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body that he was rash enough to contemplate be hoped from the 17th of August, if only an insulated interference with the mighty the heat can be endured till that day. If organization of English society. The truth any one mentions, what we believe is is, that no one who lives in a society adapted true, that it has been very wet over the to the needs of the tropics has the feast Atlantic, while the land has been so dried idea of the discomforts of tropical heat in up with heat; that the Shetlands have been a society modelled on quite other ideas. deluged, while even North Britain has been Fancy telling your servants that for the next parched, that it has rained hard in Italy, two months they must be up at half-past while it has been so sultry in England, listhree or four o'clock at latest, and may go teners will ask angrily what hope there is in to bed again at nine, and insisting on the that, and yet privately take comfort. But baker and the milkman adapting themselves all this catching at straws really aggravates to these new regulations! Why, you might the mischief, and makes us infinitely more just as well request them all to leave off feverish and hotter. There is almost as their clothes as leave off their habits! Their much anxiety in the eyes of the dogs and only idea of adapting themselves to the other dumb animals- cats excepted, which heat is unlimited beer, which adds more to don't object to any heat, -as there is in the internal heat than any other cause. It men. But the dumb creatures do not agis a great wonder, and a sign perhaps of gravate the evil, like rash men, by attemptslightly increased pliancy in the English na-ing insulated revolutions in habits of life ture, that so many men carry about umbrel- which it is obvious they have not the power las to screen them from the sun, -a sight to carry out, or by catching at vain sources which ten years ago was never seen in Eng- of hope. land even in the most scorching summers. But as to altering vitally the whole context of society in the way needful to utilize the cool morning hours, and for a month or two only, we are as yet very remote indeed from any such social elasticity as that.

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On the whole, the remedies practicable in England against the heat seem to reduce themselves to a few; - first of all, submission, and not conflict; then abstinence from heat-producing food, butter, fat, sugar, malt, and the like, - abstinence from the temporary delights of cold shower baths, which are apt to produce tremendous reaction, and to fever the skin in the end more than they have cooled it, except, of course, the regular morning shower bath, which is invaluable to strengthen you for the fatigue of the day; — a slightly reduced diet, plenty of tea as hot as you can drink it, as much - air even with sun, rather than shadow without it; - and for those who can afford luxuries, frequent change of clothes in the day-time, and, best of all, a reserve bed at night, with cool linen sheets, in which refuge may be taken when the first bed has become hot and crumpled with tossing; and he who cannot afford this might at least change his night shirt for a cool, fresh one, air well his bed, without too much energy of mind or body, and then lie down again; - but, above all, no voluntary restlessness, no roaming about the house in the midnight hours in moody despair; no pleading your miserable destiny to the shining and careless stars, or to the airless, sultry night. If bathe you must, warm water, not cold, is the most likely to soothe and produce rest, warm water to the feet especially being a great alleviation of fever and sleeplessness. But the most fatal thing of all in the present weather is the revolutionary temper, the attempt (which must fail) to wrestle with the arrangements of society, and effect a revolution in favour of Oriental

But besides the curiously spasmodic failures which are made in the attempt to adapt ourselves by temporary expedients to a climate which we only experience about twice in twenty or thirty years, there are other curious moral interests belonging to the present dispensation, the most curious being, perhaps, the moral straws at which feverish people catch in their desire for cool-air as can be got, ness, and the indignation with which a man who catches at one straw himself, treats the favourite straw of another. If one man ventures (very wildly) to hope for a change from the approaching total eclipse of the sun, for instance (which is not visible, by the way, in England, though that has no more to do with the matter than the eclipse itself, and nevertheless, if known, might have had something to do with the imagination of the conjecturer), his hearers will look ferociously at him as if he were raising false hopes gratuitously, and one of them, perhaps, after remarking viciously that that is above three weeks off yet, will proceed to inquire how the accident of the moon's passing so exactly between the sun and the earth as to extinguish its light from a small part of the earth for an hour or so, is to have more effect than any ordinary night, when the body of the earth itself extinguishes the sun's light on half its surface for many hours. And yet all the while there will be a faint notion that something is to

