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SUMMARY.

DR. FRANCIA. THE South-American Revolution, and set of revolutions, a great confused phenomenon; worthy of better knowledge than men yet have of it. (p. I.) Liberator Bolivar, a much enduring and many-counselled man. Of General San Martin, too, there is something to be said : His march over the Andes into Chile; a feat worth looking at. Might not the Chilenos as well have taken him for their Napoleon? Don Ambrosio O'Higgins : His industry and skill in road-making. O'Higgins the Second: Governing a rude business cverywhere; but in South America of quite primitive rudeness. Ecclesiastic Vampire-bats. An immense increase of soap-and-water, the basis of all improvements in Chile. (2.)- By far the notablest of these South-American phenomena, Dr. Francia and his Dictatorship in Paraguay. Nothing could well shock the constitutional mind like this tawny-visaged, lean, inexorable Dr. Francia. Our chief source of information about him, a little Book by Messrs. Rengger and Longchamp: An endless merit in a man's knowing when to have done. The Messrs. Robertson, and their Francia's Reign of Terror and other books: Given a cubic inch of Castile soap, to lather it up in water, so as to fill a wine-puncheon. How every idle volume flies abroad like idle thistle-down; frightful to think of, were it not for reaphook and rake. In all human likelihood this sanguinary tyrant of Paraguay did mean something, could we in quietness ascertain what. (10.)-Francia born about the year 1757; of Portuguese or French extraction. Intended for a priest. Subject to the terriblest fits of hypochondria. Sent to the University of Cordova in Tucuman. Lank sallow boys in the Tucuman and other high seminaries, often dreadfully ill-dealt with, as times go: So much is unspeakable; and a most strange Universe, this, to be born into! Francia, arrived at man's years, changes from Divinity to Law. Had doubtless gained some insight into the veritable workings of the Universe: Endless heavy fodderings of Jesuit theology he did not take-in. French-Encyclopedic influences, and Gospel according to Volney, Jean-Jacques and Company: Anill-fed, ghastly. looking flame; but a needful, and even kind of sacred one. Francia perhaps the best and justest Advocate that ever took briefs in that distant Assumpcion City. The people of that profuse climatein careless abundance, troubling themselves about few things : One art they seemed to have perfected, that of riding. Their lives, like empty capacious bottles, calling to the Heavens and the Earth, and to all Dr. Francias who may pass that way. Francia a lonesome, down-looking man, apt to be solitary even in the press of men: Passes everywhere for a man of veracity, punctuality, of iron methodic rigour and rectitude. A Law-case; an unjust judge discomfited. Francia's quarrel with his Father. A most barren time: Not so much as a pair of Andalusian eyes that can lasso him permanently. But now, far over the waters there have been Federations, Sansculottism: In the new Hemisphere, too, arise wild projects, armed gatherings, invasions and revolts. A new figure of existence is cut-out for the Assumpcion Advocate. (19.)-Not till a year after, did the Paraguenos, by spontaneous movement, resolve on a career of freedom. National Congress: Papers 'compiled chiefly out of Rollin's Ancient History.' Paraguay Republic: Don Fulgencio Yegros, President; two Assessors; Francia, Secretary. Alas, these Gaucho populations are greedy, superstitious, vain, mendacious: We know for certain but of one man who would do himself an injury, to do a just or true thing, under that sun. Secretary Francia flings-down his papers, and retires again into privacy: An accidental meeting; description of the man, and of his library. The reign of liberty becomes unendurable: A second Congress got together: Fulgencio and Francia, joint Consuls. Next year, a third Congress; and Francia gets himself declared Dictator. He never assembled any Congress more; having stolen the constitutional palladiums, and got his wicked will! (30.)—A great improvement did, nevertheless, in all quarters forthwith show itself: Every official in Paraguay had to bethink him, and begin actually doing his work. The land had peace; a rabid dog-kennel wide as South America raging round it, but kept-out as by lock-and-key. A Conspiracy; to start with the massacre of Dr. Francia and others, whatever it might close with ; Francia not a man to be trifled-with in plots. It was in this stern period he executed above forty persons. A visitation of locusts : Two harvests in one season. (35.)–Sauerteig's sun-glances into the matter. No Reform, whether of an individual or a nation, can be effected without stern suffering, stern working: Pity it cannot be done by tremendous cheers.' What they say about

