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the prayer should be short, that a full hour may be employed in the instruction. The instruction to be of use, and to be interesting, must be fundamentally catechetical. Such works as "Judson's Scripture Questions," Gall's "Help to the Study of the Gospel," and "The Bible Teacher's Manual," will furnish a basis for the questions. Let one or more of the catechumens read through the whole passage of Scripture. Then let the questioning commence. If any of the assistances above mentioned are used, let the catechist intersperse pertinent questions that will occur to himself, and refer to other parallels. The class must be employed in searching for the references, and be asked for others, according to their probable knowledge. A most important object, as the hour proceeds, is to aim at rivetting all that is most essential in the heart and conscience. If the first chapter of St. Luke, for instance, be the one read, the sixth, tenth, fourteenth, sixteenth, and seventeenth verses will be among those selected for this object. A few sentences, weighty in their importance, pointed in application, affectionate, spiritual, from a heart previously lifted up for Divine aid, is enough. Sermonising, and every thing discursive, is to be avoided. The concentrated essence of truth is that which is to be administered. The management of the classes ought to be, as regards its prevailing character and spirit,
1. Devotional. - Prayer should precede, accompany, and follow this important hour. No part of the ministerial work, perhaps, is so difficult, so important, as this; none certainly is so promising in the attempt, more blessed if the attempt succeed. If the help of the Divine arm and Spirit is the only resource of the minister in other duties of his office; if it is this which holds up his courage, and which he continually invokes as his only aid, in his study, and in his ordinary CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 350,
course of effort, here, where he attempts to compass the most difficult attainment of the most difficult of all offices; let his dependence be most simple, his prayers unintermitted and fervent.
2. Wise and considerate.-There will be in every such class as is supposed, not only a difference of age, but a great variety of capacity, attainment, disposition, and seriousness. To adapt himself to the individual character of each catechumen, as the opportunity offers, is an important office of the catechist. A freedom and affability of manner, a spirit of marked and intelligible kindness and interest, attended with the seriousness and dignity which belong to the superior office and employment, should be exhibited throughout. If an answer be returned not quite pertinent to the question, let it be received and admitted as far as it will go, or let its importance be allowed, while the fuller, or the different meaning, is explaining. If an individual displays a shyness in answering questions, either from fear of betraying ignorance, or from any other cause, it is well not to press him, but to leave him to reply to such questions as he may spontaneously answer. Each individual in the party is deserving a particular consideration, with a view to a wise adaptation of manner and plan to his particular character, age, and circumstances.
3. Patient and persevering.-There may be expected in this office of the ministry much, very much, to try and discourage the mind. Few probably will, in the first instance, be brought under this instruction. Of those who are, some may be expected to fall off, others may exhibit unconquered dullness, and there will be, in not a few cases, a display of acuteness without any degree of feeling and impression. To proceed-to proceed determinately, through all discouragements, should be the resolution to which the mind is unalterably screwed up. M
The impressive encouragement implied in the question, "Who hath despised the day of small things?" should sustain the spirits and prop the faith in the season of greatest hopelessness. In truth, this effort is neither more nor less than to grapple with the substantial difficulties of the ministry. The good soldier of Jesus Christ here comes into the closest conflict, with the power of Satan :
"Immiscentque manus manibus, pugnamque lacessunt."
To triumph here is victory in the service to which he is sent forth; to fail, is defeat. It is the field in which almost all is to be won or lost. Let discouragements then bring us to God; but let them not unnerve or dishearten.
4. Interesting and impressive.-As much animation should be thrown into the service as possible. Simple and brief elucidations of customs may be given, and every thing which has a tendency to enliven the hour, without detracting from its main purports, will be of use. The class will soon dwindle under a tedious and monotonous management. To conclude a letter, in which I have, I fear, made too great a demand upon your pages, allow me
to say, in the words of my most respected diocesan, that a due attention (and I know of no other method of giving a due attention) to the class of persons whose benefit is contemplated in the plan referred to, though it is one of the chief difficulties attending our ministerial duty, is of all our labours the most important." I will only add, that as nothing can be imagined more gratifying than large success in such an undertaking, so the progress of the work is fraught with blessings and benefits to the pastor and his co-adjutors. He that watereth will be watered himself. The minister, in a particular manner, will become better qualified for everyother labour, bythe experience and knowledge acquired in this field of exertion; his acquaintance with human nature is certain to be enlarged by it; and his dexterity in selecting the best adapted means of meeting its diversified appearances will be improved and sharpened. I most fervently hope that the attention of the clergy throughout the kingdom, may be drawn to this important subject, and that the Bishop of Chester's effort to excite his own diocese may communicate a general impulse.
