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went into that unhappy struggle. The result was that 250,000 men died or were killed in the course of that conflict, and that hundreds of millions of treasure created by the nations engaged were squandered—that the armaments all over Europe and in this country have been maintained at a higher rate ever since—that we in this country have found our military armaments increasing by 10,000,000l. a year, and 10,000,000l. in twenty years comes to 200,000,000l., besides that sum spent in the war itself.

And after all this, we find that there is still a great Eastern question—that Russia is stronger than ever, for Russia has manumitted her serfs, and that Turkey is not stronger but weaker from the efforts made to save her.' Mr. Bright concluded : —“The century in which we live-and the middle of which we have passed-is a century remarkable for its changes; and I have no doubt whatever that it will be so regarded in future times. There is a great battle going on at this moment, and without exaggeration one may say that it is a battle with confused noise, although it is not a battle like that which the prophet described, 'with garments rolled in blood.' But there is a confused noise throughout the country from John o' Groat's to Land's End; all over Great Britain and over Ireland men are discussing great questions-questions which are to affect the unity of the empire, our own condition, the condition of the posterity that are to follow us, and to affect all the narratives of the future historians of this kingdom. Well, I say, then, let us in this battle, and in these discussions, bear our part ; let us avoid heat of passion as much as we can ; let us strip from all these questions that which does not belong to them ; let us grasp with all our might the pith and kernel of them ; and let us honestly endeavour to find a true solution for whatever difficulties beset the nation.” (Applause.)

3.-A cable telegram announces that General Grant had been elected President, and S. Colfax Vice-President, of the United States.

Sir James Fergusson entertained at a banquet in Willis's Rooms previous to taking his departure for South Australia.

4.-Diet opened by the King of Prussia, who stated that his relations with foreign Powers were in every respect satisfactory and friendly. He also expressed his good wishes for the “future prosperity and power" of the Spanish nation, and concluded by remarking that “the sentiments of the sovereigns of Europe, and the national desire for peace, give ground for trusting that the advancing development of the general welfare will not only suffer no material disturbance, but will also be freed from those obstructing and paralysing effects which have only too often been created by groundless fears, taken advantage of by the enemies of peace and public order."

5.--Mr. Bright elected an honorary member of the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce,

making a speech on the occasion, in which he recommended his hearers to press for a “Free Breakfast Table," or an abolition of the duties on tea, coffee, and sugar. He was presented with a congratulatory address in the Corn Ex. change in the evening, and again spoke at length on the questions of taxation, retrenchment, and education. He had no notion of calling a country happy and prosperous when pauperism was increasing to the extent it was doing here. You may have an ancient monarchy, with the dazzling glitter of the sovereign ; and you may have an ancient nobility, with grand mansions and parks, and great estates; and you may have an ecclesias. tical hierarchy, covering with worldly pomp that religion whose virtue is humility ; but, notwithstanding all this, the whole fabric is rotten, and doomed ultimately to fall; for the great mass of the people by whom it is supported is poor, and suffering, and degraded."

6.-The Archbishop of York opens the session of the Edinburgh Philosophical Institu. tion with an address on the present condition of philosophy

The new French ambassador to Rome, the Marquis de Bonneville, received by the Pope, who expressed the most cordial sentiments towards the Emperor and France.

9.-At the Lord Mayor's banquet to-night, the principal interest centred in the speeches of Mr. Reverdy Johnson and the Premier. Referring to the differences between this country and America, the former said they were now ended. How that end has been brought about I forbear to say, except that it has been brought about without touching in the slightest degree the rights or the honour of either nation. (Cheers.) From 1846 to the present time, from one cause or other, there were clouds which alarmed the people of both countries. We have removed those clouds, and leave both nations in an undimmed sun. shine of peace.”—Mr. Disraeli, noticing the rival jealousies of France and Prussia, thought that Lord Stanley, who had so successfully terminated the difference in the severe, longenduring misunderstanding with America, “can do nothing better than confer with the other great Powers of Europe, and step in between these two great countries, animated, as I believe they are, by no aggressive feeling, but occupying the position which they do from peculiar causes, which could not have been anticipated, and which seldom or ever occurred before. I say that with the wise and generous mediation of the other equal Powers of Europe I have myself the conviction that as happy a termination will be brought to this misunderstanding as has been brought to the misconceptions which existed between the United States and ourselves—(cheers)—and I hope that when this day next year I have the honour of responding to the toast of her Majesty's Government --(great laughter and cheers) —I may be permitted, my Lord Mayor, to remind you of these observations, and that the ambassadors of

