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in future cause parishes to pay more at- makers, feather men, &c., the average tention to the education and 'morals of number of deaths, from diseases of the this unhappy class of children.
lungs, was 5.44 per cent., or upwards of A work has been advertised on Pro- 54 persons in a thousand. The smallest phecy and the Millennium“ with litho- mortality, from these complaints, was graphic engravings, by Martin, represent- among the carders; the greatest among ing the divisions of the Holy Land and those who work in feathers. various buildings to be erected when the ral conclusion of M. Benoiston is, that Jews are restored ;” with “ a map of the among persons whose occupations oblige countries to be possessed by the restored them to breathe an atmosphere charged tribes;" “ the personal reign of Christ ; with dust, 24 persons of every thousand the time and manner of his coming ; the of such individuals received into the very spot where he shall alight, the place hospitals, will be found to be labouring where he shall fix his throne,” &c. &c. under consumption. We can only express our astonishment The French translators of Bunyan's that any person who professes veneration Pilgrim's Progress, despairing of doing for the word of God should witness justice to the author's singular verses, without pain and grief such vain and pre- have generally suppressed them; and a sumptuous sportings with its sacred con- new translation has lately been published tents.
without them; but M. Bost has supplied FRANCE.
the deficiency by a new metrical version Some researches have been made by published separately, with appropriate M. Benoiston de Chateauneuf, in relation music for singing. to the influence of certain occupations in The French law now allows of hawkers causing pulmonary consumption. His carrying books about without restrictions. attention was directed to the subject, This will greatly assist the circulation of from witnessing the number of deaths, Bibles and religious tracts, which had from that disease, in the commune of been much impeded under the late goMeuse, where the business of manufacturing gun flints is extensively carried on.
POLAND. By examining the registers, he came to Much sympathy is due in behalf of our the conclusion that human life has been Protestant Polish brethren, suffering unshortened five years in this commune, der the combined aflliction of war and which he attributes to the inhalation of pestilence. There are two Protestant the particles which escape from the gun- churches in Warsaw ; one of the Reflints, in the process of giving to them formed Evangelical confession, and one their proper form, causing a very great of the Lutheran. The members of the number of those employed in their manu- former are about twelve or fourteen hunfacture to be affected with disease of the dred in number. They have two pastors; lungs. He was led to extend his inves- the senior of whom superintends the tigations to the individuals of other occu- Reformed churches in the provinces, in pations, who are exposed to a similar number about twelve or fifteen. Many cause of disease. He procured a list of converted Jews attend his church, and persons admitted for pulmonary com- Roman Catholics are often seen in it. plaints into three of the principal hos- The Lutherans are about twelve or fifpitals of Paris, during a period of five teen thousand in number : they have one years, from 1821 to 1826. Among me- church and three pastors. chanics who, like bakers, coal-men, cot
SPAIN. ton-spinners, &c., breathe an atmosphere Mr. Washington Irving thus describes loaded with a fine vegetable dust, he found the modern aspect of Palos, a place methe average amount of consumption was morable in the life of Columbus and the a little more than twenty-two individuals history of the world :-“I cannot express in the thousand. The mortality, from con- to you what were my feelings on treading sumption, was the least among cotton- the shore which had once been animated spinners and carders, being about eighteen by the bustle of departure, and whose to the thousand, and the greatest being sands had been printed by the last footamong coal-men, about forty-one to the step of Columbus. The solemn and subthousand. Among those who breathe an lime nature of the event that had follow. atmosphere charged with mineral dust, ed, together with the fate and fortunes of such as stone-cutters, &c., the average those concerned in it, filled the mind with number of deaths from diseases of the vague yet melancholy ideas. It was like lungs, was nearly thirty persons in a viewing the silent and empty stage of thousand. Among labourers engaged in some great drama when all the actors had bewing stone, the mortality, from this departed. The very aspect of the landcause, is least, being eighteen in a thou- scape, so tranquilly beautiful, had an sand : while it is the greatest among effect upon me; and as I paced the deserted plasterers, exceeding thirty in a thousand shore by the side of a descendant of one Among those who breathe an atmosphere of the discoverers, I felt my heart swellloaded with fine particles of animal matter, ing with emotions and my eyes filling such as wool and hair carders, brush with tears. What surprised me was to find no semblance of a sea-port; there was controuling power over synods, with reneither wharf nor landing-place. It is át spect to the exercise of their ministerial present a mere village of the poorest kind, authority, or power to persecute any for and lies nearly a quarter of a mile from their religion, or in any sense contrary to the river, in a hollow among hills. It con- the Protestant succession to the throne tains a few hundred inhabitants, who sub- of Great Britain." “ The synod obsist principally by labouring in the fields serving that unanimity, peace, and unity, and vineyards. Its race of merchants and which appeared in all their consultations mariners are extinct. The people are and determinations relating to the affair totally ignorant, and it is probable the of the Confession, did unanimously agree greater part of them scarce know even in giving thanks to God in solemn prayer the name of America. Such is the place and praises.” A motion being made to from whence sallied forth the enterprise know the synod's judgment about the for the discovery of the western world." Directory, they declared that they judged UNITED STATES.
