Vane, he thought himself entrusted often injured by straining after with the sceptre of the millennial things too high for mortal reach ; year. Like Fleetwood, he cried in and we know that, in spite of their the bitterness of his soul, that God hatred to Popery, they too often fell had hid his face from him. But, into the worst vices of that bad when he took his seat in the council, system, intolerance and extrava-or girt on his sword for war, these gant austerity; that they had their tempestuous workings of the soul anchorites and their crusaders, their had left no perceptible trace behind Dunstans and their De Montforts, them. People who saw nothing of their Dominics and their Escobars. the godly but their uncouth visages, Yet, when all circumstances are and heard nothing of them but their taken into consideration, we do not groans and their whining hymns, hesitate to pronounce them a brave, might laugh at them. But those a wise, an honest, and an useful had little reason to laugh who en- body.” countered them in the hall of debate, There is something in the tone of or in the field of battle. These fa- this splendid passage which I am natics brought to civil and military afraid will ring painfully on your affairs a coolness of judgment, and ear, at least it does on mine ; but an immutability of purpose, which you will readily separate this from some writers have thought inconsis- the particular fact which I adduced tent with their religious zeal, but the extract to illustrate--namely, the which were in fact the necessary spiritual, devoted, self-denying, and effects of it. The intensity of their highly exalted character of the relifeelings on one subject made them gion of those truly excellent men tranquil on every other. One over- who were mixed up with much baser powering sentiment had subjected matter, under the indiscriminate name to itself pity and hatred, ambition of Puritans. Persecution has been and fear. Death had lost its terrors, often permitted, in infinite mercy, and pleasure its charms. They had by the Supreme Head of the church, their smiles and their tears, their to exercise and purify the graces of raptures and their sorrows, but not his servants : nor has it ceased as to for the things of this world. En- its spirit, even in the present day, thusiasm had made them Stoics, had as Bishop Maltby would tell us (the cleared their minds from every vul- prayer that we may be hurt by no gar passion and prejudice, and raised persecutions having, I suppose, bethem above the influence of danger come obsolete, with two thirds of and corruption. It sometimes might the Bible); but still we know nothing lead them to pursue unwise ends, of it in its fiery sharpness: the bounbut never to choose unwise means. dary between the world and the They went through the world like church is not clearly defined in public Sir Antegale's iron man, Talus, with opinion; for, thoughit exists as marked his flail, crushing and trampling aseverin truth and in the word of God, down oppressors, mingling with yet as to visible, external profession, human beings, but having neither the shades are softened and melt part nor lot in human infirmities; into each other; the tares are not insensible to fatigue, to pleasure, only more numerous than formerly, and to pain; not to be pierced by but the enemy has discovered a new any weapon, not to be withstood by species of them, so like wheat as to any barrier.

deceive all but an Omniscient Eye; “Such we believe to have been the so that there is the greatest danger character of the Puritans. We per- of spiritual relaxation, and a meagre, ceive the absurdity of their manners. stunted growth in the divine life. We dislike the sullen gloom of their How earnestly does it behove every domestic habits. We acknowledge true follower - of Christ to guard that the tone of their minds was against this seductive influence! In

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the days of the Tudors and Stuarts, loyal soldiers, who needed food and Papists and Protestants, Episcopa- lodging, fuel and sport, they effected lians and Puritans, all really thought sometimes nearly as much damage, religion a matter of importance; a and committed scarcely less sacrilege. thing worth contending for, and suf- You remember where stood the venefering for; whereas now, the great rable foundation of the hospital of St. danger is from sceptical indifference. Mary Magdalene, on the top of the There is a grievous Erastian spirit high hill which commands Winchesamong us, which is expelling religion ter. This, among other places, the from our public forms, and, if heed king's troops converted into barracks be not taken, will sap its very foun- in the year 1643; and we find the dations in private also.