France and Prussia may make similar observations to those which have fallen from my hon. friend the minister for the United States."

9.-Died at his London residence, aged 26, the Marquis of Hastings, celebrated in the sporting world for the extent of his bets and their unsuccessful result. In the absence of male issue the marquisate became extinct.

The Court of Common Pleas gives judgment in the case of Miss Becker, which involved the right of women to exercise the suffrage. The judges all agreed that there was not sufficient evidence for saying that by the common law women had a right to vote for members of Parliament, while on the other hand there was the uninterrupted practice of centuries to show that women had not so voted. The Lord Chief Justice thought the term “men” in the Act did not include women; and even if it did, then women would come within the term "incapacitated.”

Sentence passed at Belgrade on the rest of the prisoners accused of complicity in the murder of Prince Michael. Maistrovich, in accordance with the demand of the public prosecutor, was condemned to death, three to five years' imprisonment, and three others were acquitted.

10.-Some disappointment was experienced by a statement in the newspapers this evening, that Mr. Reverdy Johnson's announcement concerning the settlement of the differences between this country and America did not mean that they were absolutely disposed of, but only that such arrangements for their settlement had been made as would transfer them from the sphere of political negotiation to the arbitrament of a disinterested and decisive tribunal. The Times remarked, apparently upon authority, that the questions between England and America arising out of the war are to be referred to a mixed commission ; that the question of the liability of England for the depredations of the Alabama is to be referred to

a European sovereign of the first class," de. scribed in such a way as to suggest that the person meant was the King of Prussia ; that the question whether the recognition of the Confederates was right or wrong is to be left to remain as it is, each party retaining its own opinion as to the justice, friendliness, and necessity of the course pursued ; that the question as to the maintenance of the maxim

Nemo potest exire patriam " is to be dealt with by legislation; and that the dispute about San Juan is to be referred to the President of the Swiss Confederation.

Spanish electoral law promulgated : every citizen of twenty-five years, who was not deprived of his political rights, entitled to vote ; the voting to be by provinces ; and the number of deputies to the Cortes to be 350.

- The French Avenir National, Tribune, and several provincial newspapers seized for publishing a list of subscriptions for the purpose of erecting a monument in the cemetery

of Montmartre to M. Baudin, a representa. tive of the people, who was killed during the coup d'état in 1851 (see p. 216). The Govern. ment alleged that the publication of these subscription lists was an attempt to disturb the public peace.

The aged Legitimist, M. Berryer, wrote :-“On the 2d of December, 1851, I proposed and obtained from the National Assembly, united at the Mairie of the oth Arrondissement, a decree declaring the dismissal and outlawry of the President of the Republic, inviting citizens to resistance against the violation of the law of which the President was guilty. This decree was made as public as possible in Paris. My colleague, M. Baudin, energetically obeyed the orders of the Assembly; he fell a victim to them, and I feel myself obliged to take part in the subscription which has been opened for the erection of an expiatory monument over his tomb."

10.-Convention signed between England and the United States for the settlement of outstanding claims. The fourth article was in these words :-" The Commissioners shall have power to adjudicate upon the class of claims referred to in the official correspondence between the two Governments as the 'Alabama claims ;' but before any of such claims are taken into consideration by them, the two high contracting parties shall fix upon some sovereign or head of a friendly State as arbitrator in respect of such claims, to whom such class of claims shall be referred in case the Commis. sioners shall be unable to come to a unanimous decision upon the same."