it to be agreeable in substance to the The early records of the Presbyterian word of God. Church in America have been recently Gibbs the pirate, lately executed in discovered in Pennsylvania, among the America, repeatedly stated that he was papers of a descendant of one of the first concerned in the robbery of more than Presbyterian ministers. The Presbytery forty vessels, and in the destruction of of Philadelphia, the first in the United more than twenty, with their entire crew. States, was organized in 1704; and in Many of those destroyed had passengers twelve years numbered twenty-seven con- on board; so that it is calculated that he gregations. So anti-sectarian were its has been an agent in the murder of nearly founders, that until the year 1729, there four hundred human beings. was no formal bond of union, except the The synod of Genesee, having been Bible, and the sentiments respecting its called to aid by their advice presbyplan of salvation as generally received by teries and churches under their superthe Protestant Reformed churches. At vision, labouring under difficulties on length, finding some inconvenience for the subject of freemasonry, state, that want of a recognized code of articles, it is the judgment of this synod, that they, after much deliberation, agreed on sufficient reasons exist, even exclusive the following resolution : “ Although the of the revelations of seceding masons, synod do not claim or pretend to any au- why all the ministers and members of thority of imposing our faith upon other their churches should dissolve their conmen's consciences, but do profess our just nexion with the institution of freedissatisfaction and abhorrence of such masonry, and signify the same to their impositions, and do utterly disclaim all Christian brethren. Its character as a legislative power and authority in the secret confederacy, which withholds its church; being willing to receive one proceedings from the correcting and puanother as Christ has received us to the rifying intluence of public cognizance, glory of God, and admit to fellowship in they consider, renders it peculiarly liasacred ordinances all such as we have ble to be employed as an instrument of grounds to believe Christ will at last ad- evil by designing men, and reasonably mit to the kingdom of heaven; yet we subjects its principles to be held chargeare undoubtedly obliged to take care that able for the overt wickedness which may the faith once delivered to the saints be emanate from its members. kept pure and uncorrupt among us, and so The conductors of the Philadelphia handed down to our posterity; and do Episcopal Recorder observe : “ We do therefore agree that all the ministers of not know when our feelings have been this synod, or that shall hereafter be ad- more excited, than while reading the remitted into this synod, shall declare their marks in the Christian Observer'on reagreement in and approval of the West- ceiving the first information of the death minster Confession of Faith, with the of Bishop Hobart; or when our heart has Larger and Shorter Catechisms of the mounted upward with a more hearty assent Assembly of Divines at Westminster, as than when we came to the concluding senbeing, in all the essential and necessary tence, ‘O if our brethren in the West will articles, good forms of sound words and listen to us in the East, let them avoid systems of Christian doctrine ; and do as a canker the party spirit and ungodly also adopt the said Confession and Cate-contending which have so often 'rent inchisms as the confession of our faith.” fant churches, and strive together in pu. Some scruples arising respecting parti- rity and peace for the faith of the Goscular passages, they added the following pel.' We have not avoided them; and qualification : “ Excepting only some this may be one reason why the Holy clauses in the xxth and xxiid chapters, Spirit is so slow to excite in us those concerning which clauses, the synod do renewed affections, that chastened zeal, unanimously declare, that they do not and that fervent devotion to the interests receive those articles in any such sense of Christ's body, which ought ever to chaas to suppose the civil magistrate hath a racterize its members. O that the record CHRIST. OBSERY, No. 358.
