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III., and Prince Albert as Edward III. him. self. The costumes of those in her Majesty's own circle belonged mostly to this era.
The Duchess of Cambridge was received in state as Anne of Brittany at the head of her Court. Dancing was engaged in for some hours. At one o'clock the Lord Steward conducted her Majesty and the Prince to supper, which was served amid a blaze of splendour from costly salvers, vases, tankards, and jewelled cups. After supper the Queen danced a quadrille with Prince George of Cambridge, their visà-vis being the Duchess of Buccleuch and the Duke of Beaufort. Her Majesty left the ballroom at half-past two. The tent of Tippoo Sultan was erected within the Corinthian portico adjoining the Green Drawing-room, and used as a refreshment-room.
14.-Trial of Daniel Good at the Central Criminal Court, before the Lord Chief Justice, Baron Alderson, and Justice Coltman. (See April 6.) His reputed wife, Mary Good, was also charged as being an accessory after the fact. They both pleaded not guilty. The trial of Daniel Good was proceeded with separately, and lasted till 8 o'clock P.M., when the jury brought in a verdict of guilty. The Chief Justice then passed sentence of death, after which Good made a rambling statement to the effect that a witness, Susan Butcher, produced on the trial was the cause of the whole, the woman Jones having committed suicide in the stable through jealousy of his connexion with that person. The body, he said, was cut up and partially burned by a stranger, who offered to do it for a sovereign. He concluded his address, “Good night all, ladies and gentlemen ; I have a great deal more to say, but I am so bad I cannot say it." He was then removed. The woman Mary, or Moll Good, was dismissed.
23.- In the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland the Rev. Mr. Cunningham moves that “The Assembly having considered the overtures on patronage, resolve and declare that patronage is a grievance attended with injury to the cause of pure religion in this Church and kingdom, is the source of all the difficulties in which the Church is now involved, and therefore ought to be abolished.” An amendment to the effect that it was inexpedient in the present circumstances to adopt the motion was proposed by the Procurator. The debate lasted till 2 A.M. next morning, when a division took place; 216 voting for the motion, and 147 for the amendment. On the 27th a majority in the Assembly deposed Clerk of Lethendy, and Livingstone of Cambusnethan, for resisting decrees of presbyteries ; Duguid, of Glass, was declared to have forfeited his licence, on account of accepting induction at the hands of deposed ministers; and Mr. Middleton was rejected as the presentee to Culsalmond, on the ground of having violated the Veto Act. Next day Captain E. Dal. rymple gave rise to a bitter personal discussion,
by charging Mr. Cunningham with having had his veracity impugned in the newspapers--a crime, he said, worse than any for which the ministers were deposed, and giving him good reason to object to Mr. Cunningham's commission. The Captain was ultimately induced to retract his expression. , On the 30th the Assembly, taking into consideration the solemn circumstances in which the Church was placed, resolved and agreed on the famous Claim, Declaration, and Protest, which henceforward became a basis for the proceedings of the majority. It was forwarded with an address to the Queen, signed by the Moderator.
Execution of Daniel Good for the Roe. hampton murder. He died affirming his innocence in the face of a yelling, tumultuous mob.
26.--Grand ball in her Majesty's Theatre for the benefit of the Spitalfield weavers. Her Majesty was present with a brilliant circle.
The British forces defeat the Boers at Port Natal, and occupy the place.
30.-John Francis attempts to shoot the Queen. Colonel Arbuthnot, one of the Equerries, said “At the time, between six and seven o'clock, we were coming down Constitutionhill. When about half-way down I observed the prisoner, and on the carriage reaching him he took a pistol from his side and fired it in the direction of the Queen. He was not above seven feet from the carriage, which by instruction was proceeding at a rapid rate then; he should say twelve or thirteen miles an hour." The Queen exhibited her usual calm demeanour under the outrage. Francis was seized instantly by private Allen of the Fusilier Guards and police-constable Trower, who was attempting to dash the pistol out of his hand when the shot was fired. He was taken to the lodge adjoining the palace, where he was searched, and a ball, with a little powder and the still warm pistol, were taken from his person. Francis preserved a dogged silence regarding his motive, and refused to give any explanation about his antecedents ; but it was soon ascertained that he was the son of a machinist in Drury-lane Theatre, and had for some months been out of employment. He was examined in the first instance before the Privy Council, and then committed to Newgate. Her Majesty attended the Italian Opera in the evening, and received an enthusiastic welcome. Congratulatory addresses were voted next day by both Houses of Parliament, and many were afterwards forwarded by corporate bodies throughout the kingdom.