modes of life. Quietism is the mood of mind most favourable to a moderate temperature of body. Acquiesce in everything, even, if it be possible, in clothes. Surrender your will, forget your temper, avoid every sort of friction, material and moral; murmur not at any mischance; and slide through your duties, if you can, till the autumnal evenings and mornings strike cool again. The elections are not till November. There is a time for energy and a time for patience; this is the time for patience, which is the coolest of the virtues, -the raspberry vinegar of the mind. Change any unendurable situation silently and peaceably, without chafing, as you would get from your hot bed into your cool bed at night, if you could. So only, and not by moral fevers of revolution, may we live it out, till the time of tyranny be overpast.

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From The Spectator.

MATTHEW ARNOLD vs. THOMAS CARLYLE. MR. MATTHEW ARNOLD has been preaching from month to month in the Cornhill on the importance of developing the intellect in full proportion to the will, and of resisting that " Hebraizing" tendency which makes true thought of no account in comparison with earnest action; and as if on purpose to afford him a fresh text, an old letter of Mr. Carlyle's has just been published which would have furnished this great prophet of modern Hellenism with a remarkable theme for his discourse. Indeed, we can have no doubt that Mr. Arnold would have availed himself eagerly of the following characteristic little epistle, had it passed beneath his eye while he was preparing the papers on Hebraism and Hellenism for the Cornhill. It seems that a Scotchman by the name of Rodger, who made an appearance not very creditable the other day in the Court of Justiciary (at Dalkeith?), wrote to Mr. Carlyle in 1850, in a desponding spirit, to which letter Mr. Carlyle made the following reply:

"CHELSEA, November 17th, 1850.

an action, not a thought. Endeavour incessantly, with all the strength that is in you, to ascertain what-there where you are- there as you are- -you can do in this world; and upon that bend your whole faculties; regarding all reveries, feelings, singular thoughts, moods, &c., as worth nothing whatever, except as they Your thoughts, moods, &c., will thus in part bear on that, and will help you towards that. legitimate themselves, and become fruitful possessions for you; in part fall away as illegitimate, and die out of the way, and your goal will become clearer to you every step you courageously advance towards it. No man ever understood this universe; each man may understand what good and manful work it lies with him to accomplish there.

'Cheer up, there's gear to win you never saw!

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The Dalkeith Herald remarks upon this letter, not, as we think, with any great appositeness, that "it would have been well if Mr. Rodger had laid to heart the stern practical wisdom of which it is so remarkable a specimen." Now, why the sort of crime laid to Mr. Rodger's charge (the Liverpool paper from which we make this extract calls him, we know not on what evidence, "Rodger the forger,") should be supposed to have sprung out of any failure to "understand always that the end of man is an action, not a thought," it is not very easy to see. Mr. Rodger appears to have been brought before the Justiciary Court for an action, not for a thought, and we think Mr. Arnold might probably assert, with a little more plausibility than attaches to the remark of the Dalkeith Herald, that it is more likely that he went astray as he is said to have done not from having insufficiently striven to precipitate himself into action, but from his having insufficiently mastered for himself the intellectual preliminafrom not having brought ries of action;

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a sufficiently free play of consciousness to bear upon the object of pursuit," in short, from the undue subordination of thinking to doing." And indeed, it is quite conceivable that Mr. Carlyle's earnest admonition to Mr. Rodger to "endeavour incessantly with all the strength that was in him to ascertain what he could do in this world, and

"Apparently you are a young man, of unusual, perhaps of extreme sensibility, and placed at present in the unfortunate position of having nothing to do. Vague reverie, chaotic meditations, the fruitless effort to sound the unfathom- upon that bend his whole faculties," may able, is the natural result for you. Such a form have precipitated him with undue intensity of character indicates the probability of superior capabilities to work in this world; but is also, unless guided towards work, the inevitable prophecy of much suffering, disappointment, and failure in your course of life.

