the prayer should be short, that a course of effort, here, where he atfull hour may be employed in the tempts to compass the most diffiinstruction. The instruction to be cult attainment of the most difficult of use, and to be interesting, must of all offices ; let his dependence be befundamentally catechetical. Such most simple, his prayers uninterworks as “ Judson's Scripture mitted and fervent. Questions,” Gall's “Help to the 2. Wise and considerate.-There Study of the Gospel,” and “The will be in every such class as is Bible Teacher's Manual," will fur- supposed, not only a difference of nish a basis for the questions. Let age, but a great variety of capacity, one or more of the catechumens attainment, disposition, and seread through the whole passage of riousness. To adapt himself to the Scripture. Then let the question- individual character of each cateing commence. If any of the as- chumen, as the opportunity offers, sistances above mentioned are used, is an important office of the catelet the catechist intersperse perti- chist. A freedom and affability of nent questions that will occur to manner, a spirit of marked and himself, and refer to other paral- intelligible kindness and interest, lels. The class must be employed attended with the seriousness and in searching for the references, and dignity which belong to the supebe asked for others, according to rior office and employment, should their probable knowledge. A most be exhibited throughout. If an important object, as the hour pro- answer be returned not quite perceeds, is to aim at rivetting all that tinent to the question, let it be reis most essential in the heart and ceived and admitted as far as it will conscience. If the first chapter of go, or let its importance be allowed, St. Luke, for instance, be the one while the fuller, or the different read, the sixth, tenth, fourteenth, meaning, is explaining. If an insixteenth, and seventeenth verses dividual displays a shyness in anwill be among those selected for swering questions, either from fear this object.

A few sentences, of betraying ignorance, or from any weighty in their importance, point- other cause, it is well not to press ed in application, affectionate, spi- him, but to leave him to reply to ritual, from a heart previously such questions as he may spontanelifted up for Divine aid, is enough. ously answer. Each individual in Sermonising, and every thing dis- the party is deserving a particular cursive, is to be avoided. The con- consideration, with a view to a wise centrated essence of truth is that adaptation of manner and plan to which is to be administered. The his particular character, age, and management of the classes ought circumstances. to be, as regards its prevailing cha- 3. Patient and persevering.There racter and spirit,

may be expected in this office of the 1. Devotional. Prayer should ministry much, very much, to try precede, accompany, and follow this and discourage the mind. Few important hour. No part of the probably will, in the first instance, ministerial work, perhaps, is so dif- be brought under this instruction. ficult, so important, as this; none Of those who are, some may be certainly is so promising in the at- expected to fall off, others may extempt, more blessed if the attempt hibit unconquered dullness, and succeed. If the help of the Divine there will be, in not a few cases, arm and Spirit is the only resource a display of acuteness without any of the minister in other duties of degree of feeling and impression. To his office ; if it is this which holds proceed—to proceed determinateup his courage, and which he con- ly, through all discouragements, tinually invokes as his only aid, in should be the resolution to which his study, and in his ordinary the mind is unalterably screwed up. CHRIST. OBSERY. No. 350.


The impressive encouragement im- to say, in the words of my most plied in the question, "Who hath respected diocesan, that a due atdespised the day of small things?” tention (and I know of no other should sustain the spirits and prop method of giving a due attention) the faith in the season of greatest to the class of persons whose behopelessness. In truth, this effort nefit is contemplated in the plan is neither more nor less than to referred to, though it is one of the grapple with the substantial diffi- chief difficulties attending our miculties of the ministry. The good nisterial duty, is of all our labours soldier of Jesus Christ here comes the most important." I will only add, into the closest conflict, with the that as nothing can be imagined power of Satan :

more gratifying than large success Immiscentque manus manibus, pugnam- in such an undertaking, so the proque lacessunt."

gress of the work is fraught with To triumph here is victory in the blessings and benefits to the pastor service to which he is sent forth; and his co-adjutors. He that wato fail, is defeat. It is the field in tereth will be watered himself. which almost all is to be won or The minister, in a particular manlost. Let discouragements then ner, will become better qualified for bring us to God; but let them not everyother labour, bytheexperience unnerve or dishearten.

and knowledge acquired in this 4. Interesting and impressive.-As field of exertion ; his acquaintance much animation should be thrown with human nature is certain to be into the service as possible. Simple enlarged by it; and his dexterity and brief elucidations of customs in selecting the best adapted means may be given, and everything of meeting its diversified appearwhich has a tendency to enliven ances will be improved and sharpthe hour, without detracting from ened. I most fervently hope that its main purports, will be of use. the attention of the clergy throughThe class will soon dwindle under out the kingdom, may be drawn to a tedious and monotonous manage- this important subject, and that the ment. To conclude a letter, in which Bishop of Chester's effort to excite I have, I fear, made too great a de- his own diocese may communicate mand upon your pages, allow me a general impulse. T. H. K.