T. H. K.
of the logic is wrong. The author lays down as his groundwork, that ' all the relationships of life have corresponding duties annexed to them, because they all shadow forth, or are types, or patterns, of relationships which God has assumed for the purpose of communicating of his own blessedness to the redeemed from among his fallen creatures.' The word that we object to in this sentence, but precisely that which is meant to be emphatic, and on which the whole work is built, is the inferential because." You add a few other observations to the same purpose.
I am so perfectly satisfied of the justness of the point assumed as the groundwork of the ordinances which God has instituted for the observance of man, that if I fail in making others perceive it in the same light as I do myself, the fault will be in my want of power to elucidate it, not in any fallacy in the proposition itself. It cannot be denied that marriage is one of those relationships of life which shadow forth a relationship which God has assumed for the purpose of communicating of his own blessedness to his creatures, because we have the express words of Scripture upon the subject (Eph. v. 22, 23). It cannot be denied that all the institutions of God are either necessary or arbitrary; and it is of the utmost importance to giving the creature correct views of his own fallen condition; the consequence of sin; the necessity of its punishment; the love of God; the value of the doctrine of the Trinity; the work of the Son and of the Holy Ghost; the nature of holiness; the necessity of its happiness; and many other points, that we should clearly see these things not to be the result of caprice in God, ordering things that may be different; but that all these things are necessary, and essentially true, and revealed in order that the creature may adapt himself to that eternal truth.
The word necessity may sound
harshly when applied to the actings of Omnipotence; but that only arises from not considering how many postulates must be conceded before we are advanced sufficiently in our chain of reasoning to be justified in its use. It is assumed that God did well to manifest himself in a particular way, to creatures of particular properties. The word necessity, then, is not properly applied to Deity at all, but to the course of his revealed actings; and there is no more irreverence in saying that misery is the necessary consequence of sin, than that pain is the necessary consequence of fire applied to any animal. It is in this sense the Holy Ghost speaks of what is becoming for God to do (Heb. ii. 10). The object of the whole drama is to manifest that all goodness is in God, and all nongoodness (I do not know a word) out of him, το καλον και το υ καλον. To this end, all things which are revealed as tending, are properly said to be necessary. It is not possible, I say it advisedly, reverently, and incontrovertibly, it is not possible that a man should be eternally happy who is not born again of the Holy Ghost. Satan is not happy by being in the presence of God: if a man could be taken to heaven unregenerate he would, he could not be happy there.
The assumed relationships of God are not fortuitous, or capricious, but necessary. It is not possible they should be otherwise. The relationships of man are manifesters of those assumed by God, each for each. This principle is the basis of Hooker's work on Ecclesiastical Polity; some few sentences from the first book of which I transcribe in confirmation. He too, as I did, begins from the beginning. "Because the point, about which we strive is the quality of our laws, our first entrance hereunto cannot better be made, than with consideration of the nature of law in general, and of that law which giveth life unto all the rest, which are com
mendable, just, and good; namely, the law whereby the Eternal himselfdoth work. Proceeding from hence to the law, first of nature, then of Scripture, we shall have the easier access unto those things which come after to be debated, concerning the particular cause and question which we have in hand.
"All things that are have some operation not violent, or casual; neither doth any thing ever begin to exercise the same, without some fore-conceived end for which it worketh. And the end which it worketh for is not obtained unless the work be also fit to obtain it by; for unto every end, every operation I will not serve. That which doth assign unto each thing the kind, that which doth moderate the force and power, that which doth appoint the form and measure of working, the same we term a law. So that no certain end could ever be attained, unless the actions whereby it is attained were regular; that is to say, made suitable, fit, and correspondent unto their end, by some canon, rule, or law. Which thing doth first take place in the works, even of God himself. All things, therefore, do work after a sort, according to law; all other things according to a law, whereof some superior, unto whom they are subject, is author; only the works and operations of God have him both for their worker, and for the law whereby they are wrought. The being of God is a kind of law to his working; for that perfection which God is, giveth perfection to that he doth. Those natural, necessary, and internal operations of God, the generation of the Son, the proceeding of the Spirit, are without the compass of my present intent; which is to touch only such operations as have their beginning and being by a voluntary purpose, wherewith God hath eternally decreed, when and how they should be; which eternal decree is that we term an eternal law."
