« VorigeDoorgaan »
the mind. Nor is the naturalist the first who ascertained the spea without his part in the entertain-cific gravity of hydrogen gas ment; for he is assisted to recol- |(then called inflammable air) and lect and combine, to arrange his found it to be a vast deal lighter discoveries, and to amplify the than common air.
In consesphere of contemplation.” quence of this discovery, it was
natural to conclude, that if a large
bladder, or other envelope, was To the Editor of the Oxford Enter- filled with hydrogen gas, and that taining Miscellany. if the weight of the envelope added
to that of the contained gas, was MR. EDITOR,
less than the weight of an equal I think the follow
bulk of common air, the apparatus ing account of the invention of
would mount up into the atmos.. the Air Balloon may afford amuse
phere for the same reason, and ment to your readers.
in the same manner, as a cork Your's, &c.
would rise from the bottom to. A CONSTANT READER.
wards the surface of the sea, The art of flying, or of imitat- supposing the cork was left at ing the feathered tribe, has long liberty in the former place. been the object of earnest desire Early in the year 1782, Mr. amongstmen. Cars, artificial birds, Cavallo made the first attempts to wings, and other mechanisms for elevate a bag full of hydrogan gas flying, generally absurd, and into the surrounding air, and an always insufficient, have frequent-account of his experiment was ly been exhibited to the undistin- read at a meeting of the Royal guishing eye of the vulgar; but the Society on the 20th of June, 1782 strictest enquiry into the accounts The weight of hydrogen gas, of authentic history, finds no men- the mean weight of atmospherical tion of any success having ever air, and the weight of the subattended the attempts of this na- stance of which the vessel or bag ture previous to the year 1782. is to be formed, being ascertained, The discoveries made on the it is easy from those particulars nature and properties of aerial to determine by calculation the fluids, by the industry of Black, dimensions of a vessel, which, Priestley, Cavendish, and others, when filled with hydrogen gas, suggested, 'some time before the might be lighter than an equal above-mentioned year, the practi- bulk of common air. cability of forming machines suf
Upon this principle Mr. Cavallo ficient to elevate considerable tried bladders, the thinnest and weights into the regions of the largest that could be procured. atmosphere. Mr. Cavendish was some of them were cleaned with
great care, removing from them that the latter might be elevated all the superfluous membranes, and by the boyancy of the former, was other matter that could possibly the first project of those celebe scraped off; but notwithstand-brated gentlemen. ing all those precautions, he found Stephen Montgolfier, the elder the largest and lightest of those of the two brothers, made the first prepared bladders to be some what aerostatic experiment at Avignon, too heavy for the purpose. Some towards the middle of November, swimming-bladders of fishes were 1782. The machine consisted of also found too heavy for the ex- a bag of fine silk, in the shape of periment; nor could he even suc- a parallelopipedon, open on one ceed to make any durable light side, the capacity of which was balls by blowing hydrogan gas equal to about 40 cubic feet. into a thick solution of gums, Burning paper, applied to its thiek varnishes, and oil paint. In aperture, served to rarefy the air, short, soap-balls, inflated with or to form the cloud; and, when hydrogen gas, were the only sufficiently expanded, the machine
, things of this sort which he could ascended rapidly to the ceiling of elevate in air ; and these perhaps the room. Thus the original diswere the first air balloons that covery was made, which was afterwere ever constructed.
wards confirmed, improved, and Not long after this, news was diversified, by different persons received from France of the suc- in different parts of the world. cess which had attended an ex- As soon as the news of Mr, periment of a similar nature made Montgolfier's successful experiat Avignon, by Stephen Mont- ment reached Paris, the scientific golfier; but the bag was not filled persons of that capital, justly with hydrogen gas. It was filled concluded that a similar experiwith air rarified by heat, which ment might be made by filling a of course was lighter than an bag with hydrogen gas, immediequal bulk of common air of the ately attempted to verify the
position. A subscription for deIt is said that the two brothers, fraying the expences that might Stephen and John Montgolfier, attend the accomplishment of the began to think on the experiment project, was immediately, opened ; of the aerostatic machine as early persons of all ranks ran with as the middle or latter end of the eagerness to sign their names, year 1782, the natural ascension and the necessary sum was speedily of smoke, and the clouds in the raised. Messrs. Roberts were atmosphere, suggested the first appointed to construct the maidea; and to initate those bodies, chine, and Mr. Charles, professor or w inclose a cloud in a bag, so of experimental philosophy, was
appointed to superintend the work. stone, and bordered on both sides
The obstacles, which opposed with double avenues of trees the accomplishment of this first which extend from the front of the attempt, were many; but the two edifice to the bank of the Seine. principal difficulties were to pro- On this vast piece of ground duce a large quantity of hydrogen the troops perform their military gas, and to find a substance suffi- evolutions and are reviewed. Here ciently light to make the bag of, also chariot, horse, and foot races, and at the same time imperme- are exhibited on public festivals. able to the gas. At last they Tivoli. This garden, which is constructed a globular bag of a superior to any other that as been sort of silk stuff, called lutestring; formed in Paris for the reception which, in order to render it im- of the public, unites at once the pervious to th gas, was covered most finished and rustic beauties. with a certain varnish, said to It is intersected with winding consist of dissolved elastic gum. rivulets of limpid purity, while The diameter of this bag, which, its contiguity to an humble but from its ball-like shape, was called elegant dairy, produces a fascia bulloon (and from this the name nating contrast between the cotair balloons was derived), was tage, and the luxury displayed in twelve feet two inches French, or the surrounding modern pavilions. about thirteen feet English. It The price of admission is two had only one aperture, like the francs (one shilling and eightneck of a bladder, to which a pence English), which includes stop-cock was adapted. The the right to enjoy the amusements weight of the balloon, when empty, of dancing, rowing upon the watogether with the stop-cock, was ter, with every other recreation twenty-five pounds.
which the place affords.
