tion which he had undertaken is spoken of as follows:

"In a sense, little understood by those who uttered the words, those words were true, Himself he cannot save. He could

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not come down from the cross, and deliver himself from the punishment which he had undertaken to bear, without frustrating the plan prepared for man's redemption. We were recently considering, how in the agony of his human nature, he prayed to his Father, Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me!' But no sooner had he said, according to the dictates of his human nature, Father, save me from this hour;' than he added, in his Divine wisdom, 'yet for this cause came I to this hour.' The same goodness which led him to offer the ransom, determined him to endure unto the end, and forbad his using his Divine power to save himself, before all things had been fulfilled which justice required him to undergo: before having submitted to the full weight of Divine wrath, he was enabled to say, 'It is finished: and bowed the head, and gave up the ghost.'"

p. 391.

Having had Dr. Whately's works so recently under consideration, we turned in the volume before us to some of those texts, the Bishop's exposition of which would naturally elicit his lordship's opinions relative to some of the subjects alluded to by that author, especially the Christian Sabbath and we rejoice to find, what indeed we did not doubt, that he maintains the plain, simple, Scriptural orthodox doctrine; - - the primeval unrepealed obligation, and the continued sanction of the Fourth Commandment, the day only changed under the Christian dispensation. Indeed, throughout his lordship's commentary we observe with much pleasure a mose striking contrast to the character of Dr. Whately's parochial sermons; for while the latter, in writing, as he says, chiefly for simple, unlearned persons, has heaped together a series of doubtful and disputable points, as if nothing were fit for a village pulpit, but profitless speculations, the Bishop has in general waved curious questions, even where they might naturally have occurred, and studied what appeared most simple and for the use of edifying. The whole cast of the volume is of this character; and though there may be points upon

which, in critical mood, we might hold a respectful conference with his lordship, yet the whole tenor of his work is so sound and practical, so devotional and instructive, that we most earnestly recommend it to our readers; only adding our tribute of gratitude to the Right Reverend author, with our fervent prayers that in this and all his other zealous efforts to promote the glory of God and the salvation of men, he may see the work of the Lord prosper in his


A Collection of Sermons on the Death of the Right Rev. J. H.Hobart, D.D. With a Memoir of his Life and Writings. 1 vol. New York. 1831.

HAVING just received, among our American books, a copy of this interesting work, we proceed to share with our readers a portion of its contents. The volume consists of thirteen funeral sermons (various others, we believe, were preached, and some published), with a narrative of the life of the late lamented Bishop Hobart. Having already inserted in our pages a brief memoir of that individual, with many occasional notices of his publications, we shall not follow the narrative in detail, but simply copy a few passages which will be new to our readers.

We were not aware that this American champion of Episcopacy owed his origin to zealous Non-conformist ancestors; that the prelate of New York was descended from a Puritan of Massachusetts. Such, however, was the fact; for Bishop Hobart's grandfather's grandfather was Edmund Hobart, one of the father pilgrims who left England in search of liberty of conscience in the wildernesses-such they then were of America. He went out from Hingham, in Norfolk, in 1633, and founded a place of the same name in Massachusetts, where he obtained great respectability, and for several years represented that town in the state legislature. "Both



Review of Sermons on the Death of Bishop Hobart.

he and his wife," says Cotton Mather, were eminent for piety, and even from their youth feared God above many; wherein their zeal was more conspicuous, by the impiety of the neighbourhood, among whom there were but three or four in the whole town that minded serious religion." To the four sons and two daughters of this Edmund Hobart, a great company of preachers in the New World trace their pedigree. In particular,

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“The Rev. Peter Hobart, the second son, was a very eminent divine among the Non-conformists. After the most straitest sect of his religion,' he was a Puritan of the Puritans. Educated at the University of Cambridge, England, and ordained by the Bishop of Norwich, in the year 1627, he afterward espoused the Puritan interests. In the year 1635, he left the mother country to join his With these parents in New-England. words he begins his journal: June 8th, 1635. I, with my wife and four children, came safely to New-England; for ever praised be the God of heaven, my God and King!' Two centuries ago, he was one of the founders, (1635,) and the first minister of Hingham, in Massachusetts; was much admired for his 'well-studied sermons,' and distinguished for his intellectual vigour, growing zeal, indefatigable industry, and various acquirements. 'I have seen,' says the Hon. Solomon Lincoln, jun. of Hingham, 'some of his sermons, taken in an abbreviated form by one of his hearers, which exhibit a strong mind, and considerable power of description. They possess more of exhortation than doctrine, and were, like their author, bold and independent.' He was, says Cotton Mather, a morning student,' a great example of temperance,' and 'would admire the grace of God in good men, though they were of sentiments contrary to his.' When he beheld some, under pretence of zeal for church discipline,' 'pragmatical in controversies, and furiously set upon having all things carried their way,' and yet destitute of the life and power of godliness,' he would say, Some men are all church, and no Christ. It is also related of him, as his general character, he was a bold man, and would, speak his mind.'" pp. x. xi.