by God, which to leave undone were not so good. If, therefore, it be demanded, why, God having power and ability infinite, the effects notwithstanding of that power are all so limited as we see things are? The reason whereof is, the end which he hath proposed, and the law whereby his wisdom hath stinted the effects of his power in such sort, that it doth not work infinitely, but correspondently unto that end for which it worketh, even all things xpnows, in most decent and comely sort, all things in measure, number, and weight. The particular drift of every act proceeding externally from God, we are not able to discern, and therefore cannot always give the proper and certain reason of his works. Howbeit, undoubtedly a proper and certain reason there is of every finite work of God, inasmuch as there is a law imposed upon it; which if there were not, it should be infinite even as the worker himself is. THEY ERR, THEREFORE, WHO THINK THAT OF THE WILL OF GOD TO DO THIS OR THAT, THERE IS NO REASON BESIDES HIS WILL. Many times no reason known to us; but that there is no reason thereof, I judge it most unreasonable to imagine, inasmuch as he worketh all things, κατα την βυλην τε θελημaroc aurs, not only according to his own will, but the counsel of his own will. And whatsoever is done with counsel, or wise resolution, hath of necessity some reason why it should be done, albeit that reason be to us in some things so secret, that it forceth the wit of man to stand amazed thereat."
It would be right and proper for your reviewer to contend that the "ground of commands" which I had assigned were wrong, and then to point out the correct grounds: but to assert that there is no reason or ground for the institutions appointed by God, and that they stand "merely upon the word of God, and example of
"That and nothing else is done Christ," as if there were no reason
or meaning for that word, and for that conduct which furnishes the example, is to assert a negative; to do that which lacks both the basis and the superstructure of logic. You grant there is an analogy: but there can be none in ordinances appointed by God that are not more than simple likenesses. Yet, even if simple likenesses, likenesses to what? Where is the truth itself, the bottom, the end?
To know God is life eternal. To know God is not to know His essence, for that passes the power of creatures. To know God is to know him as he has revealed himself with reference to man. The institutions of God are the means by which knowledge of him is conveyed. The relationships among men instituted by God are homogeneous with the relationships assumed by God towards men. The objection to the terms "analogy" and "illustration" is, that in their ordinary sense they do not express enough of the truth: and when these terms are used in contra
diction to the emphatic because, then the terms convey what is false. In the treatise on "Social Duties," the principle could only be assumed from the nature of the work. It cannot be fully set forth in so short a letter as this, and I fear to take up more of your time: but it is the concentration of all sound religion.-I am, &c.
THE AUTHOR OF SOCIAL
• We leave the above, in all fairness, to the consideration of our readers; only observing, that much of it does not apply to the real question at issue. Our correspondent would make us assert, that "there is no reason or ground for the institutions appointed by God;" a most monstrous proposition, which no Christian ever dreamed of; for " shall not the Judge of all the earth do right?" And who could for a moment suppose otherwise than that the appointments of the Most High are infinitely wise and good? But our correspondent has an hypothesis of his own, from which, because we dissent, he views us as contending against God. He assigns certain reasons for the institutions of his Creator, and then, because we doubt the
ON QUAKERS PAYING TITHE.
To the Editor of the Christian Observer. THE argument by which thy correspondent, who signs himself a
truth of those particular reasons, he thinks we represent God as acting without reason. He grounds "Social Duties" upon a notion which appears to us neither reasonable nor Scriptural; and because we deny the solidity of this particular basis, he makes us maintain that they have no basis whatever, but a mere capricious appointment. But God cannot be capricious; the thought were blasphemy: but erring man, in attempting to account for his institutions, may be fanciful, or mistaken. Our difference with our correspondent is not as to the practical detail of social duties, which he has so well elucidated, nor as to their being of Divine appointment, and founded upon a stable basis of eternal befitment; but we see no reason for converting analogies into arguments, and making the ground of "the relationships among men instituted by God," that they are "homogeneous with the relationships assumed by God to man." Whether homogeneous or not, homogeneousness is not causation. It is, for instance, a social duty commanded in Scripture-and that not without reason, but for reasons infi
nitely wise-that a child should obey its parent; but the abstract ground of the obligation is not "because God is spoken of as a parent; though this is true, and adds great strength to the argument, and is very fit to be insisted on as a striking analogy and a powerful motive. To aver that the Creator's reason for enjoining filial duty is the existence of a homogeneous archetype in his own relations to his creatures, is to assign a motive for the Divine counsels which we do not feel warranted in assuming; and in some of the social relationships of life, analogy thus carried beyond its province would lead to wrong conclusions. For example, as a governor God is irresponsible and (using the word in its true sense) arbitrary; for though he is always actuated by reasons infinitely wise, his subjects have no right to demand them, or to seek to place any check upon his proceedings; but will this archetype hold good in its literal application and extent to human affairs? Ought human governors to be assumed to be infallible, and should governments be arbitrary and despotic? We leave the answer to our readers; nor should we have thought it necessary to say so much upon a distinction which may appear to many persons merely metaphysical, had not our author made it the basis of our social duties and "the concentration of all sound religion."-Editor.