master and alms-folk bitterly comThe Puritans have gained much plaining to Charles's field-marshal discredit for their barbarous oppo- Hopeton of their sacrilegious spoliasition to things of no importance in tions. “ The soldiers,” say they, themselves, and particularly for their“ keeping their rendezvous there, iconoclastic propensities. But in have not only devoured nine quarters fairness it ought to be remembered, of seed barley, and broken down and that they connected these things in burnt up the great gates, all the their own minds with the return of doors, tables, boards, cupboards, Popery, and that the doctrinal and timbers, partitions, barns and stables, ecclesiastical notions of some of their but have also used violence to the opponents, such as Laud, did not house of God, burning up all pews tend to tranquillize their minds on and seats in the church; also the the subject. Winchester, like most communion table and all other other ecclesiastical towns, will long wainscoat and timber there that they rue their dilapidations. The soldiers could lay their hands on; and have of Sir William Wallace did irrepa- converted the said house of God into rable and malicious damage to the a stable for horses and other profane churches, and especially to the ca- uses, to the great dishonour of God.” thedral, even to pillaging tombs and These things ought to be taken fairly making brutal sport with the bones into the account, that we may not of the dead. It would be difficult overcharge one side while we forget to ascertain how much of this mis- the outrages of the other. Such chief they did conscientiously, and outrages were also the more inexhow much wantonly; how much as cusable on the side of the Cavaliers, Puritans, and how much merely as not only because they had no apology soldiers : but I am inclined to hope of religious principle or prejudice, as that if the latter part of the estimate was the case with many of the other were fairly weighed, the former would party, who thought they did God appear considerably lighter. For it service in their war upon Prelacy as ought to be remembered that the well as Popery, upon copes and surroyalist soldiers were often almost plices, as well as consecrated shrines as mischievous as the parliamenta- and altars; but because the king's rian; in proof of which I need not party boasted of being persons of go beyond this city of Winchester. more polished education and habits The king's troops turned churches than their opponents, and therefore into barracks and stables as remorse- were doubly self-condemned in their lessly as those of the republican and wanton spoliations. When we rePresbyterian army; and, though they collect that one of the first acts of our did not destroy crosses, batter cruci- learned Universities, after the death fixes, put out the eyes of the Virgin of Charles the First, was to make Mary, blow up altars, rifle tombs, Cromwell a Doctor of Laws, and a and obliterate superstitious inscrip- whole batch of illiterates, as Joyce tions from hatred to Prelacy or Po- the taylor, Hewson the shoemaker, pery, yet, in their capacity of good, Rose the throwster, Harrison the

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butcher, and Oley the drayman, enter the .college, to subscribe a de-
Masters of Arts, we cannot wonder claration that they will strictly abide
that much of taste and refinement by such rules and regulations as the
was not to be found in the soldiers, council shall lay down for the good
or even the officers, of the Common- government of the college, so far as
wealth armies; and that they could the same may affect the students in
not make very accurate distinctions attendance on the regular courses or
as to what ought to be destroyed as otherwise.”
superstitious, and what ought to be Now I respectfully suggest that it
spared as innocent and laudably in- is not wise to require subscriptions
teresting. Had the parliamentary of any kind from a boy of sixteen;
leaders even determined to spare since such subscriptions in point of
what was valuable or curious, they fact are seldom or ever of any prac-
would probably have known no better tical utility, while in numerous in-
way of doing so than Mummius, the stances they are very likely to be
Roman general, who, when he sacked violated; thus unnecessarily causing
Corinth, told the people entrusted moral guilt, and a habit of disregard-
with the works of art, that if they ing the solemnity of vows and pro-
lost them they should buy new ones.

mises. But if subscriptions of any But, in truth, in such a heated state kind, even subscriptions to rules of parties, and with the rage of civil known and well defined, are superwar rampant throughout the land, fluous and may prove injurious; how mischief was naturally to be expected much more injudicious is it to reon both sides, and moderation on quire a subscription to rules and neither. If the estimate thus im- regulations not yet in existence, partially adjusted should cool in- and the nature of which no human temperate partizanship, it ought also being can foresee? If a young man to have another tendency—to make breaks the rules of the college, or us discern more fully the evils of does not choose to submit to such war, especially civil war, and, most regulations as shall from time to of all, religious war, and to value time be imposed, the proper remedy more adequately the blessing we is admonition, reprimand, literary enjoy of being mercifully exempted punishment, or ultimately suspenfrom its ravages.

