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the study would be delightful. But adverted, what a majestic mind did the development of the Divine mercy he display; what vigour of thought; in carrying on the work of salva- what genuine force of intellect; tion—the exposure of the artifices what a commanding, leading spirit of and snares of Satan—the vindication deeply-rooted piety; what self-denial; of the great and good from the ca- what superiority to petty ends; what lumnies of the day in which they wisdom, almost oracular, in his coun. lived—the illustration of the main sels; what noble, dignified, and simple commanding doctrines of vital Chris- disinterestedness under poverty; what tianity, as the grand means of bless. love to the Saviour and for the souls ing mankind—the confirmation of of men. We quite agree with Mr. our faith when we see the same Scott, that he was not, like MelancGospel, and the same doctrines, and thon and Ecolampadius, one of those the same efficacy of grace, and the attractive, loveable characters which same objections of the wicked, and seduce an historian to pourtray them the same perversions of the unstable in the most favourable light. But prevail, are additional sources of neitherMelancthonnorEcolampadius, benefit. The vindication of Melanc- no nor Luther, could have done what thon in the last volume of our au- Calvin, at the particular moment thor, and of Zuingle and Calvin in of his labours and in the peculiar this, is of eminent service to the sphere in which he moved, and, we cause of Scriptural truth. How may add, in the period at which the much is there to edify in this study Reformation had arrived, achieved. of ecclesiastical annals thus imparti. Each filled his assigned post. From ally conducted; how much to quicken, Luther's noble magnanimity we would how much to humble, how much to detract nothing; from Melancthon's instruct, how much to keep one sta- learned sweetness, and Ecolampadius' ble and moderate, and to guard against mild perseverance, and Zuingle's the extravagancies into which so heroic boldness, we would detract many run on every side. We more nothing; rather we would recognise than ever value that which has stood and admire that succession of men the test of ages. In reading the of various powers and endowments history of such men as are presented prepared for the different scenes of to us in these volumes, we see how service to which they were brought. much more is really required for the Two things were common to them decision of important questions than all-a profound reverence for the modern smattering self-sufficiency Holy Scriptures soundly interpreteverimagines. Werise above the times ed, and deep personal piety. They in which we happen to be cast, and had all emerged from the darkness the fashion of the day, and imbibe the and uncertainty of human traditions scriptural, broad, universal, perma- into the light and authority of the nent beatifying truths which the word of God; they had all tasted of saints in all ages have in substance the bittercup of superstition, idolatry, held, and which alone God blesses to and torment of conscience, which the awakening, the consoling, and the antichristian harlot had put to the saving of mankind.
their lips, and had found peace in Our second reflection was, the ad- the arms and grace of Jesus Christ, mirable succession of eminent men the one and only Sacrifice for sin, whom God is pleased to raise up for the one and only Mediator between different services in his church. God and man. To them ProtestantCalvin was only one; but what a ism was the holy Book, and the man, take him for all in all! Abat- Holy Spirit applying it profoundly ing a little for a severity which un- to their own hearts. The cause doubtedly ran through his character, they opposed was human error and and for that overstatement of a par- opinion, and Papal formality and ticular doctrine to which we have superstition. They rested on God
and his inspired word and the holi- will be put to shame; missions and ness it taught ; and they resisted sin Bible Societies will be more largely and vice, whether under the guise diffused; the Christian church will of Popery, or in the more plausible be purified from its secular spirit, form of a pretended Protestantism. from torpid orthodoxy and fanatical
May God raise up such men in excesses; and God our Saviour will our own day: and the Gospel will be known, trusted, loved, and adored, flourish yet again ; error and folly from the rising to the setting sun.
