their services in hay-time and harvest, boiled cheered the heart of the humblest and at other stated periods. The whole, labourer on the land, and was closed with however, especially in remore situations, decent hilarity by a cheerful beaker or two formed a sort of little independent com- of home-brewed ale. munity in themselves, deriving their sub- “But the religious order of the family sistence almost exclusively from the pro- was the distinguishing trait. The whole duce of the farm. The master's household household assembled in the hall (or kitalone usually amounted to fifteen or twenty chen) in the morning before breakfast, for souls: and the whole population of the family worship, and in the evening before farm, or onstead, to double or treble that supper. The good-man, of course, led number ;-a namber considerably greater, their devotions, every one having his perhaps, than will now be commonly found Bible in his hand. This was the stated on a farm of the saine extent,,but main- course even in seed.time and harvest : tained with much frugality, and always between five and six in the morning was industriously occupied, though not op- the hour of prayer in these busy seasons. pressed with labour.

“ On Sabbath all went to church, how.“ Little of the jealous distinction of ever great the distance, except one perranks which now subsists between the son, in turn, to take care of the house or farming class and their hired servants, younger children, and others to tend the was then known. The connexion be- cattle. After a late dinner, on their retween master and servant had less of a turn, the family assembled around the commercial, and more of a patriarchal master, who first catechised the children character. Every household formed but and then the servants.

Each was seone society. The masters (at that time quired to tell what he remembered of the generally a sober, virtuous, and religious religious services they had joined in at the class,) extended a parental care over their house of God; each repeated a portion of servants, and the servants cherished a the Shorter Catechism; and all were then filial affection for their masters. They examined on heads of divinity, from the sac together, they ate together, they often mouth of the master. Throughout the wrought together; and after the labours whole of the Sabbath, all worldly conof the day were finished, they assembled cerns, except such as necessity or mercy together around the blazing fire, in the required to be attended to, were strictly • farmer's ha', conversing over the occur- laid aside ; and nothing was allowed to rences of the day, the floating rumours of enter into conversation save subjects of the country, or auld warld stories;' and religion. not unfrequently religious subjects were • These homely details may perhaps introduced, or the memory of godly men, seem, at first sight, calculated to corrobo. and of those who, in evil times, had battled rate, in some respects, the exaggerated or suffered for the right, was affection- notions which prevail in England res. ately commemorated. This familiar in- pecting the religious austerity of the old tercourse was equally decorous as it was Presbyterians ; and readers, looking exkindly,—for decent order and due subor- clusively to the strictness of their discidination were strictly maintained. It pline, their alleged proscription of all was the great concern of masters and amusements,' the limited education, the mistresses, when new servants were re- want of books, and, above all, the want quired, to obtain such as were of sober of refinement which, according to our and religious habits : if any one of a dif- modern notions, might be expected to be ferent character got in, his dismissal, at the necessary result of familiar association the first term, was certain. Servants in with menial servants,-may possibly picthose days never thought of changing ture to themselves a state of society almasters, unless something occurred which together clownish, melancholy, and mo. sendered the change indispensable. notonous. Yet this would be a very false

“ Aç ordinary meals, the master (or estimate of the real character and congood-man, as he was termed,) took his dition of the old Scottish tenantry. seat at the head of the large hall table, the “ The life of the husbandman and his mistress sitting on his right hand, the dependents, in those days, was so far children on his left, the men-servants next from being unenlivened by mirth and enin station, and the maid-servants at the joyment, that there was in truth much bottom,—one of the latter serving. The more real enjoyment than is now often to use of tea was then unknown, except in be witnessed. They had more leisure to the houses of the gentry. Porridge was be merry than their descendants, and the constant dish at breakfast and supper; there was, in reality, no proscription of at dinner broth and meat, milk, cheese, innocent amusements. Spring and anand butter. Twice in the year, exclusive tumn were the only seasons that required of extraordinary occasions, there was a very arduous labour in the old system of farm festival, in which every inhabitant of husbandry; and then those seasons came the place partook ; namely, the kira, or round with an air of more festivity, had harvest home, at the close of autumn, and more of a heart-stirring aspect about them, the celebration of the new year. On these and their toils were encountered with a occasions, an abundant feast of baked and more grateful alacrity than in our days of Christ. OBSERV. No. 349.