"Understand always that the end of man is

upon a line of action quite unsuitable for him, whence arose, not, indeed, his infractions of moral law, but undue temptations to break the moral law which he might not otherwise have incurred. Mr. Arnold will certainly think that the great Hebraiz

see clearly before we can act rightly? We can neither agree with Mr. Carlyle that "an action, not a thought, is the end of man," nor with Mr. Matthew Arnold that the chief weakness of the English nation is rushing into action before it is prepared for action, by submitting its habits and notions to a

ing prophet of our day, in Mr. Arnold's | we must act rightly before we can see sense of the term “Hebraizing”—the clearly, and those who tell us that we must prophet who more than any other has ridiculed the attempt to see things as they really are, who has made laborious earnestness of conduct the whole law and the gospel, may have overdriven many consciences into lines of action for which they were ill adapted. He may very well believe that had they been encouraged instead to let "conscious-free play of consciousness." It seems to ness play freely round the stock notion or us that neither the Hebraizer nor the Helhabit" by which their proposed career was lenizer is likely to lead us right, while they moulded, their consciences might have been go on with their endless balancings of the delivered from snares to which they have value of action against thought and of actually succumbed. Whether Mr. Rodger thought against action. No man is really be, indeed, a victim of the Carlylian dogma competent to weigh the different parts of or not, Mr. Arnold may fairly maintain that his nature, to determine, as Mr. Arnold it was not through too wide an intellectual seems to propose, which is the least develsurvey that he embarked on the policy which oped and wants development most, - and landed him in the Court of Justiciary, and then set to work to exercise the least enerexposed him to the stern rebukes of the Dal-getic, and restrain the most energetic part, keith Herald. Whether the gospel of Hel- as you would exercise a muscle that was delenism, the invitation to think more and act ficient, and leave a mighty biceps idle for a less, to beware of action till the mind is ripe time till it was in some proportion to the for it, be a remedy or not for most men, rest of the muscular system. The vice of there can be no doubt that, to most persons, this idea is that the moment you appeal to headlong actions that is, actions which go the æsthetic sense, as Mr. Arnold seems to before thought, ensure suffering. Mr. us to do, to regulate the whole character, Arnold's old college friend, Mr. Clough, you bring to the front that paralyzing selfhas warned us against a doctrine which is consciousness which cannot but give a ser perhaps the only one preached in common timental and histrionic turn to the whole atby Dr. Newman and Mr. Carlyle, the titude of the mind. Once let a man make doctrine that the will must on all great mat- self-culture his main object, and, for him, ters anticipate the intellect, that the intel-culture of the highest kind becomes imposlect grows lucid in the track of right action,sible, true harmony of nature being, like instead of action growing noble in the track true modesty, an unconscious beauty, and of wise thought. Mr. Clough says, in his spirited hexameters :

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not a conscious and deliberate result of delicate and difficult balancing operations carried on within the mind. We suspect that the true Hebraizing teaching is higher than, and includes, both what Mr. Arnold calls Hellenism and what he calls Hebraism, and weights and measures which Mr. Arnold does not compel recourse to these internal handles so skilfully, but also, as it seems to us, with such insignificant moral results. The true doctrine- the Christian doctrine

There spoke the mind in revolt against seems to us to be that while all knowlthe great doctrine of Dr. Newman and Mr. edge is good for its own sake, the knowledge Carlyle, that action is greater than thought, which grows out of right action is of a more that thought should be moulded by action. vital kind, and of a greater breadth and And Mr. Arnold in these airy ethical papers depth, than the knowledge preceding such in the Cornhill is following Mr. Clough's action which is mainly speculative and inlead, trying to hold back the eager, precipi- tellectual; that it leads us deeper into the tate English nation from so much action, life of God, and gives us a glimpse of the till it has a clearer insight into what it springs of Creation which we cannot gain would be well to aim at, to make it count from the mere contemplation of anything. the cost more patiently first, and not court" If any man will do His will, he shall the contest till it understands clearly what know of the doctrine whether it be of God, the issue is. or whether I speak of myself," is surely neither Hebraistic nor Hellenistic teaching, but the perfect combination of the two. It