RIGHT REV. J. M. TURNER, D.D. inconvenience which now take place be
BISHOP OF CALCUTTA. tween the death of one bishop, and the The painful intelligence, announced at appointment of another). He is to be sucthe close of our last Number, of the ceeded by a clergyman of exemplary piety decease of the Bishop of Calcutta, proved, and aptitude for the office, the Rev. as we feared, too true. His lordship ex- J. M. Turner, examining chaplain to pired at the metropolis of his see on the Bishop of Chester.” The last time the 7th of last July, at the early age of we alluded to Bishop Turner was last forty-five, worn down with the anxious July, in a note which we appended at responsibilities of his important office, p. 421, to the paper of a correspondent, and the fatigues of his late laborious visi- on the urgent need of bishops in India. tation of his diocese. We have before We subjoin the note, which, so far as we us various notices respecting this much can remember, was written on the very beloved and excellent prelate, which we day, or about it, of the bishop's decease. should have been glad to have detained * Our correspondent's suggestion is of till another month, that we might have great moment at the present time, in readded to them a few more passages from ference to the approaching question of his lordship's letters and journals, and a the renewal of the East-India Company's fuller account of his episcopal tour; more Charter; and we trust that the friends of especially some extracts indicative of the religion in the Church of England will secret feelings of his mind and the intima- strenuously exert themselves, whether cies of his religious character. But our by petitions or otherwise, to secure so readers will probably prefer that we should important an object. Our corresponpresent them promptly with a few parti. dent would find his arguments from culars; and we are the more anxious to Mr. Le Bas's Life of Bishop Middleton do so, not only from our affection for the greatly strengthened by Mr. James's inmemory of this much-lamented man, but teresting memoir of his brother, the late for the sake of urging upon all who honour Bishop James of Calcutta. We need not our pages with their perusal, the great add the name of Heber : and may we importance of using their utmost efforts never have occasion to add, as another victim, at this moment in their several spheres to the name of that much loved and respected awaken public attention to the solemn prelate, Dr. Turner.”—At the very moand urgent duty of increasing the number mer wien we were writing these lines, of bishops in India. We shall recur to at the distance of half the globe, our this topic in the sequel of our remarks. painful apprehension was being veriIt is no new topic in our pages; and we fed; and this faithful servant of Christ believe that, in every notice in them rela- was being translated to the joy of his tive to Bishop Turner, we have touched Lord, or had just entered it.
Our first allusion to him was We have not in our possession, at this in Feb. 1829, where we remarked, that moment, many memorials of his earlier “ Dr. James, the much respected Bishop years. He was not indebted to any adof Calcutta, has followed Middleton and ventitious circumstances of birth or proHeber, as a victim to the labours and perty, but, under the blessing of God, to anxieties of a diocese that ought to be his own diligence, talent, and integrity for divided into four (that is, so as to have all his prospects; for his father died an archbishop and three bishops, which, in while he was young, and left his family case of the death of one bishop, would ill provided for: but the ability, perseveleave three to consecrate a fourth, who rance, and exemplary conduct of young might be previously fixed upon from Turner secured him friends, who took a among the chaplains by the government, warm interest in his success. He was without the year and a half's delay and educated at Christ Church, Oxford, where he received kind notice and encourage- ble station in his Saviour's vineyard. On ment from the venerable Dean Jackson; the morning of his wife's funeral, he put into and he was distinguished in his acade- the hands of a friend a slip of paper with mical examinations. Immediately after the following text written on it: “Blessed taking his degree of B. A., which he did be God, even the Father of our Lord Jesus at an earlier age than usual, he became Christ, the Father of mercies, and the private tutor in the Marquis of Donegal's God of all comfort ; who comforteth us family, and was afterwards at Eton for in all our tribulation, that we may be able many years with Lord Belfast and Lord to comfort them which are in any trouble Chichester, and subsequently with the by the comfort wherewith we ourselves present Lord Castlereagh; and was very are comforted of God” (2 Cor. i. 3, 4). much in the confidence of all his lord- His whole deportment, exhibiting great ship's numerous connexions, especially affliction yet wonderful support, shewed of his grandfather the old Lord London- how blessedly he was himself experiencing derry, and his father, the present, with the consolation pointed out in this sacred whom he spent some time at Vienna, and promise. was deputed by the family to convey to We have not immediately at hand any him the melancholy intelligence of the letters or extracts from his private memolast Lord Londonderry's death. We may randa, by which we might accurately trace just remark, though not in the order of the development of his religious characdate, that it was this connexion which ter to that degree of the fulness of the made him known to Lord Ellenborough, measure of the stature of Christ which he who without hesitation, when the see of ultimately attained ; and we believe we Calcutta became vacant, offered him the may add, with perfect truth, that such were appointment, as the person best fitted for his extreme reserve and bumility in regard it whom he knew.