June 1.-Ann Friesdale, a young woman of remarkable beauty, found drowned in the Regent's Canal, supposed to have been thrown in.
3.-In Glasgow large masses of the unemployed muster on the Green, and having formed themselves into marching order, commence a begging tour through the city.
4.-Explosion at Apothecaries' Hall, caused by the bursting of a bomb-shell, on which Mr. Hennell, the principal analyser, was operating. He was blown to atoms, and everything in that part of the building destroyed.
- Royal proclamation issued regarding light sovereigns and half-sovereigns in circulation.
-- Disturbance at Chatham, between the seamen belonging to certain colliers in the Medway and the soldiers of the 26th Foot, then in garrison. Several officers belonging to the regiment were seriously abused.
6.-Lord Congleton commits suicide, by hanging himself from the bed post with a neckerchief.
7.-Lord Ashley obtains leave to bring in a bill for restricting the employment of women and children in mines and factories. In the course of his speech he made a powerful use of the revolting facts brought to light by the special commission appointed to inquire into this subject.
11.-Provision riots in Ireland. At Ennis the mob seized a boat being loaded with meal and flour for Kilrush, and took possession of the whole cargo. Towards evening the disorder in the town greatly increased, and the police fired among the mob, when two were killed and several wounded. In Cork an attack was made on the potato market, but the mob failed to force an entrance.
12.-Died, after a few hours' illness, of heart disease, the Rev. Thomas Arnold, D.D., Head Master of Rugby School.
13.-In the House of Lords the judges decide the case of Lady Hewley's Charity in favour of Trinitarian Protestant Dissenters, and against the claims made by Unitarians to participate therein.
14.–Lord Campbell brings under the notice of the House of Lords the case of police-constable Simpson, whose evidence had been rejected on a trial at Stirling, on the ground that he lay under suspicion of being an Atheist. After an explanation by the Lord Chancellor. the motion for the production of papers was withdrawn.
15.-A female monster in Liverpool mutilates the body of her new-born infant by cutting off its head, legs, and arms with a pair of scissors.
Commencement of a series of highway robberies in the neighbourhood of Bristol by a gang of armed ruffians.
17.-Mr. Fox Maule presents a petition from the non-intrusive party in the Scotch Church, but Sir Robert Peel explains that Government had given up all intention of interfering in the dispute at this time.
– Trial of Francis at the Central Criminal Court for attempting to shoot the Queen. He was found guilty, and sentenced to death.
On the conclusion of Chief Justice Tindal's address he fell insensible into the arms of one of the turnkeys, and in that state was carried out of the court. The sentence was afterwards commuted to transportation for life.
23.--A band of English colonists, on attempting to take possession of land at Cloudly Bay, Wairoo, sold to them by the New Zealand Company, are set upon by natives, and nineteen of them killed.
Tried in the Court of Common Pleas the action raised by Mr. Macready, late lessee of Drury-lane, against Mr.Harmer, of the Despatch, for articles of criticism in that journal affecting his moral character. Verdict for the plaintiff, damages 51.
24.—Royal proclamation, announcing the issue of half-farthings, but no one to be compelled to take more in payment than the value of one sixpence.
25.—The Marquis and Marchioness of Waterford thrown out of a carriage when driving through their grounds. The Marquis escaped unhurt, but her ladyship was severely cut and bruised.
27.-Cook's circus, on Glasgow-green, destroyed by fire, originating in an escape of gas.
The horses were got out, but portions of the properties were destroyed. Occurring at an early hour of the evening, there were only a few people in the gallery, and they escaped without injury.
30.-Destructive fire in Bermondsey, the damage to property being estimated at 100,000!.
July 2.- Food riot in Dumfries, and the shops of various mealmongers on each side of the Nith plundered.
3.- A deformed youth, named Bean, levels a pistol at her Majesty when passing from Buckingham Palace to the Chapel Royal, St. James's. He was committed to trial for misdemeanour, the capital charge being abandoned. The pistol was loaded, but it did not
Bean was not caught at the time—a circumstance which led to the apprehension of a large number of hump-backed people in the metropolis.
4.-Execution of Cooper for the murder of Constable Daly at Highbury.
5. - In the House of Commons Lord Worsley draws the attention of the Secretaryat-War to the reports regarding certain disrespectful words said to have been used by Colonel Henry Dundas when speaking of the Queen. Sir H. Hardinge stated, in reply, that the Colonel having failed to absolve himself from the grave offence, was now dismissed from the position of Aide-de-Camp to the Queen, and placed on the half-pay list.