Addressing a meeting of gun manufacturers in Birmingham on the question of national expenditure, Mr. Bright recommended that the framing of the estimates should be taken out of the hands of the Horse Guards, the Admiralty, and the Cabinet, and placed under the control of a Committee of the House of Commons.

Agitation among the undergraduates at Cambridge to improve the college dinners. The subject was discussed to-day in the Union, and a resolution carried, by 223 to 17, that the present system was execrable, and no permanent improvement possible until irresponsible cooks were made college servants.

11.-Committee formed in London for the protection of holders of foreign bonds, 400,000,000l. worth of which were said by Mr. Göschen to be negotiated in the City.

A supplement to the Gazette contains a proclamation for dissolving the present Parlia. ment and ordering the writs for a new one to be returnable on the roth December next. The election excitement, which had been raging in many places for months, was now greatly heightened, and dwarfed all other matters of domestic interest. Probably the widest and keenest interest was felt in the Westminster and South-West Lancashire contests; the former centring in Mr. J. S. Mill, and the latter in Mr. Gladstone, Lccal excitement appeared

to be most violent at Newport and at Blackburn, where the Protestant lecturer Murphy had succeeded in rousing the polemical feelings of the people. A troop of cavalry and an infantry company were despatched thither on the 12th.

12.-Excitement at Paris caused by the Premier's suggestion at the Mansion House banquet that the Foreign Secretary should interfere between France and Prussia.

Imperial ukase issued at St. Petersburg, ordering a conscription of four persons in every thousand throughout the empire.

13.-Addressing his constituents at King's Lynn, Lord Stanley said that every month which had passed since the Reform Bill became law has lessened the anxiety felt, and confirmed him in the judgment that the Government had acted quite right. If causes of quarrel could be avoided for a year or two, he thought that mere weariness or exhaustion would bring about at least a partial disarmament. Trouble, he said, was gathering in the East. “It may come too quickly, or it may be deferred for years, but come it probably will. Now, that is a state of things to which we ought not to shut our eyes. Fifteen years ago, we refused to see in time what was then obviously impending ; and the result was that, to everybody's dissatisfaction, we drifted—it was a very happy phraseinto the Crimean war. I do not think that the dangers which threaten the Turkish empire arise from the same source now as then. It is rather internal than external peril by which that empire is threatened. No foreign alliances, no European guarantee, can protect a Government against financial collapse, or against rebellion in its own provinces. In those matters every country must be left to work out its own destiny. Greece, that little State about which our grandfathers were so enthusiastic, and which we in the present day are rather too much inclined to depreciate-Greece might be the model State of the East, and exercise on the Christian race an almost incalculable influence is, instead of indulging in vain dreams of aggrandisement, they would make their internal government more worthy of a civilized country, and of the destinies which I believe to be before them."

14.-The Tribunal of the Correctional Police of the Seine gives judgment in the case of the journalists prosecuted for publishing a list of subscriptions to the Baudin Monument, and of others who had taken part in a demonstration at his grave.

They were fined in sums varying from 2,000 f. to 650 f., with the alternative of imprisonment from one month to six.

15.-Died at Passy, near Paris, aged 76, Giacchimo Rossini, the most popular composer of Italian lyric drama in the present century.