May an All-wise sion or expulsion, as the case may and Gracious Providence guard us require : but to make him stipulate against the recurrence of such scenes. that he will not break rules, and, Horresco referens !

above all, rules not yet in being, is (To be continued.)

a superfluity of caution which tends to no benefit, and may involve much evil. Every youth who honestly subscribes such a declaration, must

do it with some mental reservation; KING'S COLLEGE, LONDON.

-first taking it for granted, as inTo the Editor of the Christian Observer. deed he has every reason to believe

will be the case, that the rules will I HAVE read with much satisfaction never be contrary to the word of the rules and regulations of King's God or in any way unlawful or inCollege, London, which appear to jurious; and secondly, with a tacit me in general truly excellent; but understanding that, if at any time I respectfully submit to those of your he should not feel inclined to obey readers who are proprietors or offi- them, he is at liberty to take his cers of that institution, whether it name off the books, and leave the is judicious to require of boys of college. But neither of these resersixteen years of age such a stipulation vations is expressed or allowed for; as the following ? “ All the students his declaration is final, absolute, will be required, before they shall prospective, and tied down to things Christ. Observ. No. 358.



not yet in being; so that, if it were lawful or unlawful, religious or irrepossible that the council should ever ligious, the soldier is bound by his make a regulation most improper or oath to obey. Among the monasdirectly sinful, there is his solemn tic orders, such oaths are common. stipulation, morally tantamount to an At a time when the legislature oath, that he will obey it.

is laudably diminishing the number Suppose that the whole plan and of civil oaths, and every wise man policy of the college were at some feels how desirable it is not to weakfuture period to be changed ; for en the sacredness of solemn obligawhat in worldly affairs is constant ? tions by imposing unnecessary burLook, for example, at the rapid dens on the conscience, it is surely changes which took place in schools much to be regretted, that the boy and colleges in the reigns of Henry of sixteen should make vows for the VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Eliza- young man of one and twenty; and, beth ; and what awful falsification especially that he promise obedience of stipulations and breaking of oaths to laws and regulations not in exattended them! Even King's College istence, and respecting which it is itself is a memorable instance of time enough to enforce obedience this mutability of human purposes; when they are devised and register. for when this college was planned, ed. That obedience will in practice expressly to oppose the London be neither the more nor the less cerUniversity, was it ever imagined that tain for the matriculating stipulation. it would open under the altered cir. The idea of a boy's subscribing to cumstances of the present day? The statutes, is taken from the example king was to be its patron : but of our universities and ancient founwould the founders have been so dations. But the practice at these solicitous of this honour if they could needs itself to be reformed, and not have known that it would open under to be made a pattern for new insti. the patronage of a king who is a tutions. At Oxford the pupil, if of Whig, a Reformer, and a voter for sixteen years of age, subscribes the Catholic Emancipation ? To secure Thirty-nine Articles, and takes the it more fully, the Lord Chancellor, oath of the king's supremacy, and the Secretary of State for the Home another of fidelity to the university. Department, and the Lord Mayor of I need not discuss the propriety of London for the time being, were to making a youth of sixteen subscribe be among its “perpetual governors;" the Articles, which most probably he but who could foresee what changes has never read, and certainly does would come to pass, and especially, not fully understand ; but I am surthat the founder of the London Uni- prised to find it added in the Statute versity would be the Lord Chan- Book, that if he has attained the age cellor? I have not a shadow of of twelve, but is not of the age of suspicion that the college will sixteen, he shall merely subscribe the swerve in our day, or our children's, Articles, as if this were a much less from its avowed objects, or adopt serious affair than the oath of supreany rule but what is wise and well macy. It is true, that in practice considered ; but the circumstances boys of twelve are not at present maI have alluded to may shew the folly triculated; but this is a mere accident, of making unconditional promises and does not alter the essential feafor futurity, when we know not what tures of the system. a day may bring forth. The mili

