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of that redemption, are first promised in the covenant to him, and then to us in him, upon his fulfilling the condition of perfect obedience. Is justification promised ? It is first to him, and then to us in him, I a. liii. 11. ☆ By his knowledge, sor, by the knowledge of him,] shall my righteous servant justify many." Is fanctification and the Spirit promised ? It is firit to him, and then to us in him ; verse firit of this chapter, “I will put my Spirit upon him, and he thall bring forth judgment to the Gentiles.!? Is glorification promised? It is firit to him, and then to us in him ; Rom. viii. 17. “If chil, dren, then heirs, heirs of God, and joint heirs with Chrilt.”-He and the people are all in one and the same covenant: he, as the glorious Head, Surety, and Re. presentative, having all fulness in him, both of grace and glory, for our use and behoof; and we, as members of that body whereof he is the head, and in a way of union to him by faith; for, “ All the promises, not only fone, but all the promises of God are in him, Yea; and in him, Amen ;”, twice in him: importing, I'hat as the covenant of grace, which is the covenant of promise, is made jointly with him and us; so in the coollitution of the covenant, the promises are all made to him; and in the application of it, they are made to us in him: pri. inarily, and immediately, they are made to him ; fecondarily, and immediately, to us in him.
4. Hence the Fourth thing remarkable, imported in the text, is, Christ is the centre, in whom all the lines • of the covenant do meet ;' and so by an usual figure, of the part for the whole, he bears the name of the whole covenant; "I will give him for a covenant of the people :" the covenant of grace is said not only to. be made with him, but he himself is the covenant. And this leads me to,
II. The Second thing, To shew how Clirist is the covenant, and in what respects' he bears that name?
We reply, I. Christ is the covenant of the people radically and fundamentally, being the root, bafis, and foundation upon which the covenant of grace stands; the alone foundation; “ Oilier foundations can no mai.
lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ,” i Cor. iii. 'IÌ. He is the lure foundation that God hath laid in Zion,
Ila. 'xxviii. 16. The covenant of works, being built : upon fomething in man, it was not sure work, and so the fabric tumbled down: but the covenant of grace and mercy is built upon a neyer-failing foundation; it is sure work to eternity; and therefore says God; “ Mency Mall be built up for ever; why? I have made a covenant with my chosen.” Christ is the antient and eternal foundation of the covenant; no other foundation is laidin Zion in time, but that which was laid in the counset i of peace from-eternity.. God hath promised: nothing. to us in time, but what he purpofed and promised ia : Christ from eternity ; " He has chosen us in hiin before the foundation of the world,' Eph. i. 4. and promised eternal life in him before the world began. He is the foundation of all the blemings and privileges of the covenant, . Being made of God unto us wisdom, and righteousness, fanétification, and redemption." He is the foundation of all the promiles, graces, and comforts of the covenant, This-were a large field, but I go on.
2. Christ is the covenant relatively, in respect of the relations he comes under to it: we find in scripture,'' that he is called the Mediator of the covenant, Heb. ix 15. Why? he brings God andi man, that were at vario? ance, to meet amicably : by the price of his blood, he ! brings God to us; and by the power of his Spirit, he brings us to God, and makes up the difference.---He is called the Testator of the covenant, Heb.ix. 16. “Where: a testament is, there is the death of the Tellator:' He : hath figned all the articles of it with his own blood, and fo confirmed it, and made it a testament:He is called the Messenger of the covenant, Mal. ii. 1. When God would communicate his mind to-us; it is in Chrift; when we would communicate our mind' to God, it is in Chrift: whatever message God hath to us, or we to þinn, Christ: bears it, and makes the travel, be the journey never fo dangerous; " For this is he that came by water and blood," 1 John v. 6. He came by fea, by a fea of water for our fanétification; “ For, if he wash us pot, we have-no part in hiin;?? and by a sea of blood for.
our justification ;'for, “ Without shedding of blood there is no remission.” A dangerous yoyage for bearing the message. He is called the Witness of the covenant, Ila. lv. 5. “ I will give him for a witness of the people.” He is the true and faithful Witness. As he was an eye and ear witness to the whole transaction of the covenant fram eternity; so he sets his feal to the articles of it in time, and bears witness by his word, by his blood, by his Spirit. This he does effectually, sometimes in the hearts of his people, when he conquers all their unbe.... lieving doubts and jealousųes of his word, and fufpicions, of his love, or of his Father's kindnels. He is called, the Surety of the covenant, Heb. vii. 22. He is the Surety both for debt and dyty: Surety for debt; the law demanded of us a debt of infinitę suffering, the just de. merit of our fịns, which, if laid upon us, would sink us. for ever; for, "The wages of fin is death:” And also it demanded a debt of perfect obedience and universal holiness and righteousnels. Now, we are insolvent debtors, drowned in debt, and unable to pay a farthing; and unless there be a Surety for us, we cannot escape the prison of hell, and the everlasting wrath of the omnipotent God. Behold, the Surety fteps in, even in this hopeless state. we are fallen into, pays the debt to the last farthing, and puts his name in our bond: He was made under the law, to redeem those that were under the law. And then he is Surety.for duty, promising to put his Spirit within us, and cause us to walk in his statutes. He is Surety for both sides of the covenant; Surety that all that God, hath said and promised shall be accomplished; and Surety that all that we are 'obliged to do, shall be done for us, and in us. O. sweet and gracious covenant ! In a word, he is the Servant of the covenant: “ Behold my Servant whom I uphold, lla. xlii. [. Wist ye not, says he to. his parents that were seeking him, that I must be about my Father's business ?”. What business? What ser. , vice? The hardest service that ever was, even to, fatisfy justice, to fulfil the law, to conquer Satan, to purchase heaven, to save an elect world, to endure the contra. di&tion of finners against himself, in accomplishing this service. He is the Performer of the covenanti yea,
the Performance itself. Christ, standing in all these re. lations to the covenant, may well be called the cove. nant of the people.