love of power : Love of power to make flunkies come and go for you! A true man must tend to be king of his own world. This Paraguay got the one veracious man it had, to take lease of it. Funeral Eulogium, by the Reverend Manuel Perez: Life is sacred, thinks his Reverence; but there is something more sacred still. Dictator Francia, a man whose worth and meaning are not soon exhausted. His efforts to rebuild the City of Assumpcion. His desire to open a trade with the English Nation,-foolishly supposed to be represented, and made accessible, in the House of Commons: Francia's unreasonable detestation of a man who was not equal to his word. (39.)-His sore struggle with imaginary workmen, cleric and laic: In despair he erected his ‘Workman's Gallows:' Such an institution of society, adapted to our European ways, everywhere pressingly desirable. O Gauchos, SouthAmerican and European, what a business is it, casting -out your Seven Devils! (47.)-Francia; as he looked and lived, managing that thousandfold business for his Paraguenos, and keeping a sharp eye for assassins. His treatment of M. Bonpland ; of his old enemy Artigas: His rumoured conduct to his dying Father. His interest in any kind of intelligent human creature, when such by rarest chance could be fallen-in with. So lived, so laboured Dictator Francia ; and had no rest but in Eternity. O Francia, though thou hadst to execute some forty persons, I am not without some pity for thee! (50.)

AN LECTION TO THE LONG PARLIAMENT. How Pym, Hampden and others rode about the country to promote the election of their own faction. Our entire ignorance, but for this fact, how that celebrated Long Parliament was got together. (p. 55.)-Welcome discovery of certain semi-official Documents, relative to the Election for Suffolk. Sir Simonds D'Ewes, a most spotless man and High-Sheriff ; ambitious to be the very pink of Puritan magistrates : How shall any shadow of Partiality be suffered to rest on his clear-polished character ?-Hence these Documents. General character of our Civil War documents and records : Comparative emphasis and potency of Sir Simonds' affidavits. An old contemporary England at large, as it stood and lived on that 'extreme windy day,' may dimly suggest itself. (57.) - Samuel Duncon, Town- constable, testifieth : Unconsciously, How the Polling was managed in those old days : Consciously, How the Opposition Candidate was magnanimously allowed every precedence and facility; and yet couldn't win : And, How in the rage of their disappointment and ingratitude, his party scandalously upbraided the immaculate High-Sheriff himself with injustice towards them. The HighSheriff's own Narrative of his admirable carriage and ill-requited magnanimity. (61.)–Another case Sir Simonds had to clear up: Being High-Sheriff, he returned himself for Sudbury: In this too he prospered, and sat for that Borough. A thin high-flown character, by no means without his uses. Colonel Pride in the end had to purge him out, with four or five score others. He died soon after ; leaving an unspotted pedant character and innumerable Manuscripts behind him. Some Ninety and odd Volumes of his Papers in the British Museum. His Notes of the Long Parliament, perhaps the most interesting of all the Manuscripts that exist there. Our sorrowful Dryasdust Printing Societies; and what they might do towards a real History of England. (74.)