9.-A body of Anti-Corn Law delegates, numbering 144, obtain an interview with Sir Robert Peel on the subject of their grievance ;
“If any one,
but the Premier refuses to give them any pledge and children drowning themselves in a small as to his future conduct.
pond the day after the fight." The first man 11.-Mr. Villiers' motion, that the House
who reached the top of the battlement was resolve itself into a committee to consider the
Lieut. Cuddy, of the 55th, who planted the laws relating to the importation of corn, lost
English ensign on the walls, under the fire on a division by 117 to 231.
of the enemy, and then coolly assisted the
foremost of his party up the scaling-ladder. 12.- Sir Robert Peel introduces a bill for
The killed and wounded on the British side the better protection of the Queen's person amounted to 169. against minor offences, making offenders liable to seven years' transportation, or imprisonment
26.-Captivity of Col. Stoddart and Capt. with corporeal chastisement.
Conolly at Bokhara. Lady Sale records in the
journal of her captivity : “ Col. Stoddart 13.-Death of the Duke of Orleans, eldest
and Capt. Arthur Conolly are prisoners at son of the King of the French, from the effects Bokhara. The latter had been enthusiastically of a fall out of his cabriolet near the Porte employed in endeavouring to effect the release Maillot.
of slaves in Kokhan. The King of Bokhara 15.-Affair of honour between Captain conquered the chief of that country, and placed Boldero and the Hon. Craven Berkeley. The Conolly in confinement at Bokhara. He and meeting arose out of an article in the Morning his fellow-prisoner, by the last account, had Chronicle, purporting to record expressions been 126 days confined in a dungeon undermade use of by Captain Boldero in the library ground without light; they had never changed of the House of Commons, regarding the their clothes or washed, and their food was punishment to which Col. Dundas had been let down to them once in four or five days. subjected for using language disrespectful of
A native who had compassion on them rethe Queen.
he was reported ceived a message through the person who took to have said, drunk or sober, choose to swear their food to them, and through him Conolly at the Queen in my presence, I should take no has communicated with his family here, who notice of it; I am not an eavesdropper.” also are now powerless to assist him." Berkeley denied all knowledge of the article,
28.-The Rev. Archibald Campbell Tait, but affirmed the general correctness of the Fellow and Tutor of Balliol, elected Head report. The parties met in the neighbourhood
Master of Rugby School. of Osterley Park, and exchanged shots without effect. Explanations then took place, and the
Thunder-storm in the metropolis, during principals left the ground with their friends.
the continuance of which the lightning struck
and injured the spire of the church of St. 18.—Meetings held this day in Liverpool,
Martin-in-the-Fields. Manchester, and Leeds, to consider the great and daily increasing distress of the country,
Debate in the House of Commons on the and with the view, if possible, of inducing report and recommendation of the Select Comher Majesty's Ministers to take steps, before
mittee appointed to inquire into the compromise the dissolution of Parliament, for carrying out
of election petitions. Mr. Russell, one of the some remedial measure. Deputations were
members for Reading, and a person implicated appointed to wait on Sir Robert Peel and other
in the inquiry, taunted Mr. Roebuck with being members of the Government.
an unfit person to have the conduct of such an
inquiry, having himself sat in the House as the 19.-A trotting-match takes place in the
paid agent of the rebel colony of Canada. On grounds attached to the Rosemary Branch a division, the recommendation of the ComTavern, when a grey pony, twelve hands and
mittee to delay the issue of new writs for the a half high, is ridden by one of Mr. Batty's different boroughs was negatived by 136 to 47, monkeys, dressed in racing costume, and accomplishes a distance of fourteen miles in fiftyseven minutes.
August 1.-Opening of the Thames Tunnel.
About 500 visitors pass through from the 21.- The city of Chin-Kiang-Foo, com
Wapping side to Rotherhithe. manding the entrance to the Grand Canal, stormed and taken by the British forces under
- The colliers and iron-miners in the Airdrie Sir Hugh Gough. The Tartar general, when
and Coatbridge districts strike work for an he saw that all was lost, retired to his house,
advance of wages. They were joined in a few which he commanded his servants to set on
days by the workmen in the Glasgow district, fire, and sat in his chair till he was burned
giving rise to great inconvenience throughout to death. One of the scaling-party writes :
the whole of the west of Scotland, “ It is impossible to compute the loss of the 4.-Alarming disturbances break out in the Chinese, for when they found they could stand manufacturing districts.