regular rotations and improved machi- vout and upright man, who trained nery. At other seasons of the year the labours were comparatively light. The

his family with great prudence and winning of peats and hay, ewe-milking,

affectionate solicitude in the fear sheep-shearing, the dairy, and the tending of God and the love of Christ; of the flocks and herds, chiefly occupied

chiefly occupied in which delightful employment the jocund days of summer. In winter their leisure was still greater, and their

he was admirably assisted by his enjoyments not less diversified. Field meek and pious partner, and the sports were eagerly followed in the in- blessing of God rested upon their tervals of labour, or when frost and snow labours. Alexander, the youngest had stopped the progress of the plough;

of the family, who was early denor were the peasantry then restrained from such hardy amusements by the en

voted to the ministry, after learnforcement of demoralising game laws. ing all that was to be obtained at At other times, the grave good-man would the parish school of his native foot-ball or the kitticct, and bid them take place, was sent for five years to a bout to warm their youthful blood. Earlstoun, a neighbouring village, And in the long winter evenings, when to learn Latin and Greek, prepaseated around the fire. harmless mirth ratory to his college studies. and jocularity pleasantly alternated with Earlstoun is situated in the most more grave and instructive conversation ; nor did any puritanical sourness forbid the romantic regions of Scottish Arrecitation of the old romantic border bal- cadia ; and Dr. Waugh never forlads and legends, or the singing of the got the scenes and incidents impoetry and the music were, like the broom pressed on his youthful feelings,

He and birch of the braes around them, the by its cherished localities. spontaneous and unsophisticated growth says, years afterwards : of their own beautiful country. And thus,

""As I believe that a sparrow falls not with scarcely any books of amusement, without any games of chance, without vine Providence, I think it right to pre

to the ground without the agency of Distimulating liquors, and without ever

serve the memory of the care of that seeing a newspaper, our simple ancestors

Providence about my life during the managed to beguile their hours of leisure period of youthful rashness and inexpeand relaxation cheerfuily and innocently;

How often was I in danger of and, on the whole perhaps, quite as rationally, if not quite so elegantly, as their ing the tree, the loose fragments of old

being dashed in pieces while I was climbmore bustling and unbitious offspring: towers, and the rugged precipice jutting Amidst the manifold improvements of

out over the river ! I almost feel the more recent times, (the value of which, trembling of my joints while I look back in some respects, we are far from deny

on these ing), it may yet be considered very ques- Rhymer's Tower, and particularly the

dangers at Cowdenknowes, tionable, whether all that has been aban. Gaitheugh opposite to Old Melrose. doned of former manners has been equally

" • In the midst, however, of these well replaced, and whether even our pro dangers, I was gathering health, and gress in knowledge and refinement has not been but too dearly purchased by the

strengthening my constitution. My

schoolmaster and I were accustomed to sacrifice of qualities still more valuable. “ This brief outline (for it is nothing

rise in the summer mornings sometimes

at five o'clock, and to the number of ten more) of a state of rural society which many of our older readers must have wit

or twenty, to visit the White Cleugh nessed in their youth, though few vestiges mile and a half from the village, where,

Well,' a kind of mineral spring, about a of it now remain, may perhaps to some

if the waters did us no signal good, we persons seem here unnecessary or mis. placed; but, besides our desire to present body calls it, to the goddess of the waters.

were certainly much indebted, as someto English readers a picture, sketched

• At the earlier season of the year, we from real life, of the lovely simplicity of the olden day, we think that it will serve

were accustomed to rise very soon also,

for the important business of drawing our as a key to much of what is most interesting in the subject of this memoir; for fishing-lines, which had been set over in such a household as we have described night in the Leader.