THE NIGGER QUESTION. Occasional Discourse of an unknown Philanthropist : Doctrines and practical notions pretty much in a 'minority of one.' Danger of our proposed universal 'Abolition-of-Pain Association' issuing in a universal Sluggardand-Scoundrel Protection Society.' Our West-Indian Colonies : Black animal enjoyment, at the price of White human misery: Our entire Black population equal in importance to perhaps one of the streets of Seven-Dials.' Exeter-Hall jargon, and bewildered Broad-brimmed Sentimentalism. (p. 79.) -Supply and demand' brought to bear on the Black ‘Labour-Market,' as well as on the White: Perennial Starvation: A Black Ireland; and reality stranger than a nightmare dream. Such Social Science, emphatically the dismal science : Not the West Indies alone, but Europe generally, nearing the Niagara Falls. Nature and her Facts: Every idle man, a perpetual Right to be guided, and even compelled, to work honestly for his living: Idleness does, in all cases, inevitably rot and become putrid. The true Organisation of Labour' and reign of universal blessedness.' (82.)-No enmity for the poor Negro; a merry-hearted, affectionate kind of creature. We shall have to find the right regulation for him: Neither the old method nor the new method now will answer. Only the Noble work willingly with their whole strength : Slavishness, and the need of slavery, exist everywhere in this world. The one intolerable slavery, that of the great and noble-minded to the small and mean, Wise minorities, and despicable majorities : 'Crucify him, Crucify him !' Maximum and Minimum of Social Wisdom. (87.) – Except by just Mastership and Servantship, no conceivable deliverance from unjust Tyranny and Slavery. Sham-kings and sham-subjects : Ballot-box perdition. The White Flunky the flower of nomadic servitude and pretentious inutility : How the Duke of Trumps proposed to emancipate himself from slavery. Thirty-thousand Distressed Needlewomen, the most of whom cannot sew. Alas, were it but the guilty that suffered from such 'enfranchisement'l Permanency in human relations the only condition of any good whatsoever : Marriage by the month. Servant ‘hired for life,' the true essence of the Negro's position: How to abolish the abuses of slavery, and save the precious thing in it: Unjust master over servant hired for life, once for all unendurable to human souls. Letter of advice to the Hon. Hickory Buckskin, (91.)— The speculative ‘rights' of Negroes, or of any men, an abstruse and unprofitable inquiry: Their 'mights,' or practical availabilities, the sumtotal of all that can personally concern them. The 'right' to the West-India Islands, with those who have the might' to do the Will of the Maker of them. He that will not work shall perish from the earth : Before the West Indies could grow a pumpkin for any Negro, how much British heroism had to spend itself in obscure battle! England wants sugar of these Islands, and means to have it: Wants virtuous industry in these Islands, and must have it. Any idle man, Black or White, rich or poor, a mere eye-sorrow, and must be set to work; only it is so terribly difficult to do. To be servants the more foolish of us to the more wise, the only condition of social welfare. West-Indian sorrows and Exeter-Hall monstrosities : Solution of the problem. Black Adscripti glebæ: Many things might be done, must be done, under frightful penalties. (100.)-The Slave-Trade :' How it may easily be 'suppressed,' if the urgency be equal to the remedy. Alas, how many sins will need to be remedied, when once we seriously begin! (108.)

TWO HUNDRED AND FIFTY YEARS AGO.

A FRAGMENT ABOUT DUELS. Duelling, one of the sincerities of Human Life, capable of taking many forms. A background of wrath does lie in every man and creature : Deadliest rage, and tenderest love, different manifestations of the same radical fire whereof Life is made. The elaboration an immense matter! (p. 111.)

No. I. Holles of Haughton. How John Holles married the fair Anne Stanhope, and so gave offence to the Shrewsburys. High feud between the two houses; the very retainers biting thumbs, and killing one another. John Holles and Gervase Markham:

Markham, guard yourself better, or I shall spoil you! Loose-tongued, loose-living Gervase Markham could not guard himself; and got 'spoilt' accordingly. (p. 112.)

No. II. Croydon Races. Scotch favourites of King James, and English jealousies. Scotch Maxwell, and his insolent sardonic humour: Fashionable Young England in deadly emotion. How his Majesty laboured to keep peace. At the Croydon Races there arose sudden strife; and the hour looked really ominous: Philip Herbert (beautiful young man), of the best blood in England, switched over the head by an accursed Scotch Ramsay! And Philip Herbert's rapier -did not flash-out. (p. 115.)

No. III. Sir Thomas Dutton and Sir Hatton Cheek. How unthrifty everywhere is any solution of continuity, if it can be avoided! Peace here, if possible; over in the Netherlands is always fighting enough. Swashbuckler duels had now gone out: Fifty years ago, serious men took to fighting with rapiers, and the buckler fell away: A more silent duel, but a terribly serious one. Hot tempers at the siege of Juliers: Under military duty; but not always to be so. Two gentlemen on Calais sands, in

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