The spinners and no longer against us, they cut the throats of weavers of Staleybridge strike, in consequence their wives and children, or drove them into of a proposal to reduce their wages, and the wells or ponds, and then destroyed themselves. men, banding themselves together, succeed in In many houses there were from eight to twelve turning out all the hands in the Ashton and dead bodies, and I myself saw a dozen women Oldham mills. Gathering strength as they
went on, they entered Manchester in great force, but divided into sections, when they saw the military approaching. The mills here were mostly stopped, and attacked by the mob, the rioting continuing, with more or less severity, over a week. During three days twentythree people were taken to the infirmary in consequence of affrays between the military or special constables and the mob. As in other towns, they were chiefly under the direction of Chartist demagogues. On the 7th the town of Stockport was the scene of serious rioting. The mob forced an entrance into the union workhouse at Snowheath, and carried off 672 loaves and 71. in copper money.
Next day a conflict took place between the workmen and military in Preston, when the latter were compelled to fire; two or three were fatally wounded. Stockport, Macclesfield, Dudley, Bolton, and Huddersfield were all kept in terror by bands of excited operatives, demanding “ a fair day's wage for a fair day's work.” On the 15th, at Burslem, the house of Mr. Parker, a magistrate, was burnt to the ground, and the Town Hall, police offices, and several private houses ransacked. Here also the military were compelled to fire, killing three unfortunate agitators, and wounding a dozen others. In Dunfermline the weavers set fire to Watson's factory and had possession of the town for the greater part of a night.
5.-The House of Lords give a final decision regarding Lady Hewley's bequest of “certain manors in York, in trust to support godly preachers of Christ's Holy Gospel,” a phrase taken to designate Protestant Dissenters. In process of time the trust fell entirely into the hands of Unitarians, but attention was drawn to the subject by the report of the Charity Commissioners, and a bill was filed in Chancery to dispossess them. The Vice-Chancellor and Lord Chancellor decided against the claim of the Unitarians. Lord Cottenham now pronounced judgment, affirming the decree of the Court below, with costs.
7.-General Nott leaves Candahar to join General Pollock at Cabul, his route lying along the valley of the Tumuk river up to its source in the hills near Muhoor. He encountered an Affghan force near Ghuznee, and scattered it without much loss on his own side.
9.–Treaty signed at Washington by Lord Ashburton on the part of the British Government, and Mr. Webster on behalf of the American, regarding the north-west boundary of the two countries, the suppression of the slavetrade, and the extradition of criminals, questions which had given rise to much correspondence between the two countries.
12.–Parliament prorogued by the Queen in person. The concluding paragraph of the speech expressed the confidence she had that
my lords and gentlemen " returned to
their counties, they would do their utmost to encourage, by example and exertion, that spirit of order and submission to the law, without which there could be no enjoyment of the fruits of peaceful industry, and no advance in the course of social improvement.
14.–Proclamation issued regarding the multitudes of lawless and disorderly persons who by force and violence were entering mills and manufactories, and by threats and intimidation preventing peaceable people from following their usual occupation. During the week of greatest anxiety to the Government from the 18th to the 25th, -a clerk was sent down from the London post-office, with directions, under the authority of a Secretary of State's warrant, to open the letters of six parties named therein, all taking a prominent part in the disturbances. Two following warrants authorized him to open the letters of ten other persons. Most of these parties were afterwards apprehended, indicted, and convicted before the Special Commission appointed to try the parties charged with exciting the disturbances in the manufacturing districts.--Report of Secret Committee on Post Office.
17.-A seditious placard, urging the people to rise against the authorities, issued in Manchester by the Executive Committee of the National Chartist Association.
19.-Jane Cooper, a domestic servant, commits suicide by throwing herself from the top of the Monument. She took advantage of the momentary absence of the guard to clamber over the railings, and precipitate herself into Fish-street-hill.
20.-Incendiary fires in two Liverpool timber-yards, supposed to have been caused by parties connected with the sawyers' strike com. bination.
Father Mathew visits Scotland, and distributes his temperance pledges to masses of people in Edinburgh, Glasgow, and other cities.
General Pollock commences his march from Jellalabad to Cabul. The first conflict took place about two miles from Gundamuck, where 12,000 Affghans were repulsed and forced to retire upon Cabul.
24.-George White, a Birmingham Chartist, writes to Brother Cooper Leicester :-"My house has been surrounded with police these two nights, and a warrant has been issued for my apprehension. I have nevertheless marched with the sovereign people, and addressed them in defiance of their warrant. There was some ugly work last night. My body-guard chucked a raw lobster (a policeman) into the canal, and the town has been paraded by soldiers, our lads cheering and marching with them like trumps."
Consecration of five colonial bishops in Westminster Abbey.
25.-Owing to the number of suicides from the Monument, the City Lands Committee resolve to enclose the top.