1.To those and similar excursions, were spent the early years of Alexander Waugh; and to the influence of such particularly bird-nesting in the country, scenes upon a heart of no ordinary sen

the most pastoral and sweet that my eyes sibility, may be fairly ascribed many of

ever beheld, and where every brae is rethe most valuable, as well as delightful

, vocal,—is to be ascribed the good health

plenished with bushes, and every bush fraits of his character.” pp. 1--10.

which our youth generally enjoy, and the Dr. Waugh's father was a de- enthusiasm with which every native thinks


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and speaks of Leaderhaughs and Tweed- than almost any man side. *** I recollect the friendships of youth and to know him was to love him.

knew ;—for knew him we did, with reverence. They are the embraces of the heart of man ere vice has polluted Without any artificial polish, and or interest diverted its operations. In with not a little rusticity, there the churchyard of Earlstoun lies the friend of my youth. John Anderson was a

was a native elegance of mind, young man of the gentlest manners and of which displayed itself in all he unassumed piety. Often, when the public said and did.—At school he was service of the church was over have we the most lively and playful boy in wandered among the broom of Cowden: the company; the first at sports, knowes, and talked of the power of that Being by whose hands the foundations of and the first at work; and while the mountains we beheld were laid, and rambling about mountains and by whose pencil the lovely scene around glens for hours, from early dawn, us was drawn, and by whose breath the

“ listening to the linnets,” or mu. flowers among our feet were perfumed. On our knees have we many a time in sing in the ravine of Melrose, he succession lifted up our hearts to him for contrived to pick up as much Greek knowledge, for pardon, for the formation and more Latin than any of his of his image in the soul. We looked for class-fellows. The love of natural ward to the days of coming prosperity, and fondly hoped it might please God that, scenery was in him, as in Legh hand in hand, we should pass through life Richmond, an enjoyment amountto that world we were taught to love and ing almost to a passion; yet this aspire after. But Heaven thought other- excellent man, in the discharge wise, and by a consumption carried my of his solemn duties, contentedly, friend to the grave in the bloom of life. I cannot, even at this distance of time, read nay cheerfully, passed the greater his letters, but the recollection of the past part of his life pent up in a murky overcomes my soul with weakness.

city; thus shewing how completely * * John Anderson had a sister: if ever piety and mildness of soul, with most be

a sense of duty and the love of coming softness, inhabited a female form, God, and of man for God's sake, it was the form of that excellent young can endear to the Christian, what woman. Through solicitude about her otherwise would be repulsive to brother

, she caught his disorder: n I hur his feelings. Well he knew, by a ried to Earlstoun the moment I heard of her danger : she made an effort to rise up sacred instinct, how to reconcile to receive me. My brother, my brother, the apparently adverse feelings so he wbom you so loved, is gone! I heard beautifully described by that truly the trampling of the horses' feet as his funeral passed by the door. I shall soon

Christian poet Keeble. In the be with him. My God will supply all


sublimer scenes of nature, amidst wants out of his fulness in glory by Christ the silent loneliness of rocks and Jesus.' Her strength, was spent;-in mountains, he would have said by four days after, I held the cord which let anticipation, though he lived not her down into the grave. She was buried in the grave adjoining to her brother's, to read the lines, and but ten days after his interment. No sounds of worldly toil ascending there, • They were lovely in their lives, and in Mar the full burst of prayer : their deaths they were not divided.' They Lone Nature feels that she may freely were the boast of the village. Their me- breathe; mory is still fragrant ; reproach could not

And round us, and beneath, sully their fair character; I do not re- Are heard her sacred tones; the fitful member of an enemy they ever had. Their

sweep religion was truly like apples of gold in Of winds across the steep, pictures of silver. Farewell, my earliest Through withered bents-romantic note friend. I will hold up your image to my and clear, beart, and trace on my own the sincerity, Meet for a hermit's ear. friendship, love, and goodness of yours. Pp. 26–29.