While I am alluding to this subtary oath is the only unconditional ject, and the Oxford Statute-Book is and prospective oath in this country, in my hand, I will note two or three which I recollect. “I swear to obey other points not wholly unconnected the orders of the officers who are with the topic. I would inquire set over me; so help me God.” No whether the student is not obliged reserve is allowed ; let the order be to seek“graces,” and to pay large fees


for obtaining them, when the mat- St. Paul. This constitutes, in fact, ters for the neglect of which the the technical essence of the degree. graces are implored are not possible I say nothing of innumerable reto be performed. Many a studious gulations about vestments, and miunder-graduate is doubtless desirous nute ceremonies, which though many of attending the various public lec- of them obsolete, more of them untures pointed out in the Statute necessarily burdensome, and not a Book, and which professors are few of them frivolous, or only usepaid to deliver. But it has been ful as respects the fees attached often popularly stated, that those to them, are not the most serious lectures are not in fact delivered; matters of consideration. It is due and that thus the pupil not only to our forefathers to add, that most loses the instruction he wished to of these regulations were intended to obtain, but is actually made to pay conduce to good order and discipline; heavy fines for not having attended and even where they are not of lectures which were never delivered. any great utility, it seems scarcely If this notion is unfounded, some of necessary to innovate, unless they your academical readers will doubt- are found to be positively injurious less correct it; and the query which or inconvenient. But I cannot but I have proposed will clear up a cur- think the payment of fees and fines rent charge, which does not tend to for graces and dispensations for not the honour of our seats of learning. doing what the candidate could not

Again, in the ceremonials of tak- do, and would not have been allowed ing a degree, I find in the Statute to do, is an exceptionable practice. Book, that the manner in which the I do not mean that the fees or fines candidate implores it, and the Uni- are too large ;--posssibly not; but versity grants it, corresponds to the why not make a regular charge of following formularies of presentation. them, and abolish the unintelligible For the degree of Bachelor of Arts ; or fictitious items which enter into “ Most illustrious Vice-Chancellor, their amount, to the serious detriand ye most excellent Proctors, I pre- ment of Christian truth and simplisent to you this my scholar in the fa- city. culty of arts, that he may be admitted Again ; the Statute Book tells me to the reading of any of the books of that the candidate for a degree Aristotle's Logic, and the other acts swears, among many other matters, imposed by the statutes; and I tes- that “ he will not read or hear lectify that he has read, or heard read, tures at Stamford ;” which he may the Articles of Faith and Religion, as safely swear as that he will not &c.” For the degree of Bachelor in study in the moon, for no such rival Music; “ Most illustrious Vice- university has for many ages existed ; Chancellor, &c. I present, &c. that but it is not very reverent to call he may be admitted to the reading God to witness such an oath. I find of any book of Boethius :" in Me- this in a copy of the Statute Book dicine;

“that he may be admitted not many years old; but I have to the reading of any book of Hip- heard that this part of the oath has pocrates : in civil law; “ to the been recently rescinded; and I only reading of the Imperial Institutes:" quote it for the sake of shewing that and in Divinity; "to the reading of statutes intended to bind posterity any Epistle of St. Paul;” which I ought not to be too minute, but therefore conclude an under-gradu- should be conversant with principles ate cannot statutably attempt. The rather than mutable details. A modegree is conferred in corresponding dern Oxford statute “concerning veterms, so that we have three times hicles,” denounces by name “phaerepeated this obsolete matter of read- tons ;" “ because,” it is added, ing Aristotle, Boethius, Hippocrates, former statute had provided against and, as a matter of University grace, this evil of the improper use of ve


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