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120.

God and Nature, Ver. 95. No judging of the Motives from the a£tions ; the same ačtions proceeding from contrary Motives, and the same Motives influencing contrary aЕtions, Ver. 100. II. Yet to form Characters, we can only take the strongest actions of a man's life, and try to make them agree: The utter uncertainty of this, from Nature itself, and from Policy, Ver.

Characters given according to the rank of men of the world, Ver. 135. And some reason for it, Ver. 141. ' Education alters the Nature, or at least Character of many, Ver. 149. Actions, Passions, Opinions, Manners, Humours, or Principles, all subject to change. No judging by Nature, from Ver. 158 to 174. III. It only remains to find (if we can) bis. Ruling PasSION : Tbat will certainly influence all the rest, and can reconcile the seeming or real inconfistency of all bis actions, Ver. 175. Instanced in the extraordinary character of Clodio, Ver. 179. A caution against mistaking second qualities for first, wbich will destroy all possibility of the knowledge of mankind, Ver. 210. Examples of the strength of the Ruling Pallion, and its continuation to the last breath, Ver. 222, &c.

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Plate XII.

facing pa-215

TIME

She propere Study of Mankind a man.

Essay von Ma

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YES

ÉS, you despise the man to Books confin'd;

Who from his study rails at human kind; Tho'what he learns he speaks, and may

advance Some gen’ral maxims, or be right by chance.

COMMENTARY.

Epifle of the Knowledge and Characters of Men.) Whoever compares this with the former editions of the Epiftle, will observe, that the order and disposition of the several parts are entirely changed and reversed; though with hardly the alteration of a single word. When the Editor, at the Author's desire, first examined this epistle, he was surprized to find it contain a number of exquisite obfervations, without order, connection, or dependence: but much more so, when, on ån attentive review, he saw, that if the epistle was put into a different form, on an idea he then conceived, it would have

N O P E s.

Moral Ejays.] The Essay ON MAN was intended to have been comprifed in four books:

The First of which, the Author has given us under that title, in four epiftles.

The Second was to have confifted of the same number: 1. Of the extent and limits of human reason. 2. Of those arts and feiences, and the parts of them, which are useful, and therefore attainable ; together with those which are unuseful,

PA

The coxcomb bird, so talkative and grave, 5
That from his cage cries Cuckold, Whore, and

Knave,
Tho' many a passenger he rightly call,
You hold him nọ Philosopher at all.

COMMENTARY.

all the clearness of method and force of connected reasoning. The Author appeared as much struck with the thing as the Editor, and agreed to put the poem into the present order; which has given it all the justness of a true composition. The introduction to the epistle on Riches was in the same condition, and underwent the same reform.

EPISTLE I. This epistle is divided into three principal parts or members: The first (from Ver. I to 99.) treats of the difficulties in coming at the Knowledge and true Charakters of men. The second (from Ver. 98 to 174.) of the wrong means which both Philosophers and men of the World have employed in furmounting those difficulties. And the third (from

NOTES.

and therefore unattainable. 3. Of the nature, ends, use, and application of the different capacities of men. 4. Of the use of learning; of the science of the world ; and of wit; concluding with a satyr against the misapplication of them; illustrated by pictures, characters, and examples.

The third book regarded civil regimen, or the science of politics; in which, the feveral forms of a Republic were to be examined and explained ; together with the several modes of religious worship, so far forth as they affect Society ; between which the Author always supposed there was the closest conrection and the moft interesting relation. So that this part would have treated of Civil and Religious Society in their full extent.

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