Yet equally could he feel in the Our readers will see in this pas

busiest scenes of metropolitan in

tercourse and active duty, that sage a lovely portrait of the writer's tender and affectionate spirit. Love's a flower that will not die

For lack of leafy screen ; He had more of deep sentiment And Christian hope can cheer the eye and pathos, without any of its cant, That ne'er saw vernal green.

Then be ye sure his love can bless preach the Gospel. He was wont, in
Even in this crowded loneliness;

after life, to speak with holy enthusiasm
Where ever-moving myriads seems to say, of the sacramental occasions on Stitchell
Go-thou art nought to us, nor we to Brae.” pp. 30--32.

In 1770 Mr. Waugh entered · There are in this loud stunning tide

the university of Edinburgh, where Of human care and crime, With whom the melodies abide

he continued four sessions prior to Of the everlasting chime ;

his theological studies. He made Who carry music in their heart

good progress in his pursuits, Through dusky lane and wrangling mart, particularly in moral philosophy; Plying their daily task with busier feet,

which, unhappily, at that time was Because their secret souls a holy strain lamentably disjoined in the unirepeat.

versities of Scotland from those Dr. Waugh's biographers ought disclosures of revelation on which to thank us for these lines, for alone it can be truly based. expressively do they characterise

After his college course he stutheir beloved friend. But we pass died divinity under Mr. Brown, of on; giving only one trait more of Haddington, the well-known auhis boyish days, and that the best. thor of the Self-interpreting Bible.

" It is pleasant, amidst all the youthful Dr. Belfrage and Mr. Hay take sprightliness which characterised this spirited and lively boy, to find the principles occasion, in this part of the narof fervent piety deeply rooted in his heart. rative, to remark upon the want He read the Scriptures frequently and de- of specific theological training in voutly, delighted in secret prayer, and la- the Church of England ; and we, boured to imbibe the holy temper of Him only lament that we can give no who increased in wisdom and stature, in favour with God and man.' It is stated

better answer to their strictures by one of the few surviving companions than that we hope things are of his boyhood, that it was their custom, mending. Brown was indefatigable perhaps in the spirit of a very natural de- in his exertions with his pupils, sire to imitate their superiors in years, to meet together under the shade of an elder- and succeeded admirably in traintree, whose withered trunk still remains, ing them, both as to their intel-, and with much decorum to conduct the lectual and spiritual character. ordinary services of a prayer meeting. Hume, who once heard him preach, On these occasions, Alexander Waugh, remarked of him, that “he spoke being the eldest boy, generally offered up the prayers; and it was froin observing as if the Son of God stood at his the early indications of the opening qua- elbow;" and he seemed to do every lities of his head and heart thus given, thing else in the same spirit. His by his mother, who stood concealed in habitual feeling was well expressed the vicinity), that her mind was first im- by himself : After nearly forty pressed with the desire of fitting him for years preaching of Christ, and his the sacred ministry. We are also informed great and sweet salvation, I think by one of his earliest associates at Gordon, that I would rather beg my bread that before he left Earlstoun school, when he was little more than fifteen years of all the labouring days of the week, age, he occasionally attended a religious for an opportunity of publishing society, which met at East Gordon for the Gospel on the Sabbath to an James Spence, an elder of the Secession assembly of sinful men, than, church ; and that, even at this early pe

without such a privilege, enjoy riod, he was marked, both by the aged and the richest possessions on earth. the young, for his singularly appropriate By the Gospel do men live, and and interesting manner of expressing him

in it is the life of my soul." self in prayer. Our informant also recollects receiving a letter from him about Dr. Waugh owed much to this this time, in commendation of such re- excellent tutor, and not least that ligious societies, full of serious thoughts he taught him to unlearn the and good advices.' “ în 1770, when sixteen years

miserably dry moral philosophy

of he joined the Secession congregation of which Dr. Ferguson had poured Stitchell, of wbich he continued a mem- into him at Edinburgh. ber till 1779, when he was licensed to ** He now studied the Scriptures with

