of Hooker respecting written or ex- ers would sometimes fall asleep tempore sermons. That venerable under discourses thus calmly and author says, “When once we have logically composed, and uttered agreed what sermons shall cur without earnestness, in a low rently pass for good, we may un- monotonous voice, and with moderstand what that is in a good tionless eyes. A discourse thus sermon which doth make it the uttered, either at the bar or in the word of life unto such as hear. senate, would not be listened to ; If substance of matter, evidence and what is there so to change of things, strength and validity of the character of the human mind arguments and proofs, and of every in a church, as to render that imother virtue which words and sen- pressive which elsewhere would tences may contain ; of all this, be dull and feeble. Had Hooker, what is there in the best sermons with his full mind, shut his book, being uttered, which they lose and allowed himself to be excited being read ?" Certainly nothing. With the animation of his subject, Hooker is quite right; for if we the effect of his discourses would, agree in his definition of “what I think, have en greatly in sermons shall currently pass for creased. good,” we must admit that all that But, in truth, I am not sure that he comprises in that definition may Hooker himself was not an extembe better secured in a written than pore preacher. I do not, of course, an extempore sermon.

mean a preacher who gives no But is this all that ought to pains or thought to his discourses; enter into the delivery of a pulpit quite the contrary; but a man address? What is the action- who studies his sermons day and action-action, of Demosthenes ? night, and reads and prays and I do not mean voice or gesticula- meditates all the week long over tion, but that living energy which them, but in delivering them uses ought to animate the delivery of a the free natural method of pouring sermon, and to distinguish it from out a full heart, in ready words an argument read in silent retire- rather than reading, line for line, a ment? Hooker's own case illus- fixed composition. The reason why trates my meaning : his honest I think Hooker was an extempore biographer, Walton, says of him, preacher, is the description given “ His sermons were neither long of his preaching by Walton himnor earnest, but uttered with à self: for why, if he had his sergrave zeal and an humble voice; mon written out, fix his eyes on his eyes always fixed on one place, one place “ to prevent his imato prevent his imagination from gination wandering?" why “seem wandering; insomuch that he to study as he spake ?" and how seemed to study as he spake. The could he fix his eyes on one spot design of his sermons, as indeed from the beginning to the end of of all his discourses, was to shew his discourse, if he was reading reasons for what he spake; and a manuscript ? Walton would with these reasons, such a kind of naturally have said he never looked rhetoric as did rather convince and off his book; whereas it appears persuade than frighten men into his eyes were fixed elsewhere, and piety.” “And where he fixed his he never looked on it. eyes at the beginning of his ser- Nor will the description answer mon, there he continued till it to the delivery of his sermons by was ended.”—Now, to a thought- memory. There is no intimation ful serious mind such a mode of throughout his Life of his sermons preaching must have been highly being memoriter, and his appearinteresting and profitable ; but í ing “ to study as he spake” is fear that good Mr. Hooker's farm- quite inconsistent with such an

to be «

idea. He seemed, says Walton, preacher, the audience, the sub

studying, not so much for ject, all modify the elements of matter, which he never wanted, the proposition; and perhaps the as for apt illustrations, to inform best rule is, for a preacher to acand teach his unlearned hearers custom himself to both methods, by familiar example.” The whole that he may acquire the freedom description applies to a man full and animation of extempore speakof his subject, and addressing his ing, with that fulness, regularity, auditory upon it without the aid or and accumulation of mental and the incumbrance of a written dis- theological stores, which can only course. He, of course, used written be secured by much reading, resermons on special occasions, and flection, and writing.

A ministry in preaching to select and learned composed of both methods would auditories, or where the nature of probably be best adapted to the the subject required a more me- actual condition of an ordinary thodical and argumentative style flock. Let the careless student, than usually belongs to extempore the idle, gossipping minister-if preaching ; but it seems to me such there be-remember that most probable, from the facts of Hooker justly enumerates “subthe case, that in his usual popular stance of matter, evidence of parochial addresses he was what things, and validity of arguments is called an extempore preacher. and proofs," as necessary ingreHis own words no where prove dients in a good sermon; and that that extempore preaching is im- in his own discourses he never proper, but only that written ser- failed “to shew reasons for what mons are lawful, and may be as he spoke :" but let the cold and good, or better.

phlegmatic preacher remember, Hooker asks, “What is there in also, that, though all this is essenthe best sermons being uttered tial, it is not enough ; that a very which they lose being read?” Not logical sermon may be frigid, a of necessity any thing; for some clear argument frosty; and that readers of written sermons utter moral conviction and religious them as forcibly, and as much persuasion are not mere matters from the heart, if they of intellect, but are connected with were extempore; but in point of all the sympathies and affections fact they too often lose much ; of the soul.