of the past were blotted out in heaven, and This being related to him, his feelings that our futare history as a church may were so deeply wounded, that he mountdeserve the commendation bestowed by the ed his horse and rode more than fify miles, Lord himself upon Thyatira, ‘I know thy to apologize for his heedless speech, and work, and cbarity, and service, and faith, ask the old lady's pardon. and thy patience and thy works,and the last Among the observations made in the to be more than the first.'”_OurTranslat- United States on the great eclipse of the lantic friend's confession and prayer are un- sun last February, in places where it was happily as appropriate to our own church annular, it was noticed that in the prisas to his. May both take the warning matic spectrum the space occupied by the before it be too late.
red rays was much less, and that by the The “Episcopal Education Society” has violet much greater than usual. The planet established a self-supporting school on Venus was visible for an hour, and Jupiter the banks of the Delaware, for the instruc- for a shorter time. Birds went to their tion of young men who wish to study for roosts, and cattle to their stalls. A therthe sacred ministry but have not resources mometer standing at 71 degrees in the to meet the ordinary expenses of a college sun is stated to have fallen to 42; and education. They are to study six hours powerful lens, which burned clothinstantly in the school, and work four on the farm; by the solar rays, produced no effect upon it a system which the committee think will during the middle of the eclipse. During not only be a measure of economy, but be the present century the moon's shade will of great service to the health of the young pass over the Atlantic States only three men, and prevent that large proportion of times. sickliness and premature death which is On comparing the returns of the late said to prevail in the American colleges. census of the United States with that of There are several academical institu- 1820, it appears that the increase of the tions, we believe, in the United States population during the last ten years, is upon this principle.
about 3, 223,000, and the rate of increase Our readers may affix to the obituary of about 33 per cent. The rate of increase Dr. Mason of New York the following between 1790 and 1800 was about 35 per anecdote, which his friends adduce as cha- cent. ; between 1800 and 1810, 34; between racteristic of his acute feeling and deep 1810 and 1820, 33. It is not, however, humility under a somewhat lofty aspect. stated what portion is owing to immigraBeing accustomed to visit some small tion. congregations in the country, he was re- We copy the following hospitable noturning to New-York through the high- tice from the New-York religious jourlands, from one of these excursions; and nals: “ Clergymen visiting the city during having stopped for a little refreshment, the approaching religious anniversaries are near the narrows, was furnished with
requested to call at the American Tract bread and milk, which he ate with an Society's house, that their Christian brethiron spoon.
On his return be smiling- ren may have the opportunity of furnishly mentioned the circumstance; and his ing them with accommodations during the remark about the iron spoon soon reached anniversaries. The invitation is cordially the ears of his kind hostess, who replied given, with an assurance from the under with grief, that she was sorry Dr. Mason signed that it will be esteemed a privilege had made himself merry at her expense; by our Christian friends, especially at this for if she had possessed a silver spoon, he season of unusual religious solemnity, should certainly have used it: as it was, she to entertain the ministers of Christ in furnished him with the best she had." their families.”
We had prepared various articles of Re- to which, for the present, we must refer ligious Intelligence, which we are obli- our readers. By the mercy of God no ged to postpone; and among them some lives were lost among the missionary farecent notices respecting the French milies; but their loss of property amounts Protestant Church, and some affecting to more than 40001., and they are destidetails of the destruction of the Mora- tute of funds either to supply the loss vian settlements in Barbadoes by the late or to carry on their valuable missionary hurricane. Other missionary establish- labours. They have no human resource ments have also suffered greatly in this in this exigency, but the sympathy and wide-wasting desolation. Some afflict- liberal benevolence of their Christian breing particulars respecting the Moravian thren; and these, we are persuaded, will settlements will be found on our Cover, not be found unequal to the occasion..