16.–Numerous borough and city nominations throughout England. In most places

where a poll was demanded the voting took place the following day. London returned three Liberals and one Conservative, Baron Rothschild being among the defeated ; Westminster one Liberal and one Conservative -Mr. W. H. Smith polling about 1,500 votes over his opponent, Mr. J. S. Mill. It was also noticed that the most of those who bad little else than Mr. Mill's recommendation to commend them to a constituency failed in their contests; the most prominent instances, probably, being Mr. Beales at the Tower Hamilets, Mr. Bradlaugh at Northampton, Mr. Odgers at Chelsea, and Mr. Chadwick at Kilmarnock. There was no contest at the Universities, Mr. Mowbray taking the place of Mr. Heathcote at Oxford, and Mr. Walpole and Mr. Hope being re-elected for Cambridge. Mr. Lowe was elected the first member for London University without opposition. As the prospects of Mr. Gladstone in South-west Lancashire were at least doubtful, he was put up for Greenwich and carried along with Mr. Alderman Salomons by about 1,700 over his highest Conservative opponent. At Exeter the Solicitor-General was rejected in favour of Mr. J. D. Coleridge. In Leeds and Manchester the minority clause permitted the Conservatives to secure seats ; but in Glasgow and Birmingham, where it also prevailed, they were defeated. Mr. Roebuck lost his seat at Sheffield, Mr. Osborne at Nottingham, Mr. Horsman at Falkirk, Mr. H. A. Bruce at Merthyr-Tydvil, Lord Amberley at South Devon, Mr. Milner Gibson at Ashton, and Sir G. Bowyer at Dun. dalk. A personal dispute between the two Liberal candidates for Middlesex-Lord Enfield and Mr. Labouchere-permitted the Conservatives to carry Lord George F. Hamilton.

16.-It is now announced with confidence that Dr. Tait, Bishop of London, is to be promoted to the See of Canterbury.

17.-Election riot at Cambridge, resulting in the death of a porter belonging to Christ's College.

19.-Salnave repulsed in an attack on the Haytian fortress of Jacmel, and 300 of his followers reported as killed.

Nomination day for Bucks. The Premier, addressing his constituents at Aylesbury, claimed credit for passing the Reform Bill, praised Lord Stanley, and deprecated the haste of Mr. Gladstone in bringing the Irish Church to the front when the Ministry were prepared to bow to the decision of the country. He repeated that when_they succeeded to office the relations of England to foreign countries were full of courtesy rather than confidence. He did not blame Lord Clarendon, who had been Foreign Secretary only a few months. “We were viewed with suspicion and distrust, and that suspicion and distrust were occasioned by the management of our affairs by Earl Russell in Denmark, in Germany, in Russia-by the line which he took with re. ference to Denmark, to Germany, and to

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Poland. The consequence was that he had because I may sit somewhere else. They say estranged this country. It required a great that I had better go away--(cries of “No, no”) deal to do it, but he dil it.” Fenianism the --from the place where I was born, from the Premier traced to a foreign origin. “In America, place where I was bred, from the place where where a great many military men were Irish my family have been for ninety years, and and the Irish are a valorous and adventurous where they still pursue the honourable compeople-they had acquired great skill an! merce of this country. You may just as well, experience, and they knew that in Ireland in my opinion, say, 'I will turn a man out of there is always a degree of morbid discontent his proper house because somebody else will which they believed they might fan into flame, have the charity to take him in as a beggar and and which might lead to the revolutionary a vagrant.' I don't, gentlemen, desire to be a result they desired. The whole nature of the Parliamentary vagrant. My ambition is not race will account for it. An Irishman is an merely to have a seat in Parliament, but to imaginative being. He lives on an island in a have that seat which you are going to give me. damp climate, and contiguous to the melancholy (Cheers.) I agree with my friends who have

He has no variety of pursuit. There warned me that time is flying, and I will ask is no nation in the world that leads so you to listen to me no longer than while I say monotonous a life as the Irish, because their this. My wishes and desires have been true to only occupation is the cultivation of the soil you, as the needle to the pole. I have not before them. These men are discontented be spoken a word, I have not drawn a scratch of cause they are not amused. The Irishman, the pen, to obtain any other seat in Parliament in other countries where he has a fair field for than yours. (Cheers.) And now the question his talents in various occupations, is equal, if for you, gentlemen, is, when the voice of the not superior, to most races; and it is not the nation sounds in your ears, and speaks in fault of the Government that there is not that accents which not even Mr. Turner or Mr. variety of occupation in Ireland. I may say Cross can misunderstand-for I know that Mr. with frankness that I think it is the fault of the Cross will not deny that the battle of this Irish. If they led that kind of life which election is already fought and won throughout would invite the introduction of capital into the country—(cheers) – I ask you, therefore, the country, all this ability might be utilized ; gentlemen, not to separate yourselves from the and instead of those feelings which they acquire body of the nation. (Great cheering.) You by brooding over the history of their country, are part of