Such was Peter Hobart, who had six sons, five of whom became preachers among the Congregationalists. The mother of Brainerd, the missionary, was the daughter of one of them. But we must return from Edmund's second son, Peter,

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to his fourth, Joshua, the progenitor
of the Bishop; who, for whatever
reason, addicted himself to military
pursuits, and became the commander
of the corps of Hingham; and was
so much distinguished, that, by an
unanimous vote of his fellow-citizens,
Captain Joshua Hobart was freed
from paying any rates for the public
charge of the town." John, a son
'Captain Joshua," married a
Swedish lady, from which foreign
lineage first came the taint of Epis-
copalianism into this hitherto intact
Puritan family. Their son,
tain Enoch Hobart," was our bishop's
father. He is thus described :

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"As the commander of a merchant ship, Captain Enoch Hobart successfully engaged in many profitable enterprises to the West Indies, where his strict probity He withdrew of character secured for him the appellation, Honest Yankee.' from active life to the domestic circle with a competency. Tall and athletic, his corporeal frame and stature were not transmitted to his youngest child, John Henry; but the distinctive features of his countenance were strikingly preserved. And his masculine vigour of constitution also was very happily perpetuated, to the glory of God, in the energy and labours of a prelate, who knew not what it was to tire in the cause of Jesus and his church. Captain Hobart did not live to witness more than the mere childhood of He died (October his distinguished son. 27th, 1776,) when John Henry, the future bishop of the church in the most extensive of the American dioceses, was but a babe in his fourteenth month." pp. xiii. xiv.

Captain Enoch's family consisted of six children; all of whom, with their parents, have now passed into eternity. Their mother was a Miss Pratt, a lady of a respectable family in Philadelphia.

"But her piety, as it resulted from a heavenly relationship above the kindreds of this world, secured for her a title which these cannot give. She was a child of God, and a faithful follower of Jesus. When bereaved of her companion, and a widow with a group of five children around her, she looked up for Divine aid, to the Father of the fatherless.' Her circumstances were not affluent, yet by the grace of God she was enabled to suplectual and moral culture of her houseply all the necessary means for the intelhold. She rejoiced at their prosperity; and it was her heart's great delight, to see

her youngest son admitted into holy orders, and to attend him, for the first five years of his course, with her affectionate solicitudes. His early serious impressions of religion are ascribed to her; and it is said that he knew the Scriptures from his youth, by means of the godly counsels which she faithfully inculcated. Biographies of great and good men in all ages testify, that the church owes a debt of gratitude to pious mothers. With a vestal watchfulness they have preserved the holy fire of the sanctuary." pp. xiv. xv. Bishop White testifies, that both the parents of Bishop Hobart were Episcopalians: he says, that Captain Enoch Hobart, with his wife and their six children, were constant attendants at Christ Church, and he well remembers "the very pew which they occupied." We shall now extract a few passages from the narrative.

"Their youngest child, John Henry, was born at Philadelphia, September 14th, 1775, while the Continental Congress was at the critical juncture of its session in that city, a few months before they issued the immortal charter of our liberties. And his strong national prepossessions, his great fearlessness in the defence of truth, and all the prominent characteristics of his future life, declared him to be a worthy child of the Revolution. And as it was the first concern of his devout parents, that all his faculties, whatever they might be, should be hallowed, at the font, in Christ Church, Philadelphia, they dedicated him to the Lord by baptism, when he was a babe but four weeks old."

p. xvi.

"From his childhood it may be truly said, like his heavenly Master, he increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour with God and man.'"

"When, in his ninth year, he was received into the Episcopal Academy, Philadelphia, under the Rev. Dr. Andrews. Under his judicious care, young Hobart became one of the most prominent pupils in the Latin school. Bishop White, at that time the Rev. Dr. White, who was from the first greatly interested in the success of the academy, attended with his characteristic faithfulness all the regular quarterly examinations of the school. On these occasions,' says he, 'I could not but remark the industry and the proficiency of young Hobart. There was also manifested that talent for elocution, which has since been so conspicuous in the delivery of his sermons.'"

p. xvii.

At college he maintained the same character.