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The point to which I allude, is expressed in the following extracts: “ The author does not ground his social duties' merely upon

the To the Editor of the Christian Observer.

word and ordinance of God, or VERY different, and far less pleas- the example of Christ ; but he ing avocations have hitherto pre- turns analogies and illustrations vented my offering a few remarks into the reasons and grounds of upon one point in your Review of commands.” I apprehend, sir, that “ Social Duties on Christian Prin- you mean that what I maintain to ciples;” and which I now do under be aground of command, you mainthe impression, I hope not delusive, tain to be only an illustration: but that it is regard for God's truth, to proceed—“ and converts into and not the defence of an opinion principles what are not, strictly because it is mine, which guides speaking, facts. The result is right; my pen.

but the logic, or rather the basis 1831.] On the Review of Social Duties on Christian Principles.83 of the logic is wrong. The author harshly when applied to the actings lays down as his groundwork, that of Omnipotence; but that only

all the relationships of life have arises from not considering how corresponding duties annexed to many postulates must be conceded them, because they all shadow forth, before we are advanced sufficiently or are types, or patterns, of rela- in our chain of reasoning to be tionships which God has assumed justified in its use. It is assumed for the purpose of communicating that God did well to manifest himof his own blessedness to the re- self in a particular way, to creatures deemed from among his fallen of particular properties. The word creatures. The word that we ob- necessity, then, is not properly apject to in this sentence, but pre- plied to Deity at all, but to the cisely that which is meant to be course of his revealed actings; emphatic, and on which the whole and there is no more irreverence in work is built, is the inferential be- saying that misery is the necessary cause." You add a few other ob- consequence of sin, than that pain servations to the same purpose. is the necessary consequence of fire

I am so perfectly satisfied of the applied to any animal. It is in this justness of the point assumed as sense the Holy Ghost speaks of the groundwork of the ordinances what is becoming for God to do which God has instituted for the (Heb. ii. 10). The object of the observance of man, that if I fail in whole drama is to manifest that making others perceive it in the all goodness is in God, and all nonsame light as I do myself, the fault goodness (I do not know a word) will be in my want of power to out of him, το καλον και το και καλον. elucidate it, not in any fallacy in To this end, all things which are the proposition itself. It cannot revealed as tending, are properly be denied that marriage is one of said to be necessary. It is not posthose relationships of life which sible, I say it advisedly, reverently, shadow forth a relationship which and incontrovertibly, it is not posGod has assumed for the purpose sible that a man should be eterof communicating of his own bless- nally happy who is not born again edness to his creatures, because of the Holy Ghost. Satan is not we have the express words of happy by being in the presence of Scripture upon the subject (Eph. God: if a man could be taken to v.22,23). It cannot be denied that heaven unregenerate he would, he all the institutions of God are either could not be happy there. necessary or arbitrary; and it is of The assumed relationships of the utmost importance to giving God are not fortuitous, or caprithe creature correct views of his cious, but necessary. It is not posown fallen condition ; the conse- sible they should be otherwise. The quence of sin ; the necessity of its relationships of man are manifestpunishment ; the love of God; the ers of those assumed by God, each value of the doctrine of the Trinity; for each. This principle is the basis the work of the Son and of the of Hooker's work on Ecclesiastical Holy Ghost; the nature of holiness; Polity; some few sentences from the necessity of its happiness ; and the first book of which I transcribe many other points, that we should in confirmation. He too, as I did, clearly see these things not to be begins from the beginning. the result of caprice in God, order- cause the point, about which we ing things that may be different; but strive is the quality of our laws, our that all these things are necessary, first entrance hereunto cannot betand essentially true, and revealed in ter be made, than with considerorder that the creature may adapt ation of the nature of law in gehimself to that eternal truth. neral, and of that law which giveth

The word necessity may sound life unto all the rest, which are com

« Be

mendable, just, and good; namely, by God, which to leave undone were the law whereby the Eternal himself doth not so good. If, therefore, it be work. Proceeding from hence to the demanded, why, God having power law, first of nature, then of Scrip- and ability infinite, the effects notture, we shall have the easier access withstanding of that power are all unto those things which come after so limited as we see things are ? to be debated, concerning the par- The reason whereof is, the end ticular cause and question which which he hath proposed, and the we have in hand.

law whereby his wisdom hath stinted “All things that are have some the effects of his power in such operation not violent, or casual ; sort, that it doth not work infineither doth any thing ever begin nitely, but correspondently unto to exercise the same, without some that end for which it worketh, even fore-conceived end for which it all things xenows, in most decent worketh. And the end which it and comely sort, all things in meaworketh for is not obtained unless sure, number, and weight. The the work be also fit to obtain it by; particular drift of every act profor unto every end, every operation ceeding externally from God, we will not serve.

That which doth are not able to discern, and thereassign unto each thing the kind, fore cannot always give the proper that which doth moderate the force and certain reason of his works. and power, that which doth appoint Howbeit, undoubtedly a proper and the form and measure of working, certain reason there is of every finite the same we term a law. So that work of God, inasmuch as there is a no certain end could ever be at- law imposed upon it; which if there tained, unless the actions whereby were not, it should be infinite even it is attained were regular ; that is as the worker himself is. THEY to say, made suitable, fit, and cor- ERR, THEREFORE,

THINK respondent unto their end, by some THAT OF THE WILL OF GOD TO canon, rule, or law.