You are a great part of which is merely traditionary, great ; but England is greater. (Renewed you would find men acquiring fortunes, and cheering.) With England Scotland joins, and arriving at conclusions on politics entirely dis

with Scotland Ireland-(cheers)--for in Ireland, ferent from those which they now offer.” The too, many of the Protestants in the north-(loud Premier was elected without opposition, along cheering, and great interruption)—we know with Mr. Dupre and Mr. Lambert, both sup by the news of to-day that for the Tory town porters of his Government.

of Belfast--(cheers)—and the yet more Tory

town of Londonderry--(renewed cheering) 19. - Judgment given in the Court of Com

a Liberal candidate is returned. (Great cheers.) mon Pleas in favour of the legality of the

Voices, gentlemen, are to be weighed as well meetings known as “Sunday Evenings for the

as counted; and of you I ask, with the fullest People.

confidence that you will accept, seal, and grant 20.--Mr. Burlingame (American) and his the request, that I may have not merely a seat colleagues of the Chinese embassy are presented in Parliament, but that I may be permitted and to the Queen by Lord Stanley, and deliver their enabled to speak the words of truth and justice credentials. An arrangement was afterwards in the House of Commons in the name and made with Lord Clarendon for having disputes with the authority of the men of South-west between the two countries referred to the Lancashire.” The polling took place on the supreme Government of each.

24th, and resulted in the defeat of the Oppo- The Lord Justice-General (Inglis) elected

sition leader by 260 votes. He thereupon Chancellor of Edinburgh University

issued an address to his supporters, and another office rendered vacant by the death of Lord

to the electors of Greenwich thanking them for Brougham- by 210 votes over Mr. Gladstone,

their “unparalleled kindness.” the polling being 1,730 against 1,570.

23.--The literature of the Irish Church

question receives an addition to-day by the 21.-Nomination day for South-west Lan publication of the pamphlet "A Chapter of cashire. Mr. Gladstone spoke amid consider Autobiography," by Mr. Gladstone. able interruption on the question of Reform, time,” he said in the Introduction, “when the economy, and the Irish Church, and sought to Established Church of Ireland is on her trial, show that the position he had taken up with it is not unfair that her assailants should be regard to the whole of them entitled him to ask placed on their trial too : most of all, if they with confidence that the constituency he was have at one time been her sanguine defenders. addressing would again return him to Pailia- ! But if not, the matter of the indictment against

“Some persons have said that you them, at any rate that of their desence, should need not return me for South-west Lancashire

be kept apart, as far as they are concernell,




from the public controversy, that it may not but two afterwards swam to No. 5; in No. 2, darken or perplex the greater issue. It is in also 33; in No. 3 there were 28; and Nos. 5 the character of the author of a book called and 6 had each 21. The weather at the "The State in its Relations with the Church' time of launching was a little rough, but all that I offer these pages to those who rnay feel were let down in order, quietness, and safety, a disposition to examine them. They were delicate ladies entering the boats without a written at the date attached to them, but their murmur, carrying children happily insensible publication has been delayed until after the to the perils they had to encounter. A little stress of the general elections."

provision and water was allowed to each boat,

and all pushed off from the sinking ship with 24.-The two Italian soldiers Monti and

the wish to keep as close together in the track Tognetti executed at Rome for their participation in the attack on the Serristori barracks in

of vessels as possible. This design was frus

trated by the weather. The boats got sepaOctober 1867. The event caused considerable

rated in the gale, and the chief mate's, in excitement at Florence, and in the Chamber of Deputies next day Signor Curti asked the

which a mast and sail had been fitted up, Government what course they intended to take

was observed to capsize with all on board after this fresh defiance by the Papacy to Italy.