to the expression of his religious feelings, In 1823 he was presented to the vica- that nothing that he has said or written rage of Abingdon, whence he removed would do full justice to his real character. in 1824 to the rectory of Wilmslow, in Those religious friends who knew him at Cheshire, to which he was presented by Ęton, some fifteen or twenty years ago, the late Lord Liverpool. On settling considered him at that time as chiefly an there he married Miss Robertson, a sister- acute and able scholar; for, though highly in-law of the present Bishop of Chester, respectable in his whole conduct, religion to whom he had been long attached. It did not seem to form at that period a pleased God to take her from him a few prominent feature in his character. His months before his appointment to Cal- intimacy with the present Bishop of cutta. They had no children. How ten- Chester, whose published works shew derly and affectionately he cherished her the earnest assiduity and conscientiousness memory, is well known to all who en. with which he was addicting his mind to joyed the privilege of his intimate society the study of sacred truth, doubtless conor correspondence; and she is stated to tributed to his subsequent advancement have been a woman well worthy of his in the same blessed course with his surhighest esteem and attachment, and to viving friend. Without endeavouring to have greatly assisted and comforted him retrace the stages of this perhaps gradual in his pastoral labours. This excellent development, we know that for many woman, on her death-bed, in reply to an years Dr. Turner has been cordially inquiry whether he ought to accept the united in Christian sentiment and practice bishopric of India in case it were offered with those who have been led to embrace him, as probably it might be, entreated and love “the truth as it is in Jesus.” him by no means to decline it. She urged From his family letters, sermons, and him at whatever sacrifice of ease, or private papers, very interesting relics of health, and favourable prospects at home, his religious progress may without doubt to go out in the spirit of a martyr to that be collected : but these we have not now distant land; not counting his life dear to before us; and it were superfluous to himself, if by any means he might pro- quote from his occasional letters of busimote the glory of his Redeemer and the ness, though even these were always indi. welfare of immortal souls for whom he cative of true piety, simplicity of purpose, died. She had before her eyes the names and devotedness to Christ. We pass on and early loss of Middleton, and Heber, therefore to his setting out for India. and James; but she bid him let none of His friends remarked with much concern these things move him, but in the faith that his state of health did not promise and strength of his Lord go wherever a very extended career in the important his sacred vows of fidelity as a servant station to which he had been appointed. and ambassador of Jesus Christ impelled There was observed in him before his him. It was this her dying injunction departure a remarkable mixture of sowhich determined him, when the appoint- lemnity, yet cheerfulness, with a subment was offered, not to refuse it; though dued tenderness, affection, and spiritual he still lingered from better motives than mindedness which were peculiarly enpersonal peril, and would much rather have gaging. He seemed like a man who preferred a less conspicuous and responsi- felt the greatness of the work he had
undertaken, and his own weakness of body Tuesday July 14, to cross over to Ryde, and mind for its performance; and not having concerted with Captain Fitz-Claunfrequently would his thoughtful yet rence that a signal should be made, and tranquil eye, his meek address and subdued full time allowed us to get on board, if spirit, speak rather the silent struggles of the wind should come round so far as to the inartyr ready to be offered, and the time admit of our sailing. The evening was of whose departure appeared to him nigh spent quietly and satisfactorily.” at hand than the far different feelings “ On Wednesday, word was brought which by vulgar apprehensions might be that the Pallas had hoisted her signal. thought to attach themselves to his newly Not a moment was to be lost; a boat acquired worldly dignity and elevation. At was in waiting : all our baggage had been a friend's house, just before his embark- sent on board the day before ; cloaks and ation, while one of the family was playing portmanteaus were quickly made ready, Handel's tender air of,