"Habitual cheerfulness, great ardour and success in study, social habits, win

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ning manners, and a peaceful disposition, -a well-balanced mind, prompt and able elocution, native talent, persevering industry, and pure morals, compose the wreath of praise awarded to him when on classic ground. 'He was distinguished,' says Dr. Otto, for an unusual gaiety of temper, without the least mixture of levity or thoughtlessness. His voice was good, and his ear musical; and he used occasionally, for his own and our amusement, to sing a song or two early in the morning before we arose. His temperament was ardent, and he studied with diligence, both from a love of useful knowledge, and a laudable ambition to be honourably distinguished. The untiring zeal which he displayed so conspicuously in after life, in the performance of whatever he deemed his duty, was a part of his natural character, and manifested itself at college. He was always esteemed, during the whole period of his studies, at least equal to any member of his class, in scholastic acquire


His habits were very social; and during those hours which he devoted to recreation, he mixed freely in the company of the most distinguished students."

Pp. xx. xxi.

He at first embarked upon commercial pursuits, but shewed little taste for them; and soon relinquished them for a tutorship in his college (Princeton), and preparation for holy orders. Knowing the strong view which Dr. Hobart afterwards took of the evil of union with persons not of the Episcopal Church in religious worship, and of prayer meetings and extempore prayer, we were somewhat surprised to learn, that at this period

"He never hesitated to associate with his Presbyterian brethren, when assembled for social or public worship; but, on the contrary, often took the lead in their devotions, and was actively engaged in establishing meetings for prayer, both prayer-meetings weekly in the village,' in Princeton and its vicinity. We had says Dr. Caldwell; we used to meet prayed in turn, always extemporaneously, often at good old Mrs. Knox's; and we and then read some discourse.' " p. xxvi.

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He afterwards, as our readers are aware, changed his views on these subjects; and on many occasions, and particularly in his "Christian Bishop," put on record his disapprobation of "those meetings of private Christians, in which unordained men successively engage in extemporaneous prayer and exhortations;" fortifying his opinion with "the testi

monies of some who, in the estimation of the advocates of these associations, stand highest in the ranks of Evangelical piety." These authorities are Mr. Scott, Mr. Newton, Mr. Robinson, Bishop Heber, and the author of a work on church establishments, who, we will venture to say, never dreamed of being quoted as an authority, with the addendum of "Editor of the Christian Observer," and a flourish of compliments to help out the argument. The subject is a very important one, especially at the present moment; and we are by no means unwilling to offer such arguments as occur to us upon it, should our readers wish to have the discussion opened; or if some of our correspondents would take it upon themselves, we should be better pleased. All that we need say at present, in this cursory allusion to the subject, is, that the importance and the privilege of prayer cannot be too highly estimated; but that the time and place and manner of conducting it are questions of detail, which may often be decided in opposite ways, according to circumstances, without at all impeaching the motives or piety of those who come to different conclusions. We incline however to think, that in quoting the names above mentioned, Bishop Hobart has not given quite correctly the spirit of their observations. Of one thing at least we feel assured, that if there is no medium to be attained between frigid indifference, and over excitement, most of those who stand highest in the ranks of Evangelical piety" would infinitely prefer the latter; inasmuch as to be dead is a more hopeless case than to be somewhat feverish. The kind of. meetings alluded to by Scott, Newton, Robinson, (we have not the passage of Heber at hand, and our alleged selves we pass over as no authority), we fear, could not easily be kept within discreet bounds; but this is not fairly to be quoted as an argument, to put down all social

prayer, and made use of as a handle by those who would suppress rather than regulate the practice. When the desire is honest and earnest, we would suggest every necessary regulation and caution; even if it amounted, under certain circumstances, to a prohibition; but we deprecate the idea that the supposed difficulties should be the only question looked at, and set down at once as a delightful excuse for the omission. We lately received from America a paper on this subject, with reference to the arguments of Bishop Hobart, and which we purpose laying before our readers. We believe we are at liberty to state that we are indebted for it, to the pen of a Right Reverend prelate whose praise is in the churches of his country, and not wholly unknown among ourselves.


Having continued in this utorship for more than two years, Mr. Hobart resigned his office in 1798. "During this time," says his roommate, "he became very deeply impressed with religious feelings. chose the ministry for his profession; to this his studies were directed; and there can be no question that his conversation and example decidedly influenced several others in the same choice."

His reading was chiefly in the works of Episcopal writers, among whom he had a large acquaintance. His friend Bishop White became his counsellor in his studies. This venerable prelate had confirmed him, he afterwards ordained him, and consecrated him; ever retaining for him the warmest esteem and regard, and now weeping over his memory with the affection of a parent over a beloved and only son.

