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The FY 1989 budget request for ER's programs is shown in Table 2. The total amount requested in FY 1989 is $2.4 billion, an increase of $0.3 billion over the FY 1988 appropriation of $2.1 billion. This request reflects the Reagan Administration's strong commitment to support progress in all areas of science with the goal of enhancing the economic and technological health
of the United States as well as the quality of our lives.
HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS
The main goal of high energy physics research is to develop new knowledge and
a better understanding of the nature of matter and energy as well as the basic forces that govern all processes in nature. One of the major current
objectives of high energy physics research is to develop a unified description, or single theory, that would describe all the interactions of
matter and energy in the universe. Another major objective is to search for the most fundamental constituents of matter. As with any exploratory field of research, one can also anticipate new and totally unexpected discoveries.
In recent years, high energy physicists have developed an increasingly better understanding of the forces of nature and the unifying connections among them. The four known fundamental forces are the electromagnetic force, the weak force, the strong force, and the gravitational force. The search for a
unified, or single, theory has been a reliable guide to physics research. It is a search for linkages between apparently diverse phenomena in an effort to discover underlying simplicity. A part of the progress in high energy physics has been the conceptual unification of the weak nuclear force and
Basic Energy Sciences
electromagnetic forces into a single "electroweak" framework. In addition, a
theory of the strong force has emerged which is consistent with experimental results. There is increasing anticipation that the unification of the strong nuclear and the electroweak forces into one "grand unified" framework may be possible, thus reducing the apparent number of forces in nature to two. The ultimate goal is a 'super-grand" unification that would bring all of the forces in nature into a single unified framework.
This picture of nature in terms of the electroweak and strong forces and a
small set of fundamental constituents is known as the Standard Model. The
most significant recent experimental results all reinforce the predictions of the Standard Model. Although no deviations from the Standard Model have been
found, scientists believe that it cannot be the final answer.
For example, it
does not explain the origin of mass and it does not include gravity. Experiments using newly available research capabilities at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) and the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) are testing the Standard Model and searching for phenomena that do not
conform to that Model, as well as for phenomena predicted by newer theories.
The ability to carry out forefront exploratory research on the physics frontier is critically dependent on the experimental capabilities of the accelerators, colliding beam devices and large particle detectors. Provision of upgraded and new facilities on a timely basis, thus, is an important consideration. There are three DOE supported accelerator centers, Fermilab, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), and SLAC, each of which provides worldunique capabilities. Two major upgrades of U.S. High Energy Physics
facilities, the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) and the Fermilab Tevatron
Collider, which recently came into operation, will be available to produce
strong research output in FY 1989. These facilities will keep the Program
highly competitive and at the cutting edge for the next several years. To
maintain an internationally competitive program at the scientific frontier in the mid 1990's, activities leading to the construction of a new major facility, the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), have been initiated.
University scientists carry out over three fourths of the experimental and theoretical research in the field, much of it at the major accelerator facilities. Universities not only provide intellectual leadership for the field, but also play a major role in the training of highly skilled scientists and engineers. In fact, many of these experts are eagerly sought by industry and other scientific disciplines. As they apply their high energy physics training in other areas, these scientists contribute significantly to the transfer of technology to other fields. For example, the 1979 Nobel Prize in Medicine was shared by Alan Cormack who applied techniques from his experience in bubble chamber data analysis in the High Energy Physics program to develop the computerized axial tomography technique for medical diagnosis. This
technology, commonly known as the CAT scan, is in widespread use today.
Before turning to a discussion of the FY 1989 budget request, I would like to
summarize some of the progress made in 1987 at the major High Energy Physics research facilities. At the Tevatron at Fermilab, the new capabilities for proton-antiproton colliding beam experiments achieved record high values of beam energy and intensity, with both beams operating at 900 billion electron
volts (GeV) for colliding beam experiments. The antiproton source set a new world record by repeatedly accumulating more than 10 billion antiprotons per hour. Progress also continued on the two major colliding beam detector facilities that will measure the results of collisions at the Tevatron's new
energy levels. During its initial physics run at Fermilab, the Collider
Detector (CDF) fully met all its technical goals. Besides completing its first checkout and engineering run, CDF physicists were able to record more than 400,000 triggered events on about 500 magnetic tapes--enough data to
ensure new insight into the unexplored terrain of antiproton-proton
interactions at the 1.8 trillion electron volts (TeV) reaction energy.
addition, fabrication of the massive, 5,500 ton D-Zero detector for the Tevatron collider advanced well in 1987 and remains on schedule for full
operations in 1990 when it will take data simultaneously with the CDF and, thereby, double the Tevatron's collider physics productivity.
The just-completed Tevatron fixed target program run has been the most productive one since the superconducting accelerator was first brought into operation in 1983. In just over 30 weeks of operation at its world record beam energy of 800 GeV for fixed target experiments, the Tevatron has accelerated almost two billion billion (2 x 1018) protons. Eleven major fixed
target experiments, involving about a thousand physicists and graduate students, have been completed. Almost a hundred Ph.D. theses at several dozen
major universities are anticipated based on analyses of the data collected during these experiments. Four new fixed target beam lines were commissioned and brought into operation for data collection during this period. In addition, essential calibration tests of apparatus and R&D efforts were