and in five minutes we were on our way “ And if to fate my days must run, to the ship. The admiral's barge, with Oh righteous Heaven, thy will be done !" Lord Dalhousie and his party on board, every person present was much affected could be seen coming from Portsmouth : on observing this affectionate man with we slackened sail to give them time to his hands and eyes uplifted, evidently as
arrive before us, so that we might escape if anticipating the probable termination of the noise of the salute and the bustle of his earthly course in India, and with an the reception. It was an interval well expression not to be forgotten of devotion suited for reflection: the sense of all I and pious resignation to the will of God. was leaving, and of all which I must be
From Portsmouth, July 11, 1829, in ready to encounter, was strong upon my sight of the vessel which was to bear heart; the feeling I can with much thankhim from his native land, his attached fulness declare, though solemn, was not relatives and friends, and all that was intensely painful. Some natural tears dear to him on earth, never probably to were dropped ; and before faith and hope return, we find him writing to a friend : could have their perfect work our boat “ You will be satisfied to hear that I am was alongside, and my foot was on the quite well in health, and as to spirits much frigate's deck. The bustle of weighing as my kindest friends could desire. I anchor, the leave-taking from some Portsbelieve myself to be in the path of duty, mouth acquaintance who had come out to and I do not allow a doubt that I shall be say farewell, the hurried recognitions of guided and supported in it. The pang of the members of the Dalhousie party, then separation from all I love, and all who formed a succession of distractions, so love me, is indeed most bitter ; more so that it was not till the ship had rounded than I could have conceived possible when St. Helen's, and was cutting her lonely I recal that moment when every thing track through the quiet waters, that my this world could offer seemed taken away senses seemed to rouse to the realities of at a stroke, as I sat by my beloved wife's my moral position. At five o'clock we dying bed, and witnessed her peaceful were summoned to dinner; and as we departure. The prayer which I then were thus about to commence an interoffered up seems to have obtained its course which we might expect to be answer: it was, that I might never forget carried on without intermission for more that moment, or lose the earnest desire than three months, it became a matter of I then felt to follow her good example, considerable interest to ascertain on what that, whether my appointed course were *terms it was likely to be conducted. Our long or short, it might be one of active party consists of eight.” With much deusefulness. The prayer is thus far an- licacy the bishop, after mentioning the swered that the opportunity of usefulness names, adds, “ of the individual members is given me: pray for me, my dear friend, composing this party, I do not feel warthat I may not fail to improve it." ranted to speak; you have the outline of
We copy the following passages from the group, and however you might desire a familiar account which he sent bome to to be presented with pertraits of the sesome of his relatives, of the commence- veral persons composing it, I hold it would ment of his voyage. It will shew the cha- be a breach of the privilege of social inracter of the man and his communication tercourse if I were to undertake to be the more pleasingly than any thing we could artist. It is sufficient to say, that all I write. There are a few names and personal had previously heard and observed was allusions, but we scarcely know how to abundantly confirmed by this evening's exdetach them; and, as they do neither the perience; and I was quite satisfied that writer nor the parties any discredit, we my place was fixed amongst those to whom insert them. He continued this sort of the feelings and babits of the best society epistolary journal to the end of his voyage, were familiar." and, we believe, during his episcopal My cabin is a little apartment squared tour.
off from the main deck by a wainscot or “Wearied with the noise and vexations bulk-head; it is rather more than ten feet of Portsmouth fair, I determined, on long, and something less in breadth. The CHRIST. OBSERV. APP.