We now return to our extracts :

"When the Rev. Mr. Hobart was admitted into orders (1798,) it might be emphatically said of all the ministry in the Protestant Episcopal Church, as it is written of the ancient people when they received the lot of their inheritance, the happiest of lands, they were but few New-Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecmen in number.' In Massachusetts, ticut, New-York, New-Jersey, Delaware and Pennsylvania,-over a wide

field, containing all the dioceses north of Maryland, there were scattered ninety Gospel heralds who ministered the doctrines and sacraments, and the discipline of Christ as the Lord hath commanded, and as this Church hath received the same.' In the diocese of New-York there were no more than twenty, and in Pennsylvania only seventeen, of these few and dispersed pastors of God's people.

"The church in her low estate, offered no temporal allurement, by which men of corrupt minds might be made clerical adventurers. She was to be wooed, without the expectation of a dowry. The 'sacramental host' of the Lord and of his Christ were the self-denying who were willing to spend and to be spent, that they might 'serve God, for the promoting of his glory, and the edifyglory, and the edifying of his people.'

"This noble principle Bishop White beheld with joy, among the characteristics of his affectionate son in the faith, on whom he had so recently laid his hands in ordination. 'At that time,' observes

the Bishop, it was very near to my heart, that he should be settled near to me. With this view I interested myself in the settling of him in the two churches of Trinity, Perkiomen, within from ten to thirteen miles of the city; knowing their inability, at that time, to make permanent provision for a minister.'

"In this first ministerial cure, he officiated from the period of his ordination until the spring of the next year. His successor, who now occupies the parishes, the Rev. George Sheets, says, 'His salary was small, and paid with difficulty. It was not his lot, as to his accommodations, to fare sumptuously every day. But his congregations were crowded, his pulpit talents greatly admired, and his person much beloved. I have conversed with several old parishioners, who have a perfect recollection of him, and I find them unanimous in their statement respecting his accomplishments. They all loved him much, and greatly admired his preaching.'" pp. xxxii. xxxiii.

After one or two changes Mr. Hobart settled in New York, where his early appearance is thus described:

"Mr. Hobart was soon hailed, in the city, with a peculiar satisfaction. His hallowed fervour, in pronouncing the impressive language of the Liturgy, his commanding utterance in reading the holy Oracles of Truth, and his attractive energy in proclaiming all the counsel of God, were witnessed, week after week, by large assemblies, who anticipated with anxiety his appearance in the Lord's holy place. And he reciprocated their best tributes of regard, by his undeviating assi

duity. The hallowed fervour, the commanding utterance, and the attractive energy, which were his charm in public life, he emulated by the interest of his private conversation. • His earnest and energetic style of preaching,' says one of his devoted parishioners, 'attracted crowds wherever he officiated. And the zeal and industry with which he engaged in active pastoral duties, were an earnest of his advancement. At that time he was distinguished for the affability and cheerfulness, which formed, in after life, so conspicuous a feature in his character.'' p. xl.

The origin of the Episcopate, in the State of New York, of which Dr. Hobart was the third prelate, was so prominent an occurrence in the annals of the Anglo-American Church, that we extract the followparticulars respecting it.

"At the period of the American Revolution, the Church of England in this country had, for more than a hundred and fifty years, been considered a portion of Bishops of London. the spiritual charge intrusted to the Lords But, even at that time, no prelate of the Church had ever trodden on our soil. They had jurisdiction over a vast realm, on which their eyes had never rested. All their spiritual children who were born here, grew up without the valued benefit of confirmation. Not one edifice for public worship was here consecrated. Our clergy and our parishes were destitute of that superintendence, which is the very life of our church government. Every candidate into orders, was compelled to repair with upon our shores who would be admitted that view to the far-distant mother-counof three thousand miles. try. A great gulf lay between; an ocean No less than a destined for the Lord's service in the fifth part of all our young men who were perils in the sea,'-paid with their presanctuary, being exposed to various cious lives the cost of the severe ecclesiastical requisition. Roman Catholics in Laval, as early as 1659,-and the MoraNorth America had a bishop, Francis vians had four bishops previous to the year 1750; but, for the Church of Enspiritual father to take the oversight gland here, there was not provided one thereof.'

"Well might the members of the Church throughout the colonies, most anxiously desire a different state of things, and again and again petition the throne for a redress of what they felt to be a grievance without parallel. The Bishops of London were, for many years, themselves very favourable to the object. A resolution was taken by King Charles the Second, in 1672 or 1673, to send a

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