X. G. they lose much of that animation, that appearance of nature, that mutual sympathy between the speaker and his auditors, which conduce more to popular conviction and impression than the cool delivery of the most studied argu- For the Christian Observer. ment. Hooker's own sermons, however admirable in other re- THERE are some sins which have spects, if the preacher did not the character of causing guilt, even appear

and was not in “ earnest,” though they should never happen were more calculated for private to be committed. perusal than to rivet public atten- never fight a duel, and yet, if he tion.

cherish a purpose of fighting one This is one of the questions should the provocation to the crime which can never be settled upon arise, in the sight of God he lives paper ; for each method has its under the habitual guilt of being a advantages and disadvantages :

duelist. A man who sets out in each method is at times proper the morning to rob his neighbour, and at times improper ; the is a thief throughout the day,




A man may

though he should have no oppor- crime, we prove, that, if the temp-
tunity of committing the intend- tation should occur, we intend to
ed offence. It is not necessary to perpetrate it ; and therefore, by
adjust the comparative moral tur- our Lord's interpretation of the
pitude of a cherished mental crime Divine law, we live under habitual
not completed, with that of a crime guilt, as much as if our purpose
completed but not premeditated. proceeded to act.
In the eye of the law, a man who A similar instance, which is the
slays his neighbour at the moment subject of the following remarks,
of provocation is punished (though is the crime of Privateering. It is
less heavily than if he had done so incredible that such an atrocity
of malice aforethought); whereas should be still tolerated in any
the deliberate murderer in heart professedly Christian and civilized
cannot be punished at all, till he country. National war, however
attempts to commit the crime, or just or necessary, is sufficiently
at least by some overt act exhibits terrible, without calling in private
what he is planning in his bosom. cupidity, and legalizing the worst
But in the eye of God, who is horrors of piracy. The object of
omniscient, the mental offence in- an attack by a national vessel, is to
dulged, but not perpetrated, may cripple the common enemy-spoil
be a much heavier sin than the and prize-money are at least pro-
sudden transgression perpetrated fessed to be very subordinate con-
but not premeditated. Indeed, as siderations ;—but in privateering
just observed, even human laws the whole object is personal gain.
make this distinction, so far as It differs from national warfare, as
their power of inquisition extends, a highwayman murdering a man,
as in the case of murder and man- to steal his watch, differs from a
slaughter ; but, for want of being duelist. It pretends to no motive
able to scrutinize the heart, their of honour, or patriotism, but is ut-
decision is of necessity very im- terly base and sordid. It delibe-

rately weighs blood against gold,
This reasoning applies from in- and calculates how many dollars
dividuals to nations. There may will repay the destruction of so
be an habitual national sin, where much human life, and the fearful
there is no actual transgression. contingencies of the contest. The
It is some years since the unjust loss, spoliation, and ruin of the
and cruel system of impressment unoffending parties, whose pro-
was put in force in Great Britain, perty is seized by brutal violence,
simply because there has been no are not for a moment taken into
temptation to it; but it is not consideration.
legally renounced, and a tacit Can nothing be done by an-
compact exists that it is to be re- ticipation to prevent the recur-
peated as soon as there may arise rence of this murderous practice ?
what the public authorities shall The present period is peculiarly
think a necessary occasion. It is favourable for such a measure.
therefore a national sin, and the Whenever war comes, it may be
time to clear ourselves from it is too late to expect that nations, at
when the immediate temptation to least the stronger maritime powers,
it is not present. Is there no hu- will enter into a compact to secure
mane, no Christian senator, who the object; but in the cool mo-
will dare to bring in a bill by an- ments of peace such a stipula-
ticipation, to render this barbarous tion might be easily effected. The
oppression illegal ? Let us know United States of America had the
how we stand. If we do not vo- high honour, in the year 1823, of
luntarily preclude ourselves from proposing this very measure as
the possible commission of the an article of international law,

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Instructions were given to the reader, the following interesting American ambassadors in France, narrative is subjoined. A few inRussia, and Great Britain, to urge dividuals, actuated by such truly the matter upon those govern- Christian principles as are displayed ments ; "and when,” says the in it, and resolutely devoting themPresident in his message, “the selves to the accomplishment of friends of humanity reflect on the any great object of religious duty essential amelioration to the con- and humanity, might, by the blessdition of the human race which ing of God, effect wonders beyond would result from the abolition of their own most sanguine hopes. private war on the sea, and on the Mr. Joseph Fox, of Fowey, great facility with which it might Cornwall, was born in the year be accomplished, requiring only 1729. The family, though bearthe consent of a few sovereigns, ing the name, were not relatives an earnest hope is indulged that of George Fox, the founder of the these overtures will meet with an Society of Friends, but embraced attention animated by the spirit his religious principles at an early in which they were made, and period, and evinced the sincerity that they will ultimately be suc- of their profession, by submitting, cessful.”