division towards the deck is filled with St. Andrews, Mr. Hatchard : their imVenetian blinds, and as there is a port- mediate purpose was to invite me to preach hole and the gun has been taken away, I the next evening at the great church, for shall have the great advantage of a free the Church Missionary Society. This, circulation of air. Lengthways in this however, was impossible, as, if my head had cabin the cot is slung high enough to bě been steady enough, I had brought nothing clear of the table and other furniture, on shore with me : notwithstanding great the lines being shortened so as to prevent urgency on their part, I was obliged to it from striking against the side when the decline their proposal. It was very graship rolls. To this cot I, with some diffi- tifying to have this unexpected opportunity culty, betook myself, and passed the night of seeing and hearing Mr. Bickersteth: as snugly as the incessant noise of the ship he preached very admirably.”. would allow. We were what seamen call The bishop goes on to mention spending beating to windward, and it was necessary, the evening at the house of a physician, therefore, for the ship to tack very
often. whose wife had been well known and Now the business of tacking a frigate is highly esteemed by Mrs. Turner. We much too complicated an operation, and allude to the passage for the sake of the demands too many hands, to admit of its expression of feeling which accompanies being effected silently. Every half hour, it.“ We jumped at once into intimacy, therefore, I had the tramp of a hundred agreeing to cut short all intermission, and men immediately over my head, sounding to commence at once where our common like thunder immediately along the deck, feelings placedus. Her conversation, turnbeneath which, at the distance of about ing as it did to the delight and profit she two feet I was suspended. This was bad bad derived from the correspondence and enough : but at day-light the whole of the society of that blessed one, was most deck was to be washed and scrubbed with acceptable and refreshing." what the sailors call the holy stone;' “ The day was closed in a quiet Chrisa process which the combined exertions tian manner; the seventy-second Psalm of all the knife-grinders and all the house afforded some useful matter for improvemaids in London could not easily surpass. ment; and the very peculiar circumstances At seven o'clock I turned out of my cot, under wbich our meeting took place could which was immediately taken away, and not but give occasion for much excitethe sleeping-place became in an instant a ment of spirit in prayer. I believe it was neat and comfortable dressing-room or a favoured season, an occasion much to study. A very refreshing walk on deck be remembered by every one of our little brought us to the breakfast hour (nine party. It seemed not improbable, this o'clock), and would, but for other causes, evening, that our stay at Plymouth might have brought with it a good appetite for be prolonged, and we looked to this with breakfast. These other causes were soon no feeling of dissatisfaction. The place in full operation : ten minutes after break- and neighbourhood I had long wished to fast I was obliged to retire to my cabin; visit; and what I had seen, as well as and the whole day was spent not so much what we heard of the people, was very in positive suffering as under a sense of pleasing. Then the Church Missionary expected evil and an utter incapacity to meeting would bring together a large accomplish, or even to begin, any thing. number of the neighbouring clergy, and The wind was contrary, blowing what the we were disposed, like Jonah, to be 'exsailors called a fresh gale, and the ship la- ceeding glad of the gourd.' However, boured greatly; so there was good reason we held ourselves ready for a start at a to be disquieted. From the sofa I soon moment's notice ; and that notice came transferred myself to my cot, in which the next morning, while we were at the śwung throughout the whole of the next
Church Missionary meeting. I had taken day; occasionally very sick and sometimes the first motion, and spoke shortly and very sleepy, but never in that state of feebly, followed by Mr. Carter, with violent exhaustion which I have some- considerable force and propriety in a times experienced in short passages. The concise but very striking address; when wind had increased considerably, and all word came that all was ready. We left matters looked so little encouraging that Bickersteth speaking ; hastened down to it was resolved by our captain to put into the landing place, and in a short time were Plymouth. About noon we anchored again under sail, with a pleasant favourwithin the breakwater: Lord Northesk able breeze. We passed quite close to sent off his barge, and the whole party the Eddystone lighthouse with a smooth very gladly set foot on firm ground about sea, and before night had made considerthree o'clock. It was not easy, at first, able way towards the Atlantic." to persuade ourselves that the ground was * Bear in mind that our whole appointfirm; the very granite pavement of Ply- ments are as complete as possible; that mouth streets seemed dancing under our the dining-room is as well supplied, the feet, and all around us was in a whirl. drawing-room as well furnished, as the Within an hour after our arrival our friend most luxurious taste could desire ; and Mr. Bickeršteth called with the vicar of you will begin to perceive that the diffi.