thirty-three in number. The captain's boat, General Menabrea said that he did not disguise

thought to be the heaviest loaded, was picked the political significance of the unjustifiable

up about seven P. M. by the Star of Hope act of the Pontifical Government, which the

(Captain Talbot), bound from Quebec to Aber. Italian Government made every possible effort

deen. About midnight the boatswain's boat

was also picked up with all on board safe ; but to avert, but deprecated discussion as inexpedient. General Bixio and others spoke warmly

though the Star of Hope remained many hours

in the neighbourhood of the wreck, no trace in favour of a vigorous and decided policy in

could be obtained of those still missing. Of respect to the Papacy and French intervention in

No. 2, described as being extra well furnished, Roine, and ultimately the following motion was adopted by 147 to 119 votes :-“The Chamber

no intelligence could be ascertained. Boat fully concurring in the censure passed by the

No. 3, under the charge of Davies, was assoGovernment upon the acts of the Papacy, passes

ciated with a series of calamities and privato the order of the day.'

tions unparalleled in even the gloomy annals

of seafaring disaster. As both water and proThe Italian Chamber re-assembles.

visions were limited, the supply for the twentyThere was no speech from the Throne.

eight on board was fixed at the lowest mini- The Croatian deputies appear for the first

mum capable of sustaining existence. The time in the Hungarian Diet, and were warmly

orders of Davies were implicitly obeyed by all received. The magnates took their seats in

who had sense to follow them. A few, madthe Upper House next day.

dened by drinking salt water, were from time

to time bound to the bottom of the boat ; two 25.-In the case of Wason v. Walter (of

others, to escape the horror of the privations, the Times), involving the right of a newspaper committed suicide while in a state of delirium; to publish a report of a debate in the House of

and four among them, a mother and child, died Lords, in which statements were made of a de

from exhaustion and exposure. For an entire famatory character, the Queen's Bench give

week, and without anything to vary the judgment in favour of the defendant.

monotony of their sufferings, the miserable Wreck of the Hibernia steam-ship, ten survivors strove to reach the Irish shore. days from New York to Glasgow, and about On the evening of the eighth day from the 700 miles off the Irish coast. The previous wreck, a wave struck the already disabled day, during a heavy gale, the screw shaft boat, when the bulk of those on board, moving broke in the steam-pipe, and the screw itself in one helpless mass, caused her to capsize, became a kind of battering ram by which and all were thrown into the sea. Nineteen the stern quarter of the ship was completely perished here. Three of those who came to the opened up. Although the pumps were used surface-Davies himself, with Quartermaster with great assiduity, and attempts made Blair, and Reilly, a common seaman, con: to lighten her by throwing cargo overboard, trived to get hold of the boat while riding keel the water gained so rapidly that Captain upwards, clambered up the sides, and sat on Munro, who behaved throughout with great the keel for an hour, till a wave again capsized coolness and intrepidity, ordered the boats to her, and all three were once more thrown into be got ready about four A.M. They were five the sea. They again came up together, held in number, three lifeboats and two quarter on till the boat righted, and, bruised and exboats. Of that described as No. 1 the hausted as they were, again made for the coast. captain took the command himself, though he After two days of indescribable agony, they was the last to leave the vessel. No. 2 was sighted Tory Lighthouse on Sunday evening, commanded by the first officer ; No. 3 by the but had to keep out again that night, as the second officer (Davies) ; (No. 4 had been de sea was running dangerously high. They stroyed a few days previously ;) No. 5 by the made land next day, and ran the boat ashore third officer ; and No. 6 by the boatswain. In at a well-selected point on Fannet shore, boat No I there were originally 33 persons, Donegal. They were noticed by a few fisher:

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