Which thing DO THIS OR THAT, THERE IS NO doth first take place in the works, even REASON BESIDES HIS WILL. Many of God himself. All things, there. times no reason known to us; but fore, do work after a sort, accord that there is no reason thereof, I ing to law; all other things accord- judge it most unreasonable to ing to a law, whereof some superior, imagine, inasmuch as he worketh unto whom they are subject, is all things, kara tnv Bolny το θεληauthor ; only the works and opera- Maroc auto, not only according to tions of God have him both for his own will, but the counsel of their worker, and for the law his own will. And whatsoever is whereby they are wrought. The done with counsel, or wise resobeing of God is a kind of law to lution, hath of necessity some reason his working; for that perfection why it should be done, albeit that which God is, giveth perfection to reason be to us in some things so that he doth. Those natural, ne- secret, that it forceth the wit of cessary, and internal operations of man to stand amazed thereat.” God, the generation of the Son, It would be right and proper the proceeding of the Spirit, are for your reviewer to contend that without the compass of my present the “ground of commands” which intent; which is to touch only such I had assigned were wrong, and operations as have their beginning then to point out the correct and being by a voluntary purpose, grounds: but to assert that there wherewith God hath eternally decreed, is no reason or ground for the inwhen and how they should be ; which stitutions appointed by God, and eternal decree is that we term an that they stand “merely upon the eternal law.”

word of God, and example of “That and nothing else is done Christ," as if there were no reason


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or meaning for that word, and for that conduct which furnishes the ON QUAKERS PAYING TITHE. example, is to assert a negative; To the Editor of the Christian Observer. to do that which lacks both the basis and the superstructure of logic. The argument by which thy corYou grant there is an analogy: but respondent, who signs himself a there can be none in ordinances appointed by God that are not more truth of those particular reasons, he thinks than simple likenesses. Yet, even

we represent God as acting without reason.

He grounds “ Social Duties" if simple likenesses, likenesses to

upon a

notion which appears to us neither reasonwhat? Where is the truth itself, able nor Scriptural; and because we deny the bottom, the end ?

the solidity of this particular basis, he To know God is life eternal. makes us maintain that they have no basis To know God is not to know His whatever, but a mere capricious appoint

But God cannot be capricious; essence, for that passes the power the thought were blasphemy: but erring of creatures. To know God is to man, in attempting to account for his inknow him as he has revealed him- stitutions, may be fanciful, or mistaken. self with reference to man. The

Our difference with our correspondent is

not as to the practical detail of social institutions of God are the means duties, which he has so well elucidated, by which knowledge of him is con- nor as to their being of Divine appointveyed. The relationships among ment, and founded upon a stable basis of

eternal befitment; but we see no reason men instituted by God are homo

for converting analogies into arguments, geneous with the relationships as

and making the ground of “the relationsumed by God towards men. The ships among men instituted hy God," that objection to the terms “analogy” they are “ homogeneous with the relationand “illustration” is, that in their ships assumed by God to man.” Whether

homogeneous or not, homogeneousness is ordinary sense they do not express not causation. It is, for instance, a social enough of the truth: and when duty commanded in Scripture—and that these terms are used in contra- not without reason, but for reasons infidiction to the emphatic because, parent; but the abstract ground of the

nitely wise—that a child should obey its then the terms convey what is false. obligation is not because God is In the treatise on “ Social Duties,” spoken of as a parent; though this is true, the principle could only be assumed and adds great strength to the argument, from the nature of the work. It and is very fit to be insisted on as a striking

analogy and a powerful motive. To aver cannot be fully set forth in so that the Creator's reason for enjoining short a letter as this, and I fear to filial duty is the existence of a homotake up more of your time : but it geneous archetype in his own relations to is the concentration of all sound

his creatures, is to assign a motive for the

Divine counsels whicb we do not feel religion.--I am, &c.

warranted in assuming; and in some of the THE AUTHOR OF SOCIAL social relationships of life, analogy thus carDUTIES*. ried beyond its province would lead to wrong

conclusions. For example, as a governor • We leave the above, in all fairness, to God is irresponsible and (using the word the consideration of our readers; only ob- in its true sense) arbitrary; for though he serving, that much of it does not apply to is always actuuted by reasons infinitely the real question at issue. Our corres- wise, his subjects have no right to demand pondent would make us assert, that “there them, or to seek to place any.check upon is no reason or ground for the institutions his proceedings; but will this archetype appointed by God ;” a most monstrous hold good in its literal application and proposition, which no Christian extent to human affairs ? Ought human dreamed of; for “ shall not the Judge of governors to be assumed to be infallible, all the earth do right?” And who could and should governments be arbitrary and for a moment suppose otherwise than that despotic? We leave the answer to our the appointments of the Most High are readers; nor should we have thought it infinitely wise and good? But our cor- necessary to say so much upon a disrespondent has an hypothesis of his own, tinction which may appear to many perfrom which, because we dissent, he views sons merely metaphysical, had 110t our us as contending against God. He assigns author made it the basis of our social certain reasons for the institutions of his duties and the concentration of all sound Creator, and then, because we doubt the religion.”-Editor.


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