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Now, how shall we decide between these opposite teachers, — those who tell us that

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does not postpone knowledge to action, nor is at present simply impossible in Ireland, action to knowledge, but assumes a certain and he would therefore have statesmen wait amount of knowledge as the basis for action and set in motion this free play of conthe knowledge of some specific demand sciousness" till it becomes possible. In the of God's will, and promises that all ac-nrean time, of course, we lose the opportution really founded on this knowledge shall nity of proving our real wish to do justice yield up more and better knowledge as the in Ireland, till we can do it in the precise result of this action. There is no attempt way most intellectually satisfying to ourhere to compel a leap in the dark, to force action in anticipation of knowledge, still less is there anything like Mr. Arnold's recommendation to see well all round you before you move at all. All it says is, 'given light enough for one action, that action shall yield more light;-given the attitude of mind so finely described by Dr. Newman,

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selves. We postpone the only pledge of sincerity and desire for equal dealing which we could give, because Ireland is not ready for the one we should like to give. Which course of the two would really lead to the greater spread of light, Mr. Arnold's of amusing ourselves with wide intellectual discussion calculated to make the Nonconformists give up their Anti-State Church and No-Popery prejudices, or the voluntary sacrifice of a Protestant badge of superiority and a genuine effort to deal fairly by the Irish Catholics in the only way in which Englishmen, as at present educated, are willing to deal? We do not doubt that the narrow No-Popery prejudices, and the narrow anti-State-Church prejudices too, will yield infinitely faster under the influence of the most genuine act of justice, - narrow if you please, but still justice, for which

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"Keep Thou my feet, I do not ask to see The distant scene,· one step enough for me," and then for the next step, this step, if taken, shall give out its own light.' But it does not ask us to take any step at all in the dark. There is nothing here opposed to Mr. Arnold's wish to bring a "free play of consciousness" to bear on the traditional principles of action, so long as he does not keep us so much fascinated by this free play of consciousness, that we forget to act di-England is at present prepared, than under rectly we see a clear ground for action. the most gigantic efforts to bring a The tendency of Mr. Arnold's teaching is to play of consciousness" to bear on narrow delay all action till we have got not only a motives, of which even a host of Matthew distinct right step or two before us, but a Arnolds would be capable. Which did wide field of clear survey round us, and most to sap anti-Catholic prejudices, the this, we maintain, is not only to obstruct act of public justice to Catholics done in right action, but to obstruct intellectual 1829, or on the books which have brought sight. a "free play of consciousness" to bear on Catholicism? Even Mr. Arnold, we think, will say the former. And so, too, as to primogeniture. Mr. Arnold despises the imbecility of so poor an act as the abolition of the law ruling the demise of real estate in the case of intestacy. He thinks intellectual discussion freely brought to bear on aristocratic settlements on eldest sons an infinitely stronger weapon. We do not believe it. The least action which is in itself just has a far greater power of clearing the intellect than a world of discussion. this action would be just, though Mr. Arnold tries to confuse the matter by saying that it assumes a false and fanciful"right of children to be treated equally. It does not assume this at all. It only says, in the absence of any better means of judging such as parents have, in default of any decision of theirs, -we have no reason to assume that one child will profit more or less by the property than any other. And though we may be superstitious, we do believe that this little modicum of equitable action, on the part of the English Legislature, would do

Mr. Arnold in this last paper gives illustrations of his meaning which seem to us to prove this weakness. He reproaches the Liberals for two weaknesses, yielding to the cry against the Irish Church before they could carry out their own statesmen's higher idea of "concurrent endowments; - and yielding to the cry against the law of primogeniture, and in favour of equal division in case of intestacy, where right reason asserts that all the notions of children's rights either to equal division, or any other special division of property, should be exploded, and each case decided on its own merits. Now, we submit that in both these cases Mr. Arnold is forgetting, in his scorn for a narrow practical conception, the law that a single practical step, taken in the light, will produce more light for the future than any amount of pains in bringing a free play of consciousness" to bear on the ultimate conditions of the question. Even admitting, which is not certain, that the plan of universal endowment is natural and wise, Mr. Arnold yet seems to concede that it