Bean tried for assaulting the Queen with a pistol, and sentenced to eighteen months' imprisonment in Millbank
26.-Treaty of peace concluded with China. 21,000,000 dollars to be paid within three years ; Canton, Amoy, Foo-chow-foo, Ningpo, and Shanghai to be thrown open to British merchants; and the island of Hong Kong to be ceded in perpetuity to her Britannic Majesty.
29.-The Queen and Prince Albert embark at Woolwich on their first visit to Scotland.
September 1.- The Queen arrives off Inchkeith about 1 o'clock this morning, and lands at Granton pier 9 o'clock, where she was received by the Duke of Buccleuch, lordlieutenant of the county. The royal cortege proceeded by way of Inverleith-row and Cannonmill-bridge to the boundary of the city of Edinburgh, where it was expected her Majesty was to be received by the lord provost and magistrates of the city. From a misunderstanding as to the hour of landing they had not left the council-chamber, where some of them had been sitting the most of the night, and the procession continued its course through the city by way of Pitt-street, Hanover-street, Princes-street, and the Calton-hill. At Parsongreen the dragoons closed up to the royal carriage, and a quicker pace was continued along the road to Dalkeith Palace. Edinburgh was filled with visitors from various parts of Scotland, and great preparations had been made for giving her Majesty a truly royal welcome; but the enthusiasm was somewhat checked by the want of proper arrangement as to the precise time when the city would be reached. To make up, as far as possible, for the disappointment thus experienced, her Majesty reentered the city on the Saturday following, and was received in great state by the magistrates. Sir Robert Peel, who accompanied her Majesty in a separate carriage, was alternately cheered and hissed. The route, thickly packed with spectators, was from Holyrood, up the Canongate and High-street to the Castle, and then by way of the Earthen-mound and Princes-street to Dalmeny Park, the seat of the Earl of Rosebery. A gallery erected at the end of Princes-street-gardens unfortunately gave way, and between fifty and sixty people were more or less injured. The foundation-stone of Victoria Hall, designed for the use of the General Assembly, was laid this day, with a grand Masonic display in honour of her Majesty's visit. The Queen attended Divine service in Dalkeith private chapel on the 4th, and gave a reception in the Palace on the 5th. She left Dalkeith on the 6th, and visited the Earl of Mansfield, at Scone, the following day ; the Marquis of Breadalbane, at Taymouth, on the 8th (where deer-stalking was engaged in by Prince Albert); and Lord Wil
loughby D'Ereshy, at Drummond, on the oth. Her Majesty departed from Granton pier on the 15th, after a stay in Scotland of fourteen days. In a letter addressed to the Lord Ad vocate, Lord Aberdeen was instructed to say, “The Queen will leave Scotland with a feeling of regret that her visit on the present occasion could not be farther prolonged. .Her Majesty fully expected to witness the loyalty and attachment of her Scottish subjects; but the devotion and enthusiasm evinced in every quarter, and by all ranks, have produced an impression on the mind of her Majesty which can never be effaced.”
5.–Tried at the York assizes and Lancashire assizes about 150 individuals charged with mobbing and rioting during the recent disturbances in these districts. They were sentenced to various terms of imprisonment. A Special Commission sat in other counties for the same purpose.
General Nott recaptures the fortress of Ghuznee, on his march to Cabul. “I ordered,” he writes, “the fortification and citadel to be destroyed, because it had been the scene of treachery, mutilation, torture, starvation, and cruel murder to our unresisting and imprisoned countrymen.”
13.--General Pollock defeats Akbar Khan in the Valley of Tezeen. No farther oppo. sition being offered to the advance of the British through the passes, they encamped on the race-ground at Cabul two days afterwards. The city was taken possession of on the 15th.
20.-Release of the Affghan captives, confined by Akbar Khan in various parts throughout the Tezeen valley and at Bameean. At the pass near Kote Ashruffe, Sale left his infantry to hold the position, and proceeded at the head of the 3d Dragoons. " A party of Sultan Jan's men,” writes Lady Sale, in the neighbourhood. Had we not received assistance our recapture was certain, but as it was they dared not attack the force they saw. It is impossible to express our feelings on Sale's approach. When we arrived where the infantry were posted, they cheered all the captives as they passed them, and the men of the 13th pressed forward to welcome us individually. On arriving at the camp, Capt. Backhouse fired a royal salute from his mountain train guns; and not only our old friends but all the officers in the party came to offer congratulations and welcome our return from captivity.”
23.–Fire in Crampton-street, Liverpool, which spread into Farmby-street and Neptunestreet, destroying a number of large warehouses and sheds filled with costly merchandise. The damage was estimated at 700,000l., onehalf being covered by insurances. About twenty lives were supposed to have been lost during the three days the conflagration raged.