sob sounds in 4d, 6a.

(h). Practice Tone Drills Nos. 8, 10, 19, 32, 33, 34, 35, 40, 41, 61, 96, 110, 137, 152, 154, 181, 189, 194, 207. To Develop Musical Quality.

10. (a). Practice softly and with the mind upon producing sweetness of tone the Drills, Section 9, b, c, d, e, f.

C, (b). Moan sounds in 5a, 6a, 7a, 8a.

(c). Practice Tone Drills Nos. 36, 110, 136, 150, 166, 168, 181, 189, 207, 213.

BREATHING EXERCISES. 11. (a). Lying flat upon back, body relaxed, gently exhaust the air in lungs through a quill toothpick, a clay pipestem or some other article with an aperture not larger than a pin's head. Pause a second, refill lungs slowly through the nostrils. Vary the rate-fast, slow, medium.

(b). Costal Breathing.-Distend sides while inhaling through nostrils, relax gradually with slow exhalation.

(c). Chest Breathing.-Relax chest muscle; inhale and expand chest to fullest capacity. Exhale gradually.

(c). Waist Breathing.-Inhale, at same time expanding entire circle of waist.

(d). Dorsal Breathing.-Inhale as if endeavoring to thrust out the muscles of the back by the force of the air.

(e). Abdominal Breathing.Breathe deeply, forcing the abdominal muscles outward. Let them sink when expelling the breath.

(f). Full Breathing.-Inhale slowly, expanding all parts.

(g). Modes of Exhaling.Breathe out letter h (a) gently, (b) with steady force, (c) abruptly like a pistol shot.

BODILY DEVELOPMENT AND

RESPONSIVENESS

1. Effective Expression Demands Bodily Development. - Rarely does the body, untrained, express itself adequately. There is usually awkwardness in attitude or gesture and general ungainliness. These destroy harmony in expression. They invite attention to themselves and not to the thought and feeling. Plainly some method of bodily development and control must be followed that will remedy this.

2. Mental Processes an Aid to Bodily Development.Deeply feeling beauty, sublimity, grandeur and allied emotions will, in some degree, assist bodily expression. Also, all emotional expression in itself tends to render the body coordinately active.

3. The Practice of the Tone Drills with the specific purpose of bodily expression is invaluable in developing variety and ease.

4. Specific Bodily Drills a Further Aid. Besides the mental processes certain specific bodily movements are especially valuable in attaining physical responsiveness.

EXERCISES.

5. (a). Arms full length above head, thumbs, crossed, try to touch the toes without bending the knees—slow movement throughout.

(b). Bend body from waist and revolve from right to left, left to right.

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