3. Chřilt is the covenant fubftantially, in respect of his being the very matter of the covenant; the principal part of it, the principal promise of it. He is the : fubftanicę of all the promises, the first thing proposed; and whatever is promised elle, is for his lake. He is the promised feed spoken of to Adam and Eve, to Abrahain, 10 David, Gen. ii. 15. Gen. xxii, 18. Luke i, 32, 33. He is the substance of the prophecies, " To him give all the prophets witnels,” Acts x. 43 He is the substance of all the fhadows and Old Telia. ment types : he is the true brazen serpent, that heals di eased fouls; the true manną and bread of life; the true facrifice and pascal lamb, whose blood, being sprink, led on the door posts of the soul, faves from the destroye ing angel: of all the types he is the Atitype, the fub- ; stance of the whole Bible, and of all the scriptures; “These are they that testify of me.”. It is a sirange text, that a gospel-minister cannot find Christ in, since the whole scriptures testify of him; as if it said nothing else. but Chrilt, Christ. - Thus, he is the covenant subltana: tially. Again,... i 4. Christ is the covenant eminently: in point of emian nency, ornament, and excellency. He is the very or- . nament of the covenant, the excellency and sweetness, . of it: he is the bleshng of all the blessings of the covenant: the mercy of all the mercies; the soul of all the privi-, leges of the covenant ;. no blessing of the covenant is a blessing without hiin, for all the bleflings come with him; “ How thall he not with him freely give us all thing's ?" Rom. viii. 32. The covenant is nothing with . Qụt Christ, the blessings of it are nothing without Chrift; he is the sweetness of all the blessings of the covenant, the marrow of all the mercies of the covenant, and the fulness of all the promises of the covenant : they are all empty without Christ, for he is Al.I. ÎN ALL. And therefore, o empty ordinances, without Chrift; O empty facraments, if Christ be not there; O empty ministers, if Christ be
not with them; yea, O empty heaven, if Christ be not there; empty enjoyments, empty comforts without Christ. :
5. Christ is the covenant meritoriously, and in point of acquisition and procurement. He does all that is neceflary for the procuring the blessiags of the covenant; his righteousness is the great condition of the covenant, the alone condition of it, properly so called; it is the cause, the procuring cause of all covenant-blessings. All that is promised to Christ, or to us, is upon the account of his obedience; 14. liii. 10, 11, 12. • By the obedience of one shall many be made righteous;” not by the obedience of any man for himself, Rom. v. 19. He is the procurer of jullification, Rom. v. 18.; the procurer of remission of sin, Rom. iii. 24;; the procurer of peace, I a. liii. 5.; yea, the sum of it, or, « He is our peace;' the procurer of our access to God, and.communion with him ; all that are afar off are made nigh, only by the blood of Christ; the procurer of fanctifying grace, Ifa. liii. 10. I Cor. i. 30. and of eternal salvation; his death is the purchase of the heavenly inheritance; and fo he is the covenant meritoriously, in procuring all the bless fiags thereof.
6. Christ is the covenant efficacioufly, or efficiently: as he procures all by the price of his blood, so he applies, all by the power of his Spirit. By this powerful Spirit of his, in the efficiency of his application, by the means of the law, he discoyers to men their fad condition, while under a covenant of works ; by the means of the gospel, he discovers the excellencies of the covenant of grace, and allo their clain to it; in and by the indefi. nite general dispensation of the gospel, and the promise of the covenant; so that whoever will, may come and put in for a share. But this is not all; Christ, in his efficiency, does persuade and enable the poor foul to take hold of this covenant, of Christ himself, as the ALL of the covenant, and that with particular application to it. self, for its own relief; and not only to accept, but to. trust to it for all grace and life, and that upon the war. rant of God's word of grace, renouncing all other ways of salvation, and resting only upon this, i Tin. i. 15. Acts xvi. 6. Yea, after the person is brought within the