prove it in
VIEW OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS. We remarked in our last Number, that the people, were well nigh broken; that we thought it would be the wisdom of the bribery, corruption, and perjury, were as House of Lords to entertain the Reform notorious as the sun at noon day; that Bill; and we see nothing in what has the votes for members were in few and passed during the last month to lead us to partial hands, and no small portion of alter that opinion ; certainly nothing that them in hands the most improper to hold induces us to think that it was wise to them, the very dregs of society, men open reject it, without even an attempt to im- to venalityin its grossest and cheapest form,
committee. It would at down to the beer-barrel and gin-cask ; least have been more grateful to the nation, that the great majority of the respectable, if a measure urged by the Throne, anxi- substantial, loyal, peaceable, moral, reously matured by government and the ligious, and intelligent part of the public, unprecedented labours of the House of the leading householders of our parishes Commons, by a large majority of whom, and the persons looked up to in their as well as of their constituents, it was neighbourhoods as the moral strength of warmly espoused, as absolutely necessary the country, were almost wholly unrepreto the public weal, should have been sented, and had little to do with parliacalmly examined in detail, and not cast mentary elections, except to lament their out in the mass as utterly unworthy of sins and excesses; that under this system consideration. Had this course been pur.. the House of Commons was not the body sued, had the House of Lords cut down it ought to be ; that its votes were little the bill to its own standard of reform, or more than a trial of party strength, so proposed another in its place; though the that scarcely any question was allowed to effort, we feel convinced, would not in the stand upon its real merits, but was decidend have succeeded, or the public have ed by the preponderance of rival interbeen satisfied with a less efficient mea- ests ;-8, for example, corn against manusure than the present; yet there would factures; the landowner's rent against have been no pretext for popular irrita free trade, private church-patronage, tion, or for those revolutionary invectives against new church-building; feudal which have assailed the House of Lords, game laws, against common sense, and and may be the means before long of common justice and humanity; and intebringing on some extraordinary and un- rested West-Indian votes against the deconstitutional propositions which other mand of the moral, religious, enlightened wise had never been dreamt of, especially and humane part of the nation, for the as regards the bench of bishops, whose abolition of colonial slavery ;--that unvotes happened by accident to turn the der this system nothing was safe; that scale against the consideration of the even the Church of England and its re
venues, which it was pretended mainly The original propriety of bringing in rested upon this partial, hollow basis, and the bill, and the propriety of the House not upon the blessing of God or public of Lords accepting it, under all the cir- favour, and the obligations of justice and cumstances in which it came before them, religion, was itself likely to fall the moare totally distinct questions. For our
ment the predominant interest should selves we have not scrupled to express for any cause desire to subvert it; that our opinion upon both these points. With while these abuses lasted, it was admitted regard to the former, as Christians, as that no government could afford to be lovers of justice, and friends to our coun- honest, but must succumb to the interesttry, we have nothing to do with party po- ed views of a small body of influential litics; and our only way therefore of view- persons, and make all the public appointing the matter was upon what seemed ments of church and state a barter for to us the plain principles of right and votes in parliament, and augment honours wrong: and thus arguing it, we could and sinecures to assist the same object. not refuse to see that our present system We might say more, but such were some of national representation had become of the reasons which led us to consider incommensurate to its professed object; parliamentary reform necessary; and the that many old places had decayed, and late bill appeared to us, upon the whole, new ones arisen ; that private nomination likely to effect the desired end, both in and party interests had avowedly come to the excision of what was decayed and the exercise that influence in the national re- addition of what was required: and to presentation which wisely and constitu- bind together the great mass of the moraltionally belonged to the great mass of ity, intelligence, and property of the land; national wealth, respectability, and intelli- and thus present an unbroken front, gence; that a large body of the people were equally against interested oligarchy and the constantly dissatisfied'; that they had no spirit of radicalism and revolution which confidence in their representatives or threatened to overwhelm all orders of the rulers, nor were likely to have till the
It only requires that we should whole machine was re-adjusted to its look back to the alarming condition of the u ue level ; that the bonds of national sym- country this time last year, to see that patby, which ought to unite all classes of something very efficient was necessary to
(Oct. prevent the most dreadful state of anarchy wide-spread combinations not to pay and rebellion into which we appeared to rates, or tithes, or taxes; and when, whebe fast sinking.