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close attention, and resolved to adopt no. Wells-street, London ; in con-: theological sentiments but such as were

nexion with which he lived and derived from the pure and uncontaminated fountain of Divine truth. Henceforth we

died. behold him, in every subsequent period,

Dr. Waugh was to his last hour sitting at the feet of the great Master of an enthusiast for Scotland; and his Israel, and listening with meekness and biographers inform us that this humility to the words of grace and life that fell from his lips. His philosophy, glowing predilection, added to his instead of leading him again into devious real loveliness of character, conpaths, now became subsidiary to the great duced not a little to the charm of object which constituted its chief value,

his ministry among his expatriated by enabling him to illustrate, in a more forcible manner, those all-important truths

countrymen. which the Scriptures alone reveal, and the

“ Mr. Waugh was, on many accounts, knowledge of which is necessary to make

calculated to make a highly favourable men wise unto eternal life." p. 56.

impression upon the Scotch people in

London ;-by his talents in the pulpit ; In 1777 Mr. Waugh repaired to the affectionate earnestness of his ministhe University of Aberdeen, and try, both on public and private occasions; studied under Dr. Beattie and Dr. by his open generosity of disposition and Campbell. He took his Master's

pleasing urbanity of manners; and, more degree in 1778. One of his early particularly, by the strong nationality of

. associates thus describes his re- peculiarity was indeed fitted, in the most collections of him at this period :

eminent degree, to awaken the dormant

but deep-rooted sympathies of his coun“. He was at this period, on account of

trymen; and to it we may, without derohis prepossessing appearance, his constant gating from qualifications of a more concheerfulness, his affability to all, his talents secrated character, fairly ascribe no slight in conversation, and his kindness of heart portion both of his immediate acceptability displayed in innumerable benevolent ac

and his ulterior usefulness : for the in.' tions, the most universally beloved person Auence of his personal intercourse with I have ever known. His presence diffused his hearers was aided exceedingly by the a spirit of gladness; and all gloom, quar- fervour of his national sympathies, and by, relling, selfishness, and meanness, were the tender, and touching, and pious assobanished wherever he appeared. He had ciations which he possessed the happy art high feelings of honour, far beyond most

of awakening even in the most callous of bis learned as well as unlearned asso.

bosoms,” pp. 85, 86. ciates; and in this respect, as well as in demeanour and address, was a perfect

But Dr. Waugh did not consider gentleman.'" p. 67.

natural talents, amiable qualities, But, add his biographers, and sterling piety, sufficient for the

“ With all this social cheerfulness, he furniture of a minister of Christ, did not neglect to apply himself with without much prayer, study, and due diligence to those preparatory studies

serious contemplation. which every young man, whose chief ambition it is to be a faithful and efficient If our pages should chance to minister in the church of Christ, will deem fall into the hands of any young of incalculable value." p. 67.

man who fancies that academical But highly as his friends thought pursuits are of little value to the of him, it was not without many Christian minister, that the best misgivings, and an arduous mental student of the Bible is he who conflict, that he ventured upon the spurns all human assistance in duties of the Christian ministry. understanding it, and that conAt length, after much conscien- siders loitering and lounging a tious hesitation, he was admitted, in better employment of time than, 1780, to that solemn office accord- reading divines or commentators, ing to the rites of the communion we recommend to his attention to which he belonged ; and after a the example and the advice of short time spent in the pastoral Dr. Waugh. charge of a congregation at New- For some years after his settlement town, near Melrose, he was per- in London he spent a great part of his mitted by the Synod at Edinburgh in reviewing his classical studies, in a

time in retirement, and employed himself to accept the thrice-repeated call, critical perusal of the sacred Scriptures, of the Presbyterian church at in reading various writers on doctrinał.

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