Frascati. This spot, which is very much frequented by the Pa
risian fashionables after the Opera Travels.
is concluded, may be justly es
teemed the centre of pleasure and An Abridgment of the Travels of a elegance.
Gentleman through France, Italy, The garden is small, but laid Turkey in Europe, the Lioly Land
out with much taste. It is diArabia, Egypt, &c.
vided into two parts by a central
walk. On each side of this walk (Continued from page 120*.)
are erected small pillars, round Champ de Mars, ' (Field of which are entwined woodbines Mars.) This large expanse is sur-and passion-flowers. The capirounded by a fosse, paved with tals of these pillars are connected
To be continued.
by rods of iron, to which are at-ing the different divinities of the tached the names of the most ce- water. The whole is crowned by lebrated ancient and modern poets. a spherical roof, covered by plates At the end of the walk is a beau- of copper. The naïads, the watertiful piece of rock-work, forming gods, and the tritons, in bas-relief, a grotto. The remainder of the are remarkable for the gracefulgarden is diversified by miniature ness of their attitudes, the beauty eminences covered with shrubs, of their forms, their finished exewith shady walks and arbours, cution, and the true antique air of with numerous statues, each of their drapery. Little tablets of which holds a small lamp in his black marble bear this inscription : hand. The rooms are spacious
FONTIUM NYMPHIS. and magnificent.
Fontaine de Grenelle. This Nothing is paid for admission, fountain was built by Bouchardon, but the proprietors are amply in 1739. It is of a semicircular compensated by the sale of li- form, ninety feet in length and queurs, ices, fruit, and other re- thirty-six in heighth, adorned freshments.
with pilasters and niches, in which Within the confines of Paris are the statues of the four seasons are sixty fountains:-Fontaine des with bas-reliefs applicable to each Innocents is an exquisite speci- underneath. The projection in
of architecture and does the centre is composed of four honour to the French school. At Ionic columns crowned with a the base of each of the four sides pediment. A figure representing is a square projecting stone, on the city of Paris sits on a pedestal which is placed a vast leaden basin in the centre, on each side of of an antique form, supported by which, and a little lower, are a lions' feet. Above, at the corners, river-god and a nymph, repreare four lions of lead, from which senting the Seine and the Marne. jets of water are directed into the The water issues from two heads, basins; and above those, in the placed at equal distances from the middle of an arch, is another middle. The architecture and basin elevated on a pedestal, from decorations of this fountain have the centre of which springs a jet been much admired. d'eau, and from the sides are se- Fontaine du Chatelet. This veral little streams.
consists of a column in the EgypEach side presents a portico, tian style, supporting a globe, on composed of four fluted Composite which is a statue of bronze reprepillars, surmounted by a pedi- senting Victory. At the base are ment. etween the pilasters are the statues of Vigilance, Law, figures of naïads, and above and Strength, and Prudence. They below are bas-reliefs represent-are celebrated for their graceful
To be continued.
ness and fine proportion. The construction. In this edifice is base of the column is composed of preserved a circular universal a single stone in the centre of the chart, designed upon the pavebasin.
ment of one of the large ehambers, Fontaine de l'Ecole de Médi- by Chazelle and Sédillan. There cine. The forın of this fountain is also, particularly deserving of is remarkable. It consists of a notice, a geometrical staircase, kind of grotto formed by four which leaves a vacuity or well Dorie pillars, from the roof of 170 feet deep, at the bottom of which the water descends like which the heavenly bodies may be rain, and is received in a semi- seen at noonday. circular basin at the base.
Fontaine St. Dominique. This beautiful edifice has two pilasters in each front. Towards the hospital is the figure of the goddess of health, suecouring a wounded Singular Customs of the Maldivian soldier. Between the pilasters on and Philippine Islanders. the other sides are large vases entwined by a serpent.
The Maldivian Islanders eat One more object which attracted alone. They retire to the most our attention we shall describe. hidden parts of their houses and L'Observatoire, (the Observa-draw down the cloths which serve tory.) This building was erected as blinds to their windoavs, that by Perrault, under the great Col- they may eat unobserved, An bert, in 1667. Its exterior is absurd reason may be alleged for grand, and its aspect imposing their misanthrophical repast; they The simplicity of its design and will never eat with one who is in the harmony of its parts,
ferior to them in birth, in riches, a public edifice of the first order, or dignity; and as it is a difficult though erected on a superficies too matter to settle this equality they contracted.
are condemned to lead this unsoThe principal mass is a square
cial life. On the contrary the with octagonal towers at two of Philippines are remarkably socithe angles, and a projecting build-able. Whenever one of them finds ing on the opposite side.
It himself without a companion to stands exactly north and south, partake of his meal, he runs till and a meridional line runs through he meets with one, and however the great hall. It is completely keen his appetite may be, he vaulted throughout, and has nei- ventures not to satisfy it without ther wood nor iron in its whole a guest.