ther the bill was good or bad, it was moUnder all the circumstances, therefore, rally impossible that some such measure we were disposed to view the Reform could be long delayed, while every hour's Bill with favour, upon its own merits: delay only raised larger demands ;-under it appeared to us wise, and liberal, and all these circumstances, even those who calculated to prevent the necessity for disapproved of the introduction of the future agitations of the question, which bill might well pause as to the wisdom must have incessantly occurred under of rejecting it after it had arrived at so partial amendments, and at length pro- advanced a stage of its progress. Happy pably have ended in ruinous democracy. do we think it had been for the country Our firm conviction is, and it is the at large, and peculiarly happy for themconviction of some who still oppose selves, had the majority of the House of the measure, that if it had been allowed Lords taken this view of the subject : peaceably to pass into law last spring, and still more happy had it been for the when it was first proposed, the public Church of England, had our Right Rewould have been satisfied ; national peace verend prelates acted upon the same conwould have been restored, legislation viction; and this we think they might would have gone on quietly and temper- have done honestly and wisely, under all ately; and these benefits would have been the circumstances, notwithstanding their gained without those fearful agitations original disapprobation of the measure. which may yet ensue, or the raising Their constitutional right to reject the of those revolutionary questions which bill is undoubted: but we seriously have now become household words among doubt whether they have exercised it the populace, and which, unless even yet wisely, especially as the matter related set at rest while concession has grace, wholly to the constitution of the other threaten consequences fatal to our na- House of Parliament, in whose election tional church, our hereditary legislation, and proceedings the influence of the peerand the whole fabric of British society. age is in theory carefully guarded against,
Such were our views, as expressed from though in practice it has become overthe first, respecting the original pro- whelming. Of the hundred and ninetypriety of a measure of large and efficient nine lords who voted against the bill (the parliamentary reform: but, even admit-i minority was one hundred and fifty-eight), ting that these considerations were not though many had private interests at stake, conclusive, the question as it came before we cannot doubt that the larger portion the House of Lords did not of necessity were honest in their opposition, viewing rest upon them. Let it be granted, that it the measure as likely to be injurious, not might be originally unwise to bring in merely to their own order or interests, this contested bill, and that it had been but to the constitution at large, both in better to have risked rebellion and revolu- church and state. The great majority of tion than have urged such a measure; yet the Right Reverend bench seem to have when the bill had been brought forward; taken this view of the question; and most when the great mass of the nation had re- unfair has been the popular obloquy ceived it with enthusiasm; when a new which has assailed them, as if they had House of Common had been returned ex- sold their consciences to perpetuate inpressly and triumphantly to support it; justice and corruption. We fully concur when the votes of that House were large- in the remark of the Bishop of London ly in its favour, and several anxious and in defending them, that they had acted weary months had been spent in arguing honestly, but that whether they had acted every particular of its merits and de- wisely was another question. We think merits; when the king and the cabinet they have acted unwisely, though conhad pledged themselves not to abandon scientiously; and we fear they have unit; and the public at large, who at first knew intentionally prejudiced the Church of little of the matter, had become so well England, and their own order in it in acquainted by twelve months' discussions, particular, in a way which may shew itself with the anomalies of our representation, at the meeting of parliament far more and the whole system of nomination, bo- alarmingly than in popular outcry and roughmongering, and party representation, tumultuous burnings in effigy.-We hoped till then enveloped in secrecy or veiled for much good from the New Church with delicacy, that it was impossible they Bills (the enactments of which we purshould ever be contented with the old pose inserting in our pages), but we fear abuses, or wish less, rather than more, that the late vote of the bishops, calm than the bill offered; when other grave and honest as we believe it to have been, questions also began to be talked of, the will, for a time at least, more than counpopular answer to which would mainly terbalance their beneficial effects. The depend upon the reception or rejection of question of tithes, in particular, is likely the Reform Bill; when the church was to come on again and again, in a manner said to be in danger, and the peerage in that will require all the good conduct and danger, and the state itself in danger, from popularity of the church to guide it to