in various instances, to fines and This hope, it is to be feared, has imprisonment for conscience sake. not been accomplished; at least The other sons being brought no communication to Parliament up by their father in his commerhas ever been made, stating that cial pursuits, Joseph Fox was eduthe British cabinet concurred in cated for the profession of medithe humane suggestion of the Ame- cine, and settled at Falmouth in rican government. With what na- that line. He established a fair tion, or what minister, lies the reputation for integrity, kindness, guilt and inhumanity of having and professional skill; and was frustrated the proposal of the successful, by industry and ecoAmerican President, I know not; nomy, in bringing up a large faperhaps, as concerns our own, some mily with credit, and increasing member of the legislature may his little capital.

Not having think it right to ask for copies occasion to employ much of this of whatever communications may capital in his own profession, he have taken place on the subject. frequently invested small sums It is hoped that the present cabinet in the mines and fisheries of the would concur in the proposed in- neighbourhood, and in shares of ternational arrangement; and it vessels sailing from that or adjamight be well to invite the attention cent ports. of government, of the legislature, About the year 1775 he purand of the public, by the presen- chased a fourth part of two lugtation of a few petitions to Parlia- gers, or cutters, which were emment, urging the question on the ployed on the Cornish coast, and grounds of morality, religion, hu- yielded their proprietors a fair remanity, and even political expe- turn. At the breaking out of the diency. If taken in time, in the war between England and France, hour of peace, it might be easily in 1778, the other owners, not settled; and thus prevent, in case having those religious scruples of war, a recurrence of those fear that are entertained by the society ful scenes of injustice, plunder, of which he was a member, probloodshed, and demoralization, posed to arm these vessels as letwhich are inseparable from this ters of marque, for the purpose of barbarous practice.

capturing French merchantmen; To impress the subject more and, having been constructed for forcibly upon the mind of the fast sailing, they were peculiarly

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adapted for success in such an en- of the law was threatened, if not terprise. Mr. Fox could not, how- employed; and he at length sucever, be induced, by this prospect ceeded in procuring from his coof pecuniary advantage, to consent partners a sum of money, which to the abandonment of what he was lodged in the British funds in considered the principles of jus- his name; but it does not appear tice and Christian charity, and he that a clear statement of the acremonstrated with his copartners count was ever rendered, notagainst the measure in very strong withstanding his repeated soliciterms. But they, being the ma- tations. jority, had it in their power to di- All his correspondence and merect as they pleased the employ- moranda on the subject concur to ment of the vessels; his repeated prove, that it was his unvaried remonstrances were unavailing, resolution, from first to last, to and they proceeded to arm them. restore the amount, with interest, He then urged them to purchase to the original sufferers : but the his share, even at less than the continuance of the war precluded value; to sell it for him, or to allow him for several years from an ophim to dispose of it; but they re- portunity of fulfilling his purpose ; jected all his proposals, and he and during this period it remained was compelled to retain it. He, at interest in the government three however, assured them that nei. per cent. stock, having been investther himself, nor any of his fa- ed through the agency of a bankmily, should ever participate in ing-house that he had not pregains acquired by such means. viously employed, for the purpose,

The vessels, on being equipped, probably,of entire distinctness from put to sea, and as the war had not his other pecuniary concerns. been expected by persons abroad, Lest he should be suddenly rethey succeeded in capturing some moved by death, or otherwise renvaluable ships homeward bound. dered incapable of explaining the On this success, the other owners business, he took the precaution of made a great effort to retain all making a short memorandum, statthe profits to themselves, on the ing an outline of the circumstances, plea of the adventure having been and his “full intention, as soon as theirs alone, and of many strong possible, to lodge the net produce declarations having been made by in some fund in France, for the their partner that he would not benefit of the losers.” It appears in any case allow himself to be en- from this memorandum, which is riched by it. To this, however, dated in 1781, three years after he could not conscientiously sub- the captures before mentioned had mit; for, finding himself thus put been made, that he was still obliged in possession of property, justly to retain his share in the letters belonging to upoffending indivi- of marque, and was considerably duals, though of a foreign country embarrassed to know how to act, and denounced as national ene- under the peculiar circumstances mies, he conceived it his duty to of his situation. maintain his claim for the benefit In the year 1783 peace was of the suffering parties, and to act restored between England and as a trustee on their behalf, till he France, which relieved him from should be enabled to make resti- any further difficulty on this head, tution. Accordingly he demanded and enabled him to prosecute his a proper statement of the account, intention with respect to themonies and payment of his share of the he had received. His own engageproceeds. Much difficulty and ments and time of life did not delay took place in procuring allow him to undertake such a these; the interference of the arm journey, or to be absent from home CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 349.


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