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more to clear the cloudy British brain, than paniment of her station. Then if she wants the "free play of consciousness," even when wielded by a Matthew Arnold. On the whole, while agreeing heartily with Mr. Arnold that we need a wider and fuller appreciation of intellectual knowledge, we believe also that he has quite failed fairly to estimate the peculiar and infinitely deeper spell of the sort of knowledge which springs from right action, however narrow. The knowledge which grows out of action is a sort of knowledge with deeper roots and infinitely more various suckers than the knowledge which grows out of " a free play of consciousness,' and Mr. Arnold does not seem to us to catch its significance or the cause of it. If Mr. Carlyle makes an idol of action apart from knowledge, Mr. Arnold makes an idol of knowledge apart from action; and both seem to us to miss the vital relation between the two.

From The London Review.
PATHETIC TOYS.

THERE are few sights more capable of bringing out a sentimental gush of thought than a glance into a shop in which toys are sold for the very poor. These establishments are to be found in low neighbourhoods, and generally do not confine their commercial operations to a single branch 'of business. You see in the window, next the wooden dolls, green bottles of sweet stuff, boxes of matches, candles, twine, and often a small pile of apples or some other cheap fruit; inside will be found those tales and songs written for what Mr. Trollope has termed the unknown public, along with whistles, jews'-harps, and a few masks of a hideous kind, which are supposed to be especially attractive to the youthful mind.

To children toys are as necessary as fresh air and exercise. The little creatures when learning to talk appear to have a certain consciousness that grown-up people either laugh at them, or do not understand them; with a toy, however, they can be at once familiar and at home. Jack-in-the-box is always ready to play with them, a doll never refuses her company, will submit to any amount of kissing, beating, or dressing, and, as long as the wax, cotton and bran keep together, will amuse her owner and remain faithful.

to trick it out she has not the piquant trouble of hunting for bits of ribbon, of gauze, or of tinsel. Then again her doll is horribly mechanical, and allows but small room for fancy. It may squeak and open and shut its eyes, thereby preventing its proprietress from doing the conversation herself. But the meagre, starved present which the workman brings to his cottage or lodgings is differently cherished. It has twice as fine a life. Its mistress never ceases prattling to it, will search and ransack every corner for the dingy shreds of cotton that are to render the effigy magnificent in her eyes. Then it is not subject to the whims which fine ladies take to their favourite even in their tenderest years. It is petted with a constant affection until grime or accident obliterates its features, and in the end it is seldom subjected to a toasting at the bars of a grate - an experiment which has been known to tell unfavourably on the countenance of a wax figure. Poor children must indeed have a good deal of imagination to enjoy the queer things constructed for a penny or twopence to please them.

We have referred to Jack-in-the-box. Jack can be bought at a very low price or a very high one, but the poor child gets better value out of him for the money than any toy we know of, except the doll. The entertainment he furnishes both at St. Giles's and St. James's is identical. He lives, as all the world knows, in a constant state of compression, from which he is released by opening a wire hasp. He always surprises you; that is his fun, and the one joke for which he has been made. His ferocity to a little boy is something awfully delicious. He has him securely fastened down, and that gives him a certain sense of power. It is a long time before he disbelieves in Jack's whiskers and the energy of that spring of his. We have heard that the first doubts on the subject arise when a boy begins to think of Jack's legs, Jack possessing a quaint organization in that respect. However, this toy is as democratic as the jewellery imported by Mr. Cole from the Paris Exhibition- indeed, of the two, we should prefer the cheap Jack; he is generally of fiercer aspect than his more aristocratic prototype, and the steel in him is stronger and stiffer. This may arise from some law of compensation not yet quite de

But it is curious to note the difference between a poor and a rich child in the treat-veloped. ment and management of dolls. To the child lady the doll is a familiar presence. It has not the charm of novelty or unexpectedness; she regards it as an accom

Another favourite toy which is found in low as well as in high places is Noah's Ark. It would be interesting to learn who